|Borough of Luton|
|— Town, Borough & Unitary authority —|
|Luton Town Hall|
|Region||East of England|
|• Governing body||Luton Borough Council|
|• Mayor||Sydney Knight|
|• MPs||Kelvin Hopkins (L)
Gavin Shuker (L)
|• Total||16.74 sq mi (43.35 km2)|
|• Density||12,160/sq mi (4,696/km2)|
|• ethnicity||68.0% White
3.1% Mixed Race
2.5% E.Asian and Other
|• Summer (DST)||British Summer Time (UTC)|
Luton (i// LOOT-ən, local //) is a large town, borough and unitary authority of Bedfordshire, England, 30 miles (50 km) north of London. Luton and its near neighbours, Dunstable and Houghton Regis, form the Luton/Dunstable Urban Area with a population of about 255,000.
Luton is home to Conference National team Luton Town Football Club, whose history includes several spells in the top flight of the English league as well as a Football League Cup triumph in 1988. They play at Kenilworth Road stadium, which has been their home since 1905.
The University of Bedfordshire is based in the town.
The town was for many years famous for hat-making, and was also home to a large Vauxhall Motors factory; the head office of Vauxhall Motors is still situated in the town. Car production at the plant began in 1905 and continued until 2002, but commercial vehicle production remains.
The earliest settlements in the Luton area were at Round Green and Mixes Hill, where Paleolithic encampments (about 250,000 years old) have been found. Settlements re-appeared after the ice had retreated in the Mesolithic period around 8000 BC. Traces of these settlements have been found in the Leagrave area of the modern town. Remains from the Neolithic period (4500-2500 BC in this area) are much more common. A particular concentration of Neolithic burials has been found at Galley Hill. The most prominent Neolithic structure is Waulud's Bank - a henge dating from around 3000 BC. From the Neolithic onwards, the area seems to have been populated, but without any single large settlement.
The foundation of Luton is usually dated to the 6th century when a Saxon outpost was founded on the River Lea, Lea tun. Luton is recorded in the Domesday Book as Loitone and also as Lintone. Agriculture dominated the local economy at that time, and the town's population was around 700-800.
In 1121 Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester started work on St Mary's Church in the centre of the town. The work was completed by 1137. A motte-and-bailey castle which gives its name to the modern Castle Street was built in 1139. The castle was demolished in 1154 and the site is now home to a Matalan store. During the Middle Ages Luton is recorded as being home to six watermills. Mill Street, in the town centre, takes its name from one of them.
King John (1166–1216) had hired a mercenary soldier, Falkes de Breauté, to act on his behalf. (Breauté is a small town near Le Havre in France.) When he married, Falkes de Breauté acquired his wife's house which came to be known as "Fawkes Hall", subsequently corrupted over the years to "Foxhall", then "Vauxhall". In return for his services, King John granted Falkes the manor of Luton, where he built a castle alongside St Mary's Church. He was also granted the right to bear his own coat of arms and chose the mythical griffin as his heraldic emblem. The griffin thus became associated with both Vauxhall and Luton in the early 13th century.
By 1240 the town is recorded as Leueton. The town had a market for surrounding villages in August each year, and with the growth of the town a second fair was granted each October from 1338.
In 1336, much of Luton was destroyed by a great fire; however, the town was soon rebuilt.
During the English Civil War of the 17th century, in 1645, royalists entered the town and demanded money and goods. Parliamentary forces arrived and during the fighting four royalist soldiers were killed and a further twenty-two were captured. A second skirmish occurred three years later in 1648 when a royalist army passed through Luton. A number of royalists were attacked by parliamentary soldiers at an inn on the corner of the current Bridge Street. Most of the royalists escaped but nine were killed.
The hat making industry began in the 17th century and became synonymous with the town. By the 18th century the industry dominated the town. Hats are still produced in the town but on a much smaller scale.
The first Luton Workhouse was constructed in the town in 1722.
The town grew strongly in the 19th century. In 1801 the population was 3,095. By 1850 it was over 10,000 and by 1901 it was almost 39,000. Such rapid growth demanded a railway connection but the town had to wait a long time for one. The London and Birmingham Railway (L&BR) had been built through Tring in 1838, and the Great Northern Railway was built through Hitchin in 1852, both bypassing Luton, the largest town in the area. A branch line connecting with the L&BR at Leighton Buzzard was proposed, but because of objections to release of land, construction terminated at Dunstable in 1848. It was another ten years before the branch was extended to Bute Street Station, and the first train to Dunstable ran on 3 May 1858. The line was later extended to Welwyn and from 1860 direct trains to King's Cross ran. The Midland Railway was extended from Bedford to St Pancras through Leagrave and Midland Road station and opened on 9 September 1867.
Newspaper printing arrived in the town in 1854. The first public cemetery was opened in the same year. Following a cholera epidemic in 1848 Luton formed a water company and had a complete water and sewerage system by the late 1860s. The first covered market was built (the Plait Halls - now demolished) in 1869. Luton was made a borough in 1876. A professional football club - the first in the South of England - was founded in 1885 following a resolution at the town hall that a 'Luton Town Club be formed'.
The crest also includes a hand holding a bunch of wheat, either taken as a symbol of the straw-plaiting industry, or from the arms of John Whethamsteade, Abbott of St Albans, who rebuilt the chancel of St Mary's Church in the 15th century.
In the 20th century, the hat trade severely declined and was replaced by other industries. In 1905, Vauxhall Motors opened the largest car plant in the United Kingdom in Luton.In 1914 Hewlett & Blondeau Aviation entrepreneurs built a factory in Leagrave which began Aircraft production built under licence for the war effort,the site was purchased in 1920 by new proprietors Electrolux domestic appliances and this was followed by other light engineering businesses.
In 1900, the Bailey Water Tower was built on the edge of what was to become Luton Hoo memorial park. It is now a private residence.
In 1904 councillors Asher Hucklesby and Edwin Oakley purchased the estate at Wardown Park and donated it to the people of Luton. Hucklesby went on to become Mayor of Luton. The main house in the park became Wardown Park Museum.
The original town hall was destroyed in 1919 during Peace Day celebrations at the end of World War I. Local people including many ex-servicemen were unhappy with unemployment and had been refused the use of a local park to hold celebratory events. They stormed the town hall setting it alight (see Luton Town Hall). A replacement building was completed in 1936. Luton Airport opened in 1938, owned and operated by the council.
In World War II, the Vauxhall Factory built Churchill tanks as part of the war effort. Despite heavy camouflage, the factory made Luton a target for the Luftwaffe and the town suffered a number of air raids. 107 died and there was extensive damage to the town (over 1,500 homes were damaged or destroyed). Other industry in the town, such as SKF which produced ball bearings, made a vital contribution to the war effort. Although a bomb landed at the SKF Factory no major damage was caused.
The pre-war years, even at the turn of the 1930s when a Great Depression saw unemployment reach record levels nationally, were something of an economic boom for Luton, as new industries grew and prospered. New private and council housing was built in the 1920s and 1930s, with Luton growing as a town to incorporate nearby villages Leagrave, Limbury and Stopsley between 1928 and 1933.
Post-war, the slum clearance continued and a number of substantial estates of council housing were built, notably at Farley Hill, Stopsley, Limbury, Marsh Farm and Leagrave (Hockwell Ring). The M1 motorway passed just to the west of the town, opening in 1959 and giving it a direct motorway link with London and - eventually - the Midlands and the North. In 1962 a new library (to replace the cramped Carnegie Library) was opened by the Queen in the corner of St George's Square.
In the late 1960s a large part of the town centre was cleared to build a large covered shopping centre, the Arndale Centre, which was opened in 1972. It was refurbished and given a glass roof in the 1990s.
In 2000, Vauxhall announced the end of car production in Luton; the plant closed in March 2002. At its peak it had employed in excess of 30,000 people. Vauxhall's headquarters remain in the town, as does its van and light commercial vehicle factory.
A major regeneration programme for the town centre is underway, which will include upgrades to the town's bus and railway stations as well as improvements to the town's urban environment. St George's Square has been rebuilt and reopened in 2007. The new design won a Gold Standard Award for the Town Centre Environment from the annual British Council of Shopping Centres awards.
Work was completed on an extension to the Mall Shopping Centre facing St George's Square, the largest of the new units to was taken by TK Maxx. Planning applications for a much larger extension to the Mall Arndale Shopping Centre (In the Northern Gateway area - Bute Street, Silver Street and Guildford Street) and also for a new centre in Power Court (close to St Mary's Church) have been submitted. On the edge of Luton at Putteridge Bury a high-technology office park, Butterfield Green, is under construction. The former Vauxhall site is also to be re-developed as a mixed use site called Napier Park. It will feature housing, retail and entertainment use, including a new casino.
Luton received international notoriety after the murder of Michael Gilbert in 2009.
The town is situated within the historic county of Bedfordshire, but since 1997 Luton has been an administratively independent unitary authority. The town remains part of Bedfordshire for ceremonial purposes.
Luton is represented by two Members of Parliament. The constituency of Luton North has been held by Kelvin Hopkins (Labour) since 1997. Luton South has been held by Gavin Shuker (Labour) since 2010. Luton is within the East of England (European Parliament constituency).
Police and Crime Commissioner
Luton is served by Bedfordshire Police. The Police Commissioner is Olly Martins who lives in the High Town area of the town.
Lutonians are governed by Luton Borough Council. The town is split into 19 wards, represented by 48 councillors. Elections are held for all seats every four years, with the most recent local elections held in May 2011 and the next due in May 2015. The Council is controlled by the Labour group, who have 36 Local Councillors (a majority of 24). The next largest party is the Liberal Democrats with 8 seats, followed by the Conservative Party with 4 seats.
|Members of Parliament||
Luton Council coat of arms
In 1876 the town council was granted its own coat of arms. The wheatsheaf was used on the crest to represent agriculture and the supply of straw used in the local hatting industry (the straw-plaiting industry was brought to Luton by a group of Scots under the protection of Sir John Napier of Luton Hoo). The bee is traditionally the emblem of industry and the hive represents the straw-plaiting industry for which Luton was famous. The rose is from the arms of the Napier family, whereas the thistle is a symbol for Scotland. An alternative suggestion is that the rose was a national emblem, and the thistle represents the Marquess of Bute, who formerly owned the Manor of Luton Hoo.
Luton is located in a break in the Eastern part of the Chiltern Hills. The Chilterns are a mixture of chalk from the Cretaceous period (about 65-146 million years ago) and deposits laid at the southernmost points of the ice sheet during the last ice age (the Warden Hills area can be seen from much of the town).
The source of the River Lea, part of the Thames Valley drainage basin, is in the Leagrave area of the town. The Great Bramingham Wood surrounds this area. It is classified as ancient woodland; records mention the wood at least 400 years ago.
Luton has a temperate marine climate, like much of the British Isles, with generally light precipitation throughout the year. The weather is very changeable from day to day and the warming influence of the Gulf Stream makes the region mild for its latitude. The average total annual rainfall is 698 mm (27.5 in) with rain falling on 117 days of the year.
The local climate around Luton is differentiated somewhat from much of South East England due to its position in the Chiltern Hills, meaning it tends to be 1-2 degrees Celsius cooler than the surrounding towns - often flights at Luton airport, lying 160 m above sea level, will be suspended when marginal snow events occur, while airports at lower elevations, such as Heathrow, at 25 m above sea level, continue to function. An example of this is shown in the photograph to the right, the snowline being about 100 m above sea level. Absolute temperature extremes recorded at Rothamsted Research Station, 5 miles (8 km) south south east of Luton town centre and at a similar elevation range from −17 °C (1.4 °F) in December 1981 and −16.7 °C (1.9 °F) in January 1963 to 36.0 °C (96.8 °F) in August 2003 and 33.8 °C (92.8 °F) in August 1990 and July 2006. Records for Rothamsted date back to 1901.
|Climate data for Rothamsted 1971-2000 (Weather station 5 miles (8 km) to the south of Luton)|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.3
|Average low °C (°F)||0.9
|Precipitation mm (inches)||69.5
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||55.2||70.6||107.3||146.7||194.7||190.2||203.4||196.5||142.2||112.2||70.2||48.1||1,537.2|
|Source: Met Office|
The Victorian expansion of Luton focused on areas close to the existing town centre and railways. In the 1920s and 1930s growth typically was though absorbing neighbouring villages and hamlets and infill construction between them and Luton. After the Second World War there were several estates and developments constructed both by the local authority such as Farley Hill or Marsh Farm, or privately such as Bushmead.
The United Kingdom Census 2011 showed that the borough had a population of 203,201, a 10.2% increase from the previous census in 2001, when Luton was the 27th largest settlement in the UK. In 2011, 46,756 were aged under 16, 145,208 were 16 to 74, and 11,237 were 75 or over. The latest population figure for the borough is 203,600 (2011 est.).
|Population since 1801 - Source: A Vision of Britain through Time|
Local inhabitants are known as Lutonians.
Luton has seen several waves of immigration. In the early part of the 20th century Irish and Scottish people arrived in the town - these were followed by Afro-Caribbean and Asian immigrants. More recently immigrants from Eastern Europe have made Luton their home. As a result of this Luton has a diverse ethnic mix, with a significant population of Asian descent, mainly Pakistani 29,353 (14.4%), Indian 10,625 (5.2%) and Bangladeshi 13,606 (6.7%).
Since the 2011 census, Luton has become one of 3 towns in the United Kingdom to officially hold a white minority. It was announced in a report based on the census figures that along with Leicester and Slough, Luton was one of 3 towns outside of London where white Britons were minority, making up only 45% of Luton's population. However, the report also said 81% of the population of Luton still define themselves as British, despite the majority of its residents being from a foreign ethnic background.
|Luton: Ethnicity: 2011 Census |
|Asian or Asian British||60,952||30.0|
|Black or Black British||19,909||9.8|
|Other Ethnic Group||2.980||1.5|
In the ten-year period since the United Kingdom Census 2001, the percentage of inhabitants in Luton reporting being Christian fell from 60 to 47%. Meanwhile those reporting being Muslim increased from 15 to 25%.
|Religion not stated||12,373||6.1|
Luton has been identified in the media as a home of people with extremist social and religious viewpoints. The Muslim group Al-Muhajiroun was based there before it was banned, and the founder of the English Defence League is from Luton. A Muslim protest in March 2009 against soldiers returning from the Iraq War was followed by a counter-demonstration opposing sharia law in the UK. However, many residents say that the numbers of extremists, both Muslims and far-right, are small. Inayat Bunglawala of the Muslim Council of Britain lives in Luton, and a local representative of Churches Together described "the reality of life in the town" as "a healthy interaction between people of different faiths".
Of the town's working population (classified 16–74 years of age by the Office for National Statistics), 63% are employed. This figure includes students, the self-employed and those who are in part-time employment. 11% are retired, 8% look after the family or take care of the home and 5% are unemployed.
||This section needs additional citations for verification. (September 2009)|
Luton's economy has, traditionally been focused on several different areas of industry including Car Manufacture, engineering and millinery. However, today, Luton is moving towards a service based economy mainly in the retail and the airport sectors, although there is still a focus on light industry in the town.
Notable firms with headquarters in Luton include:
- EasyJet - head office (originally EasyLand, later moved into Hangar 89) and main base at London Luton Airport
- Monarch Airlines - headquarters, at Luton Airport (Prospect House)
- Thomson UK (Thomson Holidays and Thomson Airways) - travel (Wigmore House)
- Vauxhall Motors - headquarters (Griffin House)
Notable firms with offices in Luton include:
- Anritsu - electronics
- AstraZeneca - pharmaceuticals
- Selex Galileo - aerospace
- Ernst & Young - accountants
- Experian - data and analytics
- Mazars - accountants
- Siemens AG - electronics
- Whitbread - hospitality
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (September 2009)|
The main shopping area in Luton is centred around The Mall Luton. Built in the 1960s/1970s and opened as an Arndale Centre, construction of the shopping centre led to the demolition of a number of the older buildings in the town centre including the Plait Halls (a Victorian covered market building with an iron and glass roof). Shops and businesses in the remaining streets, particularly in the roads around Cheapside and in High Town, have been in decline ever since. George Street, on the south side of the Arndale, was pedestrianised in the 1990s.
The shopping centre had some construction and re-design work done to it over the 2011/2012 period and now has a new square used for leisure events, as well as numerous new food restaurants such as Toby's Carvery and Costa Coffee.
Contained within the main shopping centre is the Market, which contains butchers, fishmongers, fruit and veg, hairdressers, tattoo parlours, ice cream, flower stall and T-shirt printing as well as eating places.
Another major shopping area is Bury Park where there are shops catering to Luton's ethnic minorities.
Food and drink
Luton has a diverse selection of restaurants - English, Italian, Chinese, Indian, Caribbean, Thai and Malaysian to name a few. No area of the town is specifically restaurant-orientated, but in some areas (such as Bury Park) there is a concentration of Asian restaurants.
There are pubs and clubs in the town centre. A number of these cater for the town's student population; however, there are still a number of traditional pubs in the town.
Luton is situated less than 30 miles north of the centre of London, giving it good links with the City and other parts of the country via the motorway network and the National Rail system. Luton is also home to London Luton Airport, one of the major feeder airports for London and the southeast. Luton is also served by bus services run by Arriva and Centrebus and a large taxi network. As a Unitary Authority, Luton Borough Council is responsible for the local highways and public transport in the Borough and licensing of Taxis.
Luton is one of the main locations of the University of Bedfordshire. A large campus of the university is in Luton town centre, with a smaller campus based on the edge of town in Putteridge Bury, an old Victorian manor house. The other main campus of the university is located in Bedford.
Luton's schools and colleges have also been earmarked for major investment in the government scheme Building Schools for the Future programme, which intends to renew and refit buildings in institutes across the country. Luton is in the 3rd wave of this long term programme with work intending to start in 2009.
There are 98 educational institutes in Luton - seven nurseries, 70 primary schools (9 voluntary-aided, 2 Special Requirements), 13 secondary schools (1 voluntary-aided, 1 Special Requirements), four further educational institutes and four other educational institutes.
Culture and leisure
Luton is the home town of Luton Town Football Club who were relegated from the Football League in 2009, one below the 4th flight of the English league structure. Their nickname, "The Hatters", dates back to when Luton had a substantial millinery industry. Luton are currently in the Conference National after failing to win automatic promotion to Football League Two during the 2009-10, 2010–11 and 2011-12 seasons. Luton were beaten 2-0 on aggregate by York City in the semi finals of the playoffs, and therefore failed to progress to the final at Wembley Stadium. The following season Luton progressed to the final of the playoffs, losing to AFC Wimbledon on penalties. In 2011-12 once again the team reached the final of the play-offs, only to lose 2-1 to York.
Speedway racing was staged in Luton in the mid-1930s.
The town has three rugby union clubs - Luton Rugby Club who play in National 3 Midlands, Vauxhall Motors RFC who play in Midlands 4 SE and Stockwood Park who also play in Midlands 2 SE.
Wardown Park is situated on the River Lea in Luton. The park has sporting facilities, is home to the Wardown Park Museum and contains formal gardens. The park is located between Old Bedford Road and the A6, New Bedford Road and is within walking distance of the town centre.
Stockwood Park is a large municipal park near Junction 10 of the M1. Located in the park is Stockwood Discovery Centre a free museum that houses the Mossman Collection and Luton local social history, archaeology and geology. There is an athletics track, an 18-hole golf course, several rugby pitches and areas of open space.
The park was originally the estate and grounds to Stockwood house, which was demolished in 1964.
The procession starts at Wardown Park and makes its way down New Bedford Road, around the Town Centre via St George's Square, back down New Bedford Road and finishes back at Wardown Park. There are music stages and stalls around the town centre and at Wardown Park.
St. Patrick's Day
The festival celebrating the patron saint of Ireland, St Patrick, is held on the weekend nearest to March 17. In its 12th year in 2011, the festival includes a parade, market stalls and music stands as well as Irish themed events.
Luton is home to the Library Theatre, a 238 seat theatre located on the 3rd floor of the town's Central Library. The Theatre's programme consists of local amateur dramatic societies, pantomime, children's theatre (on Saturday mornings) and one night shows of touring theatre companies.
Luton is also home to The Hat Factory, originally as its name suggests, this Arts Centre was in fact a real Hat Factory. The Hat Factory is a combined arts venue in the centre of Luton. It opened in 2003 and since then has been the area’s main provider of contemporary theatre, dance and music. The venue provides live music, club nights, theatre, dance, films, children's activities, workshops, classes and gallery exhibitions. www.thehatfactory.org.
Wardown Park Museum previously known as Luton Museum and Art Gallery, is housed in a large Victorian mansion in Wardown Park on the outskirts of the town centre. The museum collection focusses on the traditional crafts and industry of Luton and Bedfordshire, notably lace-making and hat-making. There are samples of local lace from as early as the 17th century.
Stockwood Craft Museum
Based in Stockwood Park, Luton, the collection of rural crafts and trades held at Stockwood Park Museum was amassed by Thomas Wyatt Bagshawe, who was a notable local historian and a leading authority on folk life. Bagshawe was born in Dunstable in 1901 and became a director of the family engineering firm.
The collection only contains examples from Bedfordshire and the borders of neighbouring counties, giving the collection a very strong regional identity.
The Mossman Carriage collection is held at Stockwood Park, Luton and is the largest and most significant vehicle collection of its kind in the country, including originals from the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries.
The Mossman collection of horse drawn vehicles was given to Luton Museum Service in 1991. It illustrates the development of horse-drawn road transportation in Britain from Roman times up until the 1930s.
|Accessible open space|
|Museum (free/not free)|
|Country||Place||County / District / Region / State||Date|
|Germany||Bergisch Gladbach||North Rhine-Westphalia||1956|
Three weekly newspapers are delivered free to all the houses in Luton. They are:
- Luton & Dunstable Express, delivered free to Luton and Dunstable households on Wednesdays.
- Luton on Sunday, delivered free to Luton and Dunstable households on Sunday.
- Herald and Post, delivered free to all Luton households on Thursdays.
There are also two other newspapers in circulation around Luton:
- Luton News, the Herald & Post sister paper which is published every Wednesday.
- Lutonline, a monthly newspaper produced by the local council. Usually delivered with the Luton & Dunstable Express.
- BBC Three Counties Radio, the local BBC station, broadcasts from its office in Hastings Street, Luton to Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire.
- Heart 97.6 a formally independent local station, broadcast from Milton Keynes.
- Diverse FM began broadcasts in April 2007 having been awarded a community radio license from Ofcom.
- Luton FM, the university's radio station, runs for 28 days during May. In addition, Ramadan FM broadcasts during the month of Ramadan.
- Local-News TV is a local news channel for Bedfordshire and Luton. The channel is broadcast solely over the internet with content available on-demand.
- Television Luton falls at the cross over point between the two regions of Carlton/LWT (ITV London) and Anglia Television (ITV Anglia) which transmits from Norwich. Coverage for most Luton Town FC games and highlights is usually shown on BBC London news and on BBC 1 London's Football League show
- Days Like These, the British re-make of the popular American sitcom That '70s Show, was set in Luton.
The town was mentioned several times in the seminal sketch show Monty Python's Flying Circus. In one sketch a rather half-hearted hijacker demands that a plane headed for Cuba be diverted to Luton. Luton is one of the constituencies returning a "Silly Party" victory in the famous sketch Election Night Special. In the Piranha Brothers sketch Spiny Norman lived in a hangar at Luton Airport. A 1976 episode of the sci-fi series "Space: 1999" was called The Rules of Luton, inspired by the town name. The well known comedian Eric Morecambe frequently made references to Luton Town FC, due to him being a former chairman of the club, as well as living in close proximity to Luton in Harpenden.
People who were born in Luton or are associated with the town.
- Leadership=Mayor & Cabinet
- ONS estimates for total population and density in 2011 and ethnicity in 2009. See the Demography section above for further information.
- "Table 8a Mid-2011 Population Estimates: Selected age groups for local authorities in England and Wales; estimated resident population;". Population Estimates for England and Wales, Mid 2011 (Census Based). Office for National Statistics. 2012-09-25. Retrieved 2012-11-22. Luton 203,600
- "Table PHP01 2011 Census: Usual residents ... wards in England and Wales;". 2011 Census: population and household estimates for Wards and Output Areas in England and Wales. Office for National Statistics. 2012-11-23. Retrieved 2013-01-19.. Dunstable wards 36,253. Houghton Regis wards 17,283.
- "Luton – the town: Cultural diversity". Our location. University of Bedfordshire. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- Dyer J, Stygall F, Dony J, The Story of Luton, Luton, 1964, p 20
- Dyer ibid, p 23
- Dyer ibid, p 31
- "Early history of Luton". Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "Domesday book record". Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "History of St Mary's Church". Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "Luton Castle only lasted 15 years". Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "Vauxhall history". Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "A history hat making in Luton". Plaiting and Straw Hat Making. Luton Libraries. Retrieved 2008-06-18.
- "Website of Luton Hoo Hotel Golf and Spa". Retrieved 2008-06-18.
- "Population figures for 1801, 1901 and 1901". Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- Dyer, ibid, p 141
- Dyer, ibid, p 142
- "Luton was made a borough". Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "Formation of Luton Town". Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "Churchill Tanks at Vauxhall". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-17.
- "Deaths during WWII". Localhistories.org. Retrieved 2013-03-17.
- See book Luton at War volume II, compiled by The Luton News, 2001, ISBN 1-871199-49-2
- "A History of Luton". Localhistories.org. Retrieved 2013-03-17.
- tant-car-hire.co.uk/england/luton.html Arndale opened in 1972
- "Vauxhall closure". BBC News. 2002-03-21. Retrieved 2013-03-17.
- St Georges Square on Luton Council Site[dead link]
- Award won by St Georges Square[dead link]
- "Website for the development of Power Court". Lutonpowercourt.com. Retrieved 2013-03-17.
- "Napier Park website". Retrieved 2008-06-18.
- "Why do towns want to become cities?". BBC News. 2011-06-22.
- "Three towns win city status for Diamond Jubilee". BBC News. 2012-03-14.
- [dead link]
- "Luton Town Coat of Arms". Retrieved 2011-01-30.
- "Arms of Luton (England)". Retrieved 2008-06-18.
- Map of soil distribution in Beds
- ISBN 1-871199-94-8
- "Anomaly details for station Rothamsted, UK and index TXx: Maximum value of daily maximum temperature". Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute.
- "Anomaly details for station Rothamsted, UK and index TXx: Maximum value of daily maximum temperature". Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute.
- "Anomaly details for station Rothamsted, UK and index TXx: Maximum value of daily maximum temperature". Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute.
- "Met Office: July 2006 - record temperatures and sunshine". Met Office.
- "Rothamsted 1971-2000 averages". Met Office. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- "2011 Census: Population and household estimates fact file, unrounded estimates, local authorities in England and Wales;". 2011 Census: population and household estimates for England and Wales - unrounded figures for the data published 16 July 2012. Office for National Statistics. 2012-09-24. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- KS01 Usual resident population: Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban areas[dead link]
- "Table PP04 2011 Census: Usual resident population by single year of age, unrounded estimates, local authorities in England and Wales;". 2011 Census: population and household estimates for England and Wales - unrounded figures for the data published 16 July 2012. Office for National Statistics. 2012-09-24. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- "Luton: Total Population". A Vision of Britain Through Time. Great Britain Historical GIS Project. Retrieved 2008-06-16.[dead link]
- "Local Authority by Ethnic Group". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 2013-02-20.
- Philipson, Alice. "White Britons a minority in Leicester, Luton and Slough". Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-03-17.
- "Religion breakdown". National Statistics Office. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "Religion breakdown". National Statistics Office. Retrieved 2013-02-20.
- Hughes, Mark (14 December 2010). "How Luton became the epicentre of the global clash of civilisations". The Independent (London). Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "Employment statistics". National Office of Statistics. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "New headquarters for easyJet at London Luton Airport." Easyjet. Retrieved on 27 September 2009.
- "customer services & other faqs." Monarch Airlines. Retrieved on 27 September 2009.
- "Contact Us." TUI UK & Ireland. Retrieved on 4 January 2011. "Wigmore House Wigmore Lane Luton Bedfordshire LU2 9TN"
- "Luton." Thomson UK. Retrieved on 27 September 2009.
- "Corporate contact information." Vauxhall Motors. Retrieved on 2 September 2009.
- "Ernst and Young Locations". Ey.com. Retrieved 2013-03-17.
- "Mazars Luton Office". Mazars.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-17.
- "Barnfield Newsletter". Communiqueonline.com. Retrieved 2013-03-17.
- "Luton Sixth Form College". Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "L2G Building for the Future Programme details". Retrieved 2008-06-19.
- "LEA School List". Luton Borough Council. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "Luton Town homepage". Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "Luton Council website". Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "Luton Carnival Coverage on the BBC". Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "Beds Herts and Bucks - Why Don't You - Luton's turning green!". BBC. Retrieved 2013-03-17.
- "Luton Irish Forum - St patrick's festival" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-03-17.
- Published on 04/03/2008 15:37. "St Patrick's Day party is coming to Luton". Luton Today. Retrieved 2013-03-17.
- "Shout Luton Theatre Guide". Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "Town twinning". Luton Borough Council. Archived from the original on 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "The Luton & Dunstable Express". Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "Herald and Post". Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "Luton News". Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "Lutonline homepage". Archived from the original on 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
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- "Diverse FM". Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- Wiser, Carl, "Ian Anderson of Jethro Tull" (interview), Songfacts, n.d. Anderson talked in the interview of having, in late 1967, a day job cleaning Luton's Ritz Cinema. Retrieved 2013-03-06.
|Look up luton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1921 Collier's Encyclopedia article Luton.|
- Media related to Luton at Wikimedia Commons
- Luton Borough Council YouTube channel
- Luton On Sunday
- Luton Live
- Luton has come to embody the failures of multiculturalism