Lupus vulgaris

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Lupus vulgaris
Classification and external resources
An introduction to dermatology (1905) Lupus vulgaris 2.jpg
Lupus vulgaris
ICD-10 A18.4 (ILDS A18.420)
ICD-9 017.0
eMedicine derm/434
MeSH D008177

Lupus vulgaris (also known as Tuberculosis luposa[1]) are painful cutaneous tuberculosis skin lesions with nodular appearance, most often on the face around the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeks, ears[2] and neck. It is the most common M. tuberculosis skin infection.[3] The lesions may ultimately develop into disfiguring skin ulcers if left untreated.

Etymology[edit]

The term "lupus" to describe an ulcerative skin disease dates to the late thirteenth century, though it was not until the mid-nineteenth that two specific skin diseases were classified as Lupus erythematosus and Lupus vulgaris. The term "lupus" may derive from the rapacity and virulence of the disease; a 1590 work described it as "a malignant ulcer quickly consuming the neather parts; ... very hungry like unto a woolfe".[4]

Etiology[edit]

Lupus vulgaris often develops due to inadequately treated pre-existing tuberculosis.[3] It may also develop at site of BCG vaccination. [5]

Pathophysiology[edit]

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Histologically, it shows well-formed granulomas with necrotic centers in dermis.

Appearance[edit]

It begins as painless reddish-brown nodules which slowly enlarge to form irregularly shaped red plaque. [3]

Diagnosis[edit]

On diascopy, it shows characteristic "apple-jelly" color. Biopsy will reveal tuberculoid granuloma with few bacilli. Mantoux test is positive.

Differential diagnosis[edit]

The condition should be distinguished from:

Management[edit]

A dermatologist or general physician usually administers combination therapy of drugs used for tuberculosis, such as Rifampicin, Isoniazid and Pyrazinamide (possibly with either streptomycin or ethambutol).[3]

Prognosis[edit]

In long standing scarred lesion, squamous cell carcinoma can develop.[3]

History[edit]

In the 19th century, the chronic and progressive nature of this disease was particularly marked: it remained active for ten years, twenty years, or even longer and, proved resistant to all treatment until the breakthrough by Niels Ryberg Finsen using a form of "concentrated light radiation" now known as Photobiomodulation which won him a Nobel Prize. Queen Alexandra of Great Britain, (1844–1925), consort to Edward the VII, as the inscription on the bronze statue of her at the London Hospital, notes, "Introduced to England the Finsen light cure for Lupus, and presented the first lamp to this hospital".

Additional images[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. pp. Chapter 74. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. 
  2. ^ James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. p. 335. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Dermatology: An Illustrated Colour Text, 3rd ed. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2002. p. 46. ISBN 9780443071409. 
  4. ^ "Lupus", Oxford English Dictionary, online second edition. Accessed 2006
  5. ^ a b c Dermatology - A colour handbook, 2nd ed. Manson Publishing. 2010. p. 216. ISBN 9781840765960. 

External links[edit]