Lycoperdaceae

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Lycoperdaceae
Parelstuifzwam2.JPG
Lycoperdon perlatum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Lycoperdaceae
(or Agaricaceae)
Genera

Bovista
Calvatia
Handkea
Lycoperdon
Morganella
Vascellum

Lycoperdaceae was a family of approximately 150 fungi now known to lie in the Agaricales. Historically they were placed in their own order Lycoperdales. Members of the Lycoperdaceae family are known as the true puffballs. Unlike other types of fungi that hold spores in gills or teeth, puffballs contain the spores inside a layer of tougher outer skin. When a puffball reaches maturity, the tough skin will split open, allowing the billions of spores to be released.

Phylogeny[edit]

Based on phylogenetic analysis using rDNA, Lycoperdaceae has been shown to be a family within the order Agaricales.[1][2] Within the Agaricales, further phylogenetic analysis has revealed this group to be a subgroup within the Agaricaceae, hence the status of Lycoperdaceae as a family is generally considered deprecated, and its nomenclatural status as a group is currently undefined.[3]

Four major clades can be distinguished within the Lycoperdaceae: Lycoperdon, Bovista, Calvatia, and Disciseda.[4] The latter three clades correspond roughly to the current circumscription of the equally named genera Bovista, Calvatia, and Disciseda.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF, Blackwell M, Cannon PF,Eriksson OE, Huhndorf S, James T, Kirk PM, Lücking R, Lumbsch T, Lutzoni F, Matheny PB, Mclaughlin DJ, Powell MJ, Redhead S, Schoch CL, Spatafora JW, Stalpers JA, Vilgalys R, Aime MC, Aptroot A, Bauer R, Begerow D, Benny GL, Castlebury LA, Crous PW, Cheng Dai Y, Gams W, Geiser DM, Griffith GW, Gueidan C, Hawksworth DL, Hestmark G, Hosaka K, Humber RA, Hyde K, Ironside JE, Kõljalg U, Kurtzman CP, Henrik Larsson K, Lichtwardt R, Longcore J, Miadlikowska J, Miller A, Marc Moncalvo J, Mozley-Standridge S, Oberwinkler F, Parmasto E, Reeb V, Rogers JD, Roux C, Ryvarden L, Paulo Sampaio J, Schüssler A, Sugiyama J, Thorn RG, Tibell L, Untereiner WA,Walker C, Wang Z, Weir A, Weiss M, White MM, Winka K, Jian Yao Y, Zhang N. (2007). "A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi.". Mycol. Res. 111 (Pt5): 509–547. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004. PMID 17572334. 
  2. ^ Moncalvo J-M, Vilgalys R, Redhead SA, Johnson JE, James TY, Aime MC, Hofstetter V, Verduin S, Larsson E, Baroni TJ, Thorn RG, Jacobsson S, Clemencon H, Miller OK. (2002). "One hundred and seventeen clades of euagarics.". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23 (3): 357–400. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00027-1. PMID 12099793. 
  3. ^ Cannon PF, Kirk PM. (2007). Fungal Families of the World. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-85199-827-5. 
  4. ^ Larsson E, Jeppson M (2008). "Phylogenetic relationships among species and genera of Lycoperdaceae based on ITS and LSU sequence data from north European taxa.". Mycol. Res. 112 (Pt1): 4–22. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.10.018. PMID 18207380. 

External links[edit]