Lunalilo

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Lunalilo
Lunalilo (PP-98-15-018).jpg
King of the Hawaiian Islands (more...)
Reign January 8, 1873 – February 3, 1874
Investiture January 9, 1873
Kawaiahaʻo Church
Predecessor Kamehameha V
Successor Kalākaua
Full name
William Charles Lunalilo
House House of Keōua Nui
House of Kalaimamahu
Father Kanaʻina
Mother Kekāuluohi
Born (1835-01-31)January 31, 1835
Pohukaina, Honolulu, Oahu
Died February 3, 1874(1874-02-03) (aged 39)
Haimoeipo, Honolulu, Oahu
Burial February 28, 1874[1]
Mausoleum in front of Kawaiahaʻo Church
Religion Church of Hawaii (Church of England/Anglican)

Lunalilo, born William Charles Lunalilo (January 31, 1835 – February 3, 1874), was king of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi from January 8, 1873 until February 3, 1874. He was the most liberal king in Hawaiian history, but was the shortest-reigning monarch.

Early life[edit]

Lunalilo as a teenager.

William Charles Lunalilo was born on January 31, 1835 in a two-story house made of coral brick, an area known as Pohukaina, now part the grounds of the ʻIolani Palace in Honolulu. His mother was High Chiefess Miriam Auhea Kekāuluohi (later styled Kaʻahumanu III) and his father was High Chief Charles Kanaʻina. He was grandnephew of Kamehameha I.[2] He was second cousin to King Kamehameha V, King Kamehameha IV, and Princess Victoria Kamāmalu through his mother, who was the cousin of Elizabeth Kīnaʻu (later called Kaʻahumanu II). His name translates as Luna (high) lilo (lost) or "so high up as to be lost to sight" in the Hawaiian language. He was also named after King William IV of Great Britain, a great friend of Hawaiian royalty.

He was declared eligible to succeed by the royal decree of King Kamehameha III and sent to the Chief's Children's School (later called the Royal School) when it was founded by missionaries Amos Starr Cooke and Juliette Montague Cooke. He learned to speak both Hawaiian and English, and is considered to have had the best mastery of English literature among all the Hawaiian monarchs.[3]:34

Before the Great Mahele Lunalilo's holdings were large and second only to Kamehameha III. As a result of the Mahele, he relinquished 73 percent of his land.[4] As of 1848, at the age of thirteen, he was still the second largest landowner after the King, inheriting the land and personal property given to his mother by Kamehameha I.[2]:37 In 1850 Lunalilo gave up another large amount of land to the government reducing his holdings to 43 lots.[4]

He was one of the royals (besides David Kalākaua and Liliʻuokalani) to write music. He composed Hawaii's first national anthem, "E Ola Ke Alii Ke Akua," which was Hawaii's version of "God Save The King".[5] He wrote the song in fifteen minutes in a contest hosted by newspaper publisher Henry Whitney in 1862 for the birthday of Kamehameha IV. He won the contest and was awarded ten dollars.[6]

Prospective royal brides[edit]

Photograph of a young Lunalilo by Henry L. Chase.

He was betrothed to his cousin Princess Victoria Kamāmalu, a popular choice among the Hawaiian people except for Victoria's brothers. They both refused to have her marry him. Their children would outrank the House of Kamehameha in family background (mana). He would try to seek the hand of Liliʻuokalani who refused on the advice of Kamehameha IV. He stated if she was his daughter he would not approve of it, but if each were pleased, he would not oppose it, but advise them to marry. Liliʻuokalani would eventually marry American John Owen Dominis and Victoria Kamāmalu would die unmarried and childless at the age of 27 in 1866.

During his reign as king, it was proposed that he marry Queen Emma, the widow of Kamehameha IV, but this proposal came to nothing due to Queen Emma's devotion to her late husband. They remained friends and it was said he considered naming her as his heir before he died. According to Emma's cousin Peter Kaʻeo, there were gossips that the King would marry a Tahitian chiefess from Bora Bora. Although never marrying, the king took Eliza Meek (1832–1888), the hapa-haole daughter of Captain John Meek, the harbor pilot, and sister-in-law of his chamberlain Horace Crabbe, as his mistress. Meek was notoriously hostile to Queen Emma.[7]:152, 274

Election[edit]

Lunalilo was considered the more popular candidate.

King Kamehameha V, the last of the Kamehameha kings, died on December 11, 1872 without naming a successor. Under the Kingdom's 1864 constitution, if the king did not appoint a successor, a new king would be elected by the legislature from the eligible Hawaiian royals still alive. The other candidate was David Kalākaua. Lunalilo was the more popular of the two. His grandfather was Kalaimamahu, a half brother of Kamehameha I and was thus a cousin of King Kamehameha V. His grandmother was Queen Kalakua Kaheiheimalie, sister of Kamehameha’s favorite wife, Queen Kaʻahumanu. Because of this, many people believed the throne rightly belonged to Lunalilo since the only person more closely related to Kamehameha V, Bernice Pauahi Bishop, made clear she did not want the throne. Another contender was Princess Ruth Keʻelikōlani who was a half sister to King Kamehameha V. She was a favorite among the Hawaiian chiefs because of her adhering to the old Hawaiian ways. She was governess of Hawaii and refused to speak English even though she was fluent in it. Her genealogy, however, was too controversial and few people considered her suitable to take the throne. This left Kalākaua and Lunalilo, and of the two, Lunalilo was greatly favored. So great was Lunalilo's popularity that some people believed that Lunalilo could have simply walked into the capital and declared himself king. Lunalilo, however, insisted that the constitution be followed. He issued the following message six days after the death of Kamehameha V:

"Whereas, it is desirable that the wishes of the Hawaiian people be consulted as to a successor to the Throne, therefore, notwithstanding that according to the law of inheritance, I am the rightful heir to the Throne, in order to preserve peace, harmony and good order, I desire to submit the decision of my claim to the voice of the people."

Lunalilo, unlike his more conservative opponent, wanted to amend the constitution to make the government more democratic by removing property qualifications for voting. It was decided that there would be a popular election to give the people a chance to have their voices heard. However, because the constitution gave the legislature the power to decide who would be the next king, the popular election would be unofficial. Lunalilo urged the people of the Kingdom to have their voices heard.

The popular vote was held on January 1, 1873 and Lunalilo won by an overwhelming majority.[2] The week after the legislature unanimously voted Lunalilo king. It has been speculated that the reason for the unanimous vote was because each legislator was required to sign his name on the back of his ballot, and the legislators were afraid to go against the wishes of the people. Queen Emma later wrote in a letter that hundreds of Hawaiians were ready to tear to pieces anyone who opposed Lunalilo.[8]

At Lunalilo's coronation ceremony, held on January 9, 1873 at Kawaiahaʻo Church, the courtyard was filled to capacity and a large crowd watched from outside. Because Lunalilo's popularity was so great, and because he became king through a democratic process, he became known as "The People's King."

Reign as King[edit]

When Lunalilo assumed the duties of the king, a huge change in the government's policy began to form. His predecessor, Kamehameha V, had spent his reign increasing the powers of his office and trying to restore the absolute monarchy of his grandfather, Kamehameha I. Lunalilo, however, spent his reign trying to make the Hawaiian government more democratic. He started by writing to the legislature, recommending that the constitution be amended. He wanted to undo some changes that his predecessor had made when he enacted the 1864 Constitution.

For example, the Kingdom legislature prior to 1864 met in two houses: The House of Nobles and the House of Representatives. The members of the House of Nobles were appointed by the King and the Representatives were elected by popular vote. Lunalilo served in the House of Nobles from 1863 through 1872.[9] Under King Kamehameha V, the two houses of legislature were combined into one. Lunalilo wished to restore the bicameral legislature. He also wanted to add a provision to the constitution that required the king to include a written explanation to accompany any veto by the king. He wanted cabinet ministers to be heard in the House of Representatives.

The King also wanted to improve Hawaii's economic situation. The Kingdom was in an economic depression, with the whaling industry rapidly declining. Commerce groups asked the king to look at sugar to improve the economy and recommended that a treaty be drawn with the United States to allow Hawaiian sugar to enter the nation tax-free. To make such a treaty, many thought that the Kingdom would have to offer the Pearl Harbor area to the United States in exchange. There was much controversy over this, with both the public and in the legislature. When Lunalilo saw this opposition, he dropped the proposal.

During Lunalilo's reign, a mutiny took place in the small Hawaiian army. Some members of the army revolted against the drillmaster and the adjutant general. The king interviewed the troops involved in the mutiny and he persuaded them to lay down their arms. Following this, the king disbanded the army. From that point on, the Kingdom had no armed forces until King Kalākaua restored them.

Illness and death[edit]

King Lunalilo did not enjoy good health during his reign. He had some bad health habits; for example, he was an alcoholic. At about the time of the mutiny in the army, Lunalilo developed a lung infection. In hopes of regaining his health, he moved to Kailua-Kona. A few months later, on February 3, 1874, he died from tuberculosis at the age of 39, at Haimoeipo, his private residence in Honolulu. Lunalilo had reigned for one year and 25 days.

King Lunalilo's tomb.

On his deathbed, he requested a burial at Kawaiahaʻo Church on the church's ground. He wanted, he said, to be "entombed among (my) people, rather than the kings and chiefs" at the Royal Mausoleum in Nuʻuanu Valley. This was due to a feud between Lunalilo and the Kamehameha family over his mother Kekāuluohi's exclusion from the list of royalty to be buried there. Thus, in 1875, he was taken from the Mausoleum to the church. During this procession, eyewitness reports stated that a sudden storm arose, and that twenty-one rapid thunderclaps echoed across Honolulu which came to be known as the "21-gun salute."

Like his predecessor, Lunalilo did not designate an heir to the throne. It was said he had intended for Queen Emma to succeed him, but died before a formal proclamation could be made. The most prevalent explanation of this delay is regarding his democratic principles: he wished to have the people choose their next ruler. However, the constitution of 1864 had charged the legislature, not the people, with the task of electing the next king. In the end, Kalākaua of the House of Kalākaua was voted to succeed Lunalilo as king.

Family tree[edit]

Makakaualii
Kapulaoa
Palila Nohomualani
Moana (w)
Keōua
Father of king Kamehameha I
Kamakaeheikuli
Keʻeaumoku Pāpaʻiahiahi
Father of Kaʻahumanu
Namahanaʻi Kaleleokalani
Kalaipuwaa
Kaleimanokahoʻowaha
Eia
Kauwa
Kalaʻimamahu
Half-brother of Kamehameha I
Kalākua Kaheiheimālie
Charles Kanaʻina
(1801–1877)
Crown of Hawaii (Heraldic).svg
Kekāuluohi
Kuhina Nui of the Hawaiian Islands
(July 27, 1794 – June 7, 1845)
Crown of Hawaii (Heraldic).svg
Kamehameha I
Founder of the Kingdom of Hawaii
Crown of Hawaii (Heraldic).svg
Kamehameha II
King of the Hawaiian islands
Crown of Hawaii (Heraldic).svg
William Charles Lunalilo,
King of the Hawaiian Islands
(January 31, 1835 – February 3, 1874)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Roger G. Rose, Sheila Conant and Eric P. Kjellgren. "Hawaiian standing kahili in the Bishop museum: An ethnological and biological analysis". Journal of the Polynesian Society. Polynesian Society. pp. 273–304. Retrieved 2011-09-18. 
  2. ^ a b c A. Francis Judd (1936). "Lunalilo, the sixth king of Hawaii". his letters to J.R. Boyd in 1873–1874 (Hawaiian Historical Society): 27–43 
  3. ^ Ralph Simpson Kuykendall (1953). Hawaiian Kingdom 1854–1874, twenty critical years 2. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-87022-432-4. 
  4. ^ a b Jon M. Van Dyke (2008). Who Owns the Crown Lands of Hawai_i?. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 325–. ISBN 978-0-8248-3211-7. 
  5. ^ English version by Makua Laiana. "E Ola Ke Ali'i Ke Akua". Hawaiian Music and Hula Archives. Kaiulani Kanoa-Martin. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  6. ^ Emmerson C. Smith (1956). "The History of Musical Development in Hawaii". Annual report of the Hawaiian Historical Society. pp. 8–9. 
  7. ^ George S. Kanahele (1999). Emma: Hawai'i's Remarkable Queen: a Biography. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2240-8. 
  8. ^ Norris W. Potter, Lawrence M. Kasdon, Ann Rayson (2003). History of the Hawaiian Kingdom. Bess Press. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-57306-150-6 
  9. ^ "Lunalilo, William C. office record". state archives digital collections. state of Hawaii. Retrieved 2009-11-27. 

External links[edit]

Hawaiian royalty
Preceded by
Kamehameha V
King of Hawaii
1873–1874
Succeeded by
Kalākaua