The district is composed on one county, Kabula County. Prior to 2007, Kabula County was part of Rakai District. In 2007, the county was split off of Rakai District and given autonomous district status.
In 1991, the national population census estimated the population of the district at about 53,100. During the next census in 2002, the population of Lyantonde District was estimated at about 66,000 with an annual population growth rate of 1.9%. In 2012 the district population was estimated at about 80,200. The table below depicts the progressive increase in the district population during the first decade of the 21st century. All figures are estimates.
Agriculture being the major source of livelihood for the population in Lyantonde District. A variety of crops are grown in the district, both for subsistence and economic purposes. The crops grown include: