Lunenburg, Nova Scotia
|Incorporated||October 29, 1888|
|• Body||Lunenburg Town Council|
|• Mayor||Rachal Bailly|
|• MLA||Pam Birdsall (NDP)|
|• MP||Gerald Keddy (C)|
|• Land||4.01 km2 (1.55 sq mi)|
|Time zone||AST (UTC−4)|
|• Summer (DST)||ADT (UTC−3)|
|Official name: Old Town Lunenburg|
|Designated:||1995 (19th session)|
|Region:||Europe and North America|
|Official name: Old Town Lunenburg Historic District National Historic Site of Canada|
|Type:||Heritage Conservation District|
Lunenburg is a Canadian port town in Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia. Situated on the province's South Shore, Lunenburg is located on the Fairhaven Peninsula at the western side of Mahone Bay. The town is approximately 90 kilometres southwest of the county boundary with the Halifax Regional Municipality.
The town was established during Father Le Loutre's War, four years after Halifax. The town was one of the first British attempts to settle Protestants in Nova Scotia and, as a result, the (Catholic) Wabanaki Confederacy raided the community nine times in the early years of the settlement.
The historic town was designated a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Site in 1995. This designation ensures protection for much of Lunenburg's unique architecture and civic design, being the best example of planned British colonial settlement in Canada. The historic core of the town is also a National Historic Site of Canada.
- 1 History
- 2 Economy
- 3 Culture
- 4 Panorama
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
For over a hundred years, Lunenburg was an Acadian/ Mi’kmaq village named Mirligueche. It was established under the command of Isaac de Razilly in the first half of the seventeenth century. A 1688 census indicates there were 21 at Mirliguèche (ten Europeans and 11 Mi‟kmaq), in one house and two wigwams, with half an acre under cultivation. In 1745 there were reported to be only eight settlers in the village. Four years later, Cornwallis reported that there were a number of families that lived in comfortable wooden houses.
Despite the British Conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained primarily occupied by Catholic Acadians and Mi'kmaq. Father Le Loutre's War began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports on June 21, 1749. By unilaterally establishing Halifax the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mi'kmaq (1726), which were signed after Father Rale's War. Upon the outbreak of Father Le Loutre's War, on October 5, 1749, Governor Edward Cornwallis sent Commander White with troops in the 20 gun sloop Sphinx to Mirligueche (i.e., Lunenburg) and had the village destroyed. By 1753 there still was only one family in the area – a Mi'kmaq man named "Old [Paul] Labrador" and his metis family.
After establishing Halifax, the British quickly began to build other settlements. To guard against Mi'kmaq, Acadian and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax (1749), Bedford (Fort Sackville) (1749), Dartmouth (1750), Lunenburg (1753) and Lawrencetown (1754). The Natives and Acadians raided the Lunenburg peninsula nine times in the first six years of its establishment.
Three years into the war, John Creighton led a group of Foreign Protestants to settle the area and renamed it Lunenburg (1753). In 1753, during Father Le Loutre's War, the British unilaterally established Lunenburg, that is, without negotiating with the Mi'kmaq nation whose sovereign territory it had always been. In the spring, Governor Hopson was received warnings from Fort Edward that as many as 300 natives nearby were prepared to oppose the settlement of Lunenburg and intended to attack upon the arrival of settlers. Supervised by Lawrence and protected by several ships of the British Navy and by 160 Regular soldiers, Protestant settlers established the village.
The next inhabitants of Lunenburg (mostly Germans from the southern Rhineland, Swiss and French Protestants from Montbéliard) came during the same wave of immigration that produced the Pennsylvania Dutch. They were "Foreign Protestants" encouraged by the British to settle in the area. Lunenburg was settled by Foreign Protestants who came from the present day Tripoint of France, Germany and Switzerland. The town was named in honour of King George II, who also happened to be the duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg.
The Hoffman Insurrection
During Father Le Loutre's War, in mid December 1753, within six months of their arrival at Lunenburg, the new settlers rebelled against their living conditions. The rebellion became known as "The Hoffman Insurrection." The Rebellion was led by John Hoffman, one of the Captains who had established the settlers in the town.
Hoffman led a mob which eventually locked up in one of the blockhouses a number of Commander Patrick Sutherland’s troops and the Justice of the Peace. Commander Patrick Sutherland at Lunenburg asked for reinforcements from Halifax and Colonel Robert Monckton was sent with troops. Monckton arrested Hoffman and brought him to Halifax where he was fined and imprisoned on Georges Island (Nova Scotia) for two years.
French and Indian War
During the French and Indian War (1754–1763), the town was protected by several small blockhouses that were garrisoned by British regulars as well as by provincial troops from Massachusetts. These forts were erected to protect the town from raids by French warships and from attacks by Acadians and Indians. During the Expulsion of the Acadians, specifically the Bay of Fundy Campaign (1755), the British sent the Acadian cattle at Grand Pre to Lunenburg to support the British settlement that was established with Foreign Protestants.
Raid on Lunenburg (1756)
The Wabanaki Confederacy raided the Lunenburg Peninsula nine times during the war. For example, Maliseet and Mi'kmaq attacked in the Raid on Lunenburg (1756), in which twenty settlers were killed. Despite the protection of increased number of blockhouses built on the peninsula, eight more Indian/ Acadian raids happened against those on the Lunenburg Peninsula over the next three years. A total of 32 people from Lunenburg were killed in the raids with more being taken prisoner. The British reported that most of these raids were by the Mi'kmaq and Acadians at Cape Sable (present-day Shelburne and Yarmouth Counties).
Raids on Lunenburg (1757–1759)
Following the raid of 1756, there were eight more raids on the Lunenburg Peninsula over the next three years. In 1757, there was a raid on Lunenburg in which six people from the Brissang family were killed. The following year, March 1758, there was a raid on the Lunenburg Peninsula at the Northwest Range (present-day Blockhouse, Nova Scotia) when five people were killed from the Ochs and Roder families. By the end of May 1758, many of those on the Lunenburg Peninsula abandoned their farms and retreated to the protection of the fortifications around the town of Lunenburg, losing the season for sowing their grain. For those that did not leave their farms for the town, the number of raids intensified.
During the summer of 1758, there were four raids on the Lunenburg Peninsula. On July 13, 1758, one person on the LaHave River at Dayspring was killed and another seriously wounded by a member of the Labrador family. The next raid happened at Mahone Bay, Nova Scotia on August 24, 1758, when eight Mi'kmaq attacked the family homes of Lay and Brant. While they killed three people in the raid, the Mi'kmaq were unsuccessful in taking their scalps, which was the common practice for payment from the French. Two days, later, two soldiers were killed in a raid on the blockhouse at LaHave, Nova Scotia. Almost two weeks later, on September 11, a child was killed in a raid on the Northwest Range.
Another raid happened on March 27, 1759, in which three members of the Oxner family were killed. The last raid happened on April 20, 1759. The Mi’kmaq killed four settlers at Lunenburg who were members of the Trippeau and Crighton families.
During the American Revolution, American Privateers engaged in the Raid of Lunenburg (1775) and the Raid on Lunenburg (1782) and on both occasions devastated the town. In the raid of 1775, the 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants) had been defending Nova Scotia, attacking the American privateer ship off of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, as the privateers were looting the town. The privateers were captured and then taken to Halifax.
War of 1812
During the War of 1812, Nova Scotia’s contribution to the war effort was communities either purchasing or building various privateer ships to siege American vessels. Three members of the community of Lunenburg purchased a privateer schooner and named it Lunenburg on August 8, 1814. The owners were Capt. Oxner, Henry Wollenkaupt, Philip Rudolf and Henry Mosher. The schooner was ninety-three tons, five guns and a crew of forty-five men.
The Lunenburg captured the American vessel Lucy on September 15, 1814, and the American ship Ranger on November 15, both prizes were brought back to Lunenburg. One of the largest American privateer schooners the Lunenburg caught was Minerva, of Wiscasset, Maine. Another was the sloop Experiment, caught off of Point Judith, Rhode Island on January 21, 1815. Over the following weeks, the Lunenburg captured three American sloops and one schooner by February 15, 1815.
After a long naval battle in Mahone Bay, the Lunenburg militia was sent to take prisoners from the American Privateer Young Teazer.
Growth of Fishing
Lunenburg was begun as an agricultural settlement, taking advantage of one of the few pockets of good soil along Nova Scotia's South Shore. However in the 19th century the town evolved as a major centre for the offshore banks fishery, building and manning fishing schooners to exploit the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and the fishing banks off Nova Scotia. The town helped sponsor the construction of the Nova Scotia Central Railway in 1889, which became the Halifax and Southwestern Railway and helped further develop fishing exports and allied industries such as the Lunenburg Foundry.
While wooden shipbuilding lapsed in other parts of Nova Scotia with the arrival of steamships, Lunenburg yards specialized in fishing schooners which remained competitive until the 1920s. The most famous was Bluenose built in 1921, a schooner which brought in record catches and won the International Fishermen's Trophy.
World War I and II
Lunenburg's small shipyards and foundry played an important role in the repair of many smaller warships, such as minesweepers and corvettes, during World War I and World War II. The Royal Norwegian Navy used Lunenburg as a base in World War II, building a large base next to the town known as "Camp Norway".
Lunenburg made the transition from fishing schooners to trawlers and continued as a major fishing centre after WW II. Success in building wooden trawlers preserved many skills and technology from the sailing era which led the town to become a leader in building large sailing ship replicas, beginning with the film ship Bounty in 1960 and continuing with Bluenose II in 1963 and HMS Rose in 1970.
Tourism is the fairhaven of Lunenburg's most important industry and many thousands visit the town each year. A number of restaurants, inns, hotels and shops exist to service the tourist trade. Numerous artists operate their own galleries. The town is home to the Fisheries Museum of the Atlantic, part of the Nova Scotia Museum. The schooner replica Bluenose II is operated by the museum and based out of Lunenburg. The town is also home to the privately run Halifax and Southwestern Railway Museum and the Knaut-Rhuland House Museum.
The town has a history of being an important seaport and shipbuilding centre. There are now numerous small businesses, high-tech industries including Composites Atlantic and HB Studios, and trade plants including High Liner Foods, which was at one point the largest fish plant in Canada. This plant now handles manufacturing and most fishing is done offshore.
The 2010 Japanese movie Hanamizuki was partly set and filmed in Lunenburg and the science fiction television show Haven was partly filmed there though it is set in the United States. The fairhaven town is featured prominently in a 2010 series of Cisco Systems network product ads featuring Ellen Page. The 2012 film The Disappeared was shot in Lunenburg during September 2011.
- Patterson, Stephen E. 1744–1763: Colonial Wars and Aboriginal Peoples. In Phillip Buckner and John Reid (eds.) The Atlantic Region to Conderation: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 1994. pp. 125–155
- Grenier, John. The Far Reaches of Empire. War in Nova Scotia, 1710–1760. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 2008.
- Griffiths, Naomi Elizabeth Saundaus. From Migrant to Acadian: A North American border people, 1604–1755. Montreal, Kingston: McGill-Queen's UP, 2005.
- Murdoch, Beamish. A History of Nova Scotia, Or Acadia. Vol 2. LaVergne: BiblioBazaar, 2009. pp. 166–167
- Wicken, William. Mi'kmaq Treaties on Trial: History, Land, and Donald Marshall Junior. University of Toronto Press. 2002.
- Old Town Lunenburg Historic District National Historic Site of Canada. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
- 1762 Census
- , Census 1941–1951
- , Census 1961
- Landry, Peter. The Lion & The Lily. Trafford Publishing. Vol. 1, pp. 44.; Grifftihs, Naomi. The Context of Acadian History 1686–1784. McGill-Queens University Press, Montreal. 1992. Pages 17, 69, 72, 80.
- Bell, p. 403
- Grenier, John. The Far Reaches of Empire. War in Nova Scotia, 1710–1760. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 2008; Thomas Beamish Akins. History of Halifax, Brookhouse Press. 1895. (2002 edition). p 7
- Wicken, p. 181; Griffith, p. 390; Also see http://www.northeastarch.com/vieux_logis.html
- Grenier, John. The Far Reaches of Empire: War in Nova Scotia, 1710–1760.University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. 2008. Pp. 152; Expeditions of Honour: Journal of John Salusbury in Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1749–53. Edited by Ronald Ropkey. University of Delaware Press. 1982.p.68
- Bell, p. 403, 430. Note that Bell indicates he does not know the reason for the decrease in population, that is, he did not know about Cornwallis' orders to raid the village late in 1749. Bell speculates that the others migrated to Ile Royal at the urging of the French (p. 483).
- Bell, Foreign Protestants
- The town was named in honour of the King of Great Britain and Ireland, (George August of Hanover) who was also the ruler of Brunswick-Lunenburg.
- Patterson, 1994, p. 136
- Many of the original families (such as the Zwickers, the Tanners and the Smiths) and their descendants still inhabit and influence the development of the town today.
- Grenier. 2008. p. 166
- Barry Cahill. The 'Hoffman Rebellion' (1753) and Hoffman's Trial (1754): Constructive High Treason and Seditious Conspiracy in Nova Scotia under the Stratocracy 72. In Canadian State Trials, Volume I: Law, Politics, and Security Measures, 1608–1837. University of Toronto Press.1996.
- Bell, "Foreign Protestants"
- Charles Morris. 1762. British Library, Manuscripts, Kings 205: Report of the State of the American Colonies. pp: 329–330.
- Bell, Winthrop Pickard. The "Foreign Protestants" and the Settlement of Nova Scotia:The History of a piece of arrested British Colonial Policy in the Eighteenth Century. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1961 pp. 504–513
- Bell. Foreign Protestants. p. 515
- The "Foreign Protestants" and the Settlement of Nova Scotia by Dr Winthrop Pickard Bell. p. 513
- Archibald McMechan, Red Snow of Grand Pre. 1931. p. 192
- Bell, p. 509
- Bell. Foreign Protestants. p. 510
- Bell, p. 510
- Bell, Foreign Protestants, p. 511
- Bell, p. 511
- Bell, p. 512
- Bell, p. 513
- John Boileau. Half-hearted Enemies: Nova Scotia, New England and the War of 1812. Halifax: Formac Publishing. 2005. p.53
- C.H.J.Snider, Under the Red Jack: privateers of the Maritime Provinces of Canada in the War of 1812 (London: Martin Hopkinson & Co. Ltd, 1928), 225–258 (see http://www.1812privateers.org/Ca/canada.htm#LG)
- Gilkerson, William, "Replicas: History of a Phenomenon", Wooden Boat, No. 172 May June 2003, p.67-68.
- The Canadian Encyclopedia
- "5 Months in Total After the Start of Filming in Canada...". The Japan Times Online. cafegroove Corporation. 2010-04-27. Retrieved 2011-02-15. (Japanese)
- Adam Jacobs. "Movie, miniseries being filmed around Town of Lunenburg". SouthshoreNow.ca. 20 April 2010. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- "Behind-the-scenes look at local movie shoot: The Disappeared". The Lunenburg County Progress. Retrieved March 19, 2012.
- Town of Lunenburg
- World Heritage site
- Fisheries Museum of the Atlantic
- Photographs of the Montbeliard monument, Lunenburg
- A Short History of St. John's Anglican Church
- Basil Brownless: The Story of Lunenburg's Most Historic Church: The 250-year history of St. John's Anglican Church. Lunenburg, 2002.
- Municipality of the District of Lunenburg – Things to do in the surrounding area
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lunenburg.|
- Patrick Sutherland: Founding father of Lunenburg – Canadian Biography
- John Creighton: Founding Father of Lunenburg – Canadian Biography