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Lupaca, Lupaka, or Lupaqa responds to a cultural group Aymara-speaking shores of Lake Titicaca that emerged after the decline of Tihuanaco maintaining its identity after the imposition of the Inca State or Tawantinsuyu, even with the Spanish domination. The importance and relevance of this Andean kingdom has been coupled with the work of historians and anthropologists who have examined texts of the colony (visit Garci Diez de S. Miguel, 1562). These texts poses an economic model based on establishing a center of population and power in the Highland Plateau and control through "peripheral neighborhoods" of enclaves of contrasting agroecological use: on the coast (westward) and the valleys to the east. Destaclables are the works of John V. Murra about these characteristics that he calls "a maximum vertical control of ecological stages in the Andean economy" through the "vertical archipelago". Murra (2002 [1975]) raises up to three different ecological zones of control within the economy of the kingdom shortly before the Spanish colonization, a core with Andean tuber crops and livestock camelid, "colonias" along the coast with multiethnic use maize, wanu or guano, cotton and coastal products, and other "colonies" multi-ethnic eastern valleys and mountains, with coca crops, timber and forest products.


  • Murra, J.V. (2002) [1968], "Un Reino Aymara en 1567", Lima: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú: 184–207, ISBN 9972-51-072-7 

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