|Classification and external resources|
Computed tomography (CT) scan of chest showing bilateral pneumonia with abscesses, effusions, and caverns. 37 year old male.
This pus-filled cavity is often caused by aspiration, which may occur during altered consciousness. Alcoholism is the most common condition predisposing to lung abscesses.
Lung abscess is considered primary (60%) when it results from existing lung parenchymal process and is termed secondary when it complicates another process e.g. vascular emboli or follows rupture of extrapulmonary abscess into lung.
- Conditions contributing to lung abscess
- Aspiration of oropharyngeal or gastric secretion
- Septic emboli
- Necrotizing pneumonia
- Vasculitis: Wegener's granulomatosis
- Necrotizing tumors: 8% to 18% are due to neoplasms across all age groups, higher in older people; primary squamous carcinoma of the lung is the most common.
In the post-antibiotic era pattern of frequency is changing. In older studies anaerobes were found in up to 90% cases but they are much less frequent now.
- Anaerobic bacteria: Peptostreptococcus, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium species,
- Microaerophilic streptococcus : Streptococcus milleri
- Aerobic bacteria: Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Haemophilus, Pseudomonas, Nocardia, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus, Mycobacteria
- Fungi: Candida, Aspergillus
- Parasites: Entamoeba histolytica,
Signs and symptoms
Onset of symptoms is often gradual, but in necrotizing staphylococcal or gram-negative bacillary pneumonias patients can be acutely ill. Cough, fever with shivering and night sweats are often present. Cough can be productive with foul smelling purulent sputum (≈70%) or less frequently with blood (i.e. hemoptysis in one third cases). Affected individuals may also complain of chest pain, shortness of breath, lethargy and other features of chronic illness.
Patients are generally cachectic at presentation. Finger clubbing is present in one third of patients. Dental decay is common especially in alcoholics and children. On examination of chest there will be features of consolidation such as localized dullness on percussion, bronchial breath sound etc.
- Chest Xray and other imaging studies
Abscess is often unilateral and single involving posterior segments of the upper lobes and the apical segments of the lower lobes as these areas are gravity dependent when lying down. Presence of air-fluid levels implies rupture into the bronchial tree or rarely growth of gas forming organism.
- Laboratory studies
Raised inflammatory markers (high ESR, CRP) are usual but not specific. Examination of sputum is important in any pulmonary infections and here often reveals mixed flora. Transtracheal of Transbronchial (via bronchoscopy) aspirates can also be cultured. Fibre optic bronchoscopy is often performed to exclude obstructive lesion; it also helps in bronchial drainage of pus.
Broadspectrum antibiotic to cover mixed flora is the mainstay of treatment. Pulmonary physiotherapy and postural drainage are also important. Surgical procedures are required in selective patients for drainage or pulmonary resection.
Most cases respond to antibiotic and prognosis is usually excellent unless there is a debilitating underlying condition. Mortality from lung abscess alone is around 5% and is improving.
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- Hirshberg B, Sklair-Levi M, Nir-Paz R, Ben-Sira L, Krivoruk V, Kramer MR (1999). "Factors predicting mortality of patients with lung abscess.". Chest 115 (3): 746–50. doi:10.1378/chest.115.3.746. PMID 10084487.
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