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|Classification and external resources|
|ICD-10||L93 (ILDS L93.010)|
Lupus erythematosus is a name given to a collection of autoimmune diseases in which the human immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks normal, healthy tissues. Symptoms of these diseases can affect many different body systems, including joints, skin, kidneys, blood cells, heart, and lungs.
Of these, systemic lupus erythematosus (also known as SLE) is the most common and serious form.
- acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus
- subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus
- chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus
- discoid lupus erythematosus
- childhood discoid lupus erythematosus
- generalized discoid lupus erythematosus
- localized discoid lupus erythematosus
- chilblain lupus erythematosus (Hutchinson)
- lupus erythematosus-lichen planus overlap syndrome
- lupus erythematosus panniculitis (lupus erythematosus profundus)
- tumid lupus erythematosus
- verrucous lupus erythematosus (hypertrophic lupus erythematosus)
- discoid lupus erythematosus
- complement deficiency syndromes
- drug-induced lupus erythematosus
- neonatal lupus erythematosus
- systemic lupus erythematosus
Signs and symptoms
Symptoms vary from person to person, and may come and go. Almost everyone with lupus has joint pain and swelling. Some develop arthritis. Frequently affected joints are the fingers, hands, wrists, and knees. Other common symptoms include:
- chest pain when taking a deep breath
- fever with no other cause
- general discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling (malaise)
- hair loss
- mouth sores
- sensitivity to sunlight
- skin rash - a "butterfly" rash in about half people with SLE.
- swollen lymph nodes
- change in autoantibody location
- inducing apoptosis with autoantigens in apoptotic blebs
- upregulation of adhesion molecules and cytokines
- inducing nitric oxide synthase expression
- ultraviolet-generated antigenic DNA.
tumor necrosis factor alpha also seems to play a role in the development of photosensitivity.
Treatment consists primarily of immunosuppressive drugs (e.g., hydroxychloroquine and corticosteroids). In 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first new drug for lupus in more than 50 years to be used in the US, belimumab.
- an estimated 5 million people worldwide have some form of lupus.
- 70% of lupus cases diagnosed are systemic lupus erythematosus.
- 20%of people with lupus will have a parent or sibling who already has lupus or may develop lupus.
- about 5% of the children born to individuals with lupus will develop the illness.
- SLE affects UK females far more than males at a ratio of 7:1. In other words, females are seven times more likely to have the disease.
- The estimated number of UK females with SLE is 21,900, and the number of UK males with lupus is 3000—a total of 24,700, or 0.041% of the population.
- SLE is more common amongst certain ethnic groups than others, especially those of African origin.
- occurs from infancy to old age, with peak occurrence between ages 15 and 40.
- affects U.S. females 6 to 10 times more often than males.
- yields limited prevalence data. Estimates vary and range from 1.8 to 7.6 cases per 100,000 persons per year in parts of the continental United States.
- List of cutaneous conditions
- List of target antigens in pemphigoid
- List of immunofluorescence findings for autoimmune bullous conditions
- List of human leukocyte antigen alleles associated with cutaneous conditions
- Systemic lupus erythematosus
- Fitzpatrick, Thomas B.; Klauss Wolff; Wolff, Klaus Dieter; Johnson, Richard R.; Suurmond, Dick; Richard Suurmond (2005). Fitzpatrick's color atlas and synopsis of clinical dermatology. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Pub. Division. ISBN 0-07-144019-4.
- James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. (10th ed.). Saunders. Chapter 8. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.
- Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0.
- Scheinfeld NS, Deleo V. Photosensitivity in lupus erythematosus. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2004;20:272-9. PMID 15379880