|Lynx / Super Lynx|
|A French Navy Lynx helicopter taking off|
|Role||Multi-purpose military helicopter|
|National origin||United Kingdom|
|First flight||21 March 1971|
|Primary users||British Army
|Variants||AgustaWestland AW159 Wildcat|
|Developed into||Westland 30|
The Westland Lynx is a British multi-purpose military helicopter designed and built by Westland Helicopters at its factory in Yeovil. Originally intended as a utility craft for both civil and naval usage, military interest led to the development of both battlefield and naval variants. The Lynx went into operational usage in 1977 and was later adopted by the armed forces of over a dozen nations, primarily serving in the battlefield utility, anti-armour, search and rescue and anti-submarine warfare roles.
The Lynx was the world's first fully aerobatic helicopter. In 1986 a specially modified Lynx set the current Fédération Aéronautique Internationale's official airspeed record for helicopters. The Westland 30 was derived from the Lynx as a civil utility helicopter, but it was not a commercial success and only a small number were built. In the 21st century, a modernised military variant of the Lynx, designated as the AgustaWestland AW159 Wildcat, was designed as a multirole combat helicopter scheduled to enter service in 2014. The Lynx remains in production under AgustaWestland, the successor to Westland Helicopters.
- 1 Development
- 2 Design
- 3 Operational history
- 4 Variants
- 5 Operators
- 6 Specifications (Super Lynx Series 100)
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The initial design (then known as the Westland WG.13) was started in the mid-1960s as a replacement for the Westland Scout and Wasp, and a more advanced alternative to the UH-1 Iroquois. As part of the Anglo-French helicopter agreement signed in February 1967, the French company Aérospatiale were given a work share in the manufacturing programme. Aérospatiale received 30% of production with Westland performing the remainder. It was intended that France would procure the Lynx for its Navy and as an armed reconnaissance helicopter for the French Army, with the United Kingdom in return buying Aérospatiale Gazelle and Puma for its armed forces. The French Army cancelled its requirement for the Lynx in October 1969.
The first Lynx prototype took its maiden flight on 21 March 1971. In 1972, a Lynx broke the world speed record over 15 and 25 km by flying at 321.74 km/h (199.9 mph). It also set a new 100 km closed circuit record shortly afterwards, flying at 318.504 km/h (197.9 mph).
The British Army ordered over 100 Lynx helicopters under the designation of Lynx AH.1 (Army Helicopter Mark 1). The AH.1 could perform several different roles, such as transport, armed escort, anti-tank warfare (with eight TOW missiles), reconnaissance and evacuation missions. Deliveries of production helicopters began in 1977. An improved Lynx AH.1 with Gem 41-1 or Gem 42 engines and an uprated transmission was referred to as the Lynx AH.5; only five were built for evaluation purposes. The AH.5 led to the Lynx AH.7, which added a new tail rotor derived from the Westland 30, a reinforced airframe, improved avionics and defensive aids. These later received upgrades such as British Experimental Rotor Programme (BERP) rotor blades.
The initial naval variant of the Lynx, known as the Lynx HAS.2 in British service, or Lynx Mk.2(FN) in French service, differed from the Lynx AH.1 in being equipped with a tricycle undercarriage and a deck restraint system, folding main rotor blades, an emergency flotation system and a nose-mounted radar. An improved Lynx for the Royal Navy, the Lynx HAS.3, had Gem 42-1 Mark 204 engines, an uprated transmission, a new flotation system and an Orange Crop ESM system. The Lynx HAS.3 also received various other updates in service. A similar upgrade to the French Lynx was known as the Lynx Mk.4(FN). Many different export variants based on the Lynx HAS.2 and HAS.3 were sold to other air arms.
In 1986, the former company demonstrator Lynx, registered G-LYNX, was specially modified with Gem 60 engines and BERP rotor blades. On 11 August 1986 the helicopter was piloted by Trevor Egginton when it set an absolute speed record for helicopters over a 15 and 25 km course by reaching 400.87 kilometres per hour (216.45 kn; 249.09 mph); an official record with the FAI it currently holds. At this speed, it had a lift-to-drag ratio of 2, and its BERP blade tips had a speed of Mach 0.97.
Super Lynx and Battlefield Lynx
Announced in 1984, the Lynx-3 was an enhanced Lynx development, with a stretched fuselage, a redesigned tailboom and tail surfaces, Gem 60-3/1 engines and a new wheeled tricycle undercarriage. The Lynx-3 also included BERP rotor blades, and increased fuel capacity. Both Army and Naval variants were proposed. The project was ended in 1987 due to insufficient orders. Only one Army Lynx-3 prototype was built. A development of the Lynx AH.7 with the wheeled undercarriage of the Lynx-3 was marketed by Westland as the Battlefield Lynx in the late 1980s. The prototype first flew in November 1989 and deliveries began in 1991. This variant entered British Army service as the Lynx AH.9.
In the early 1990s, Westland incorporated some of the technology from the Naval Lynx-3 design into a less-radical Super Lynx. This featured BERP rotor blades, the Westland 30-derived tail rotor, Gem 42 engines, a new under-nose 360-degree radar installation and an optional nose-mounted electro-optical sensor turret. Royal Navy Lynx HAS.3s upgraded to Super Lynx standard were known in service as the Lynx HMA.8, and several export customers ordered new-build or upgraded Super Lynxes. Later, Westland offered the Super Lynx 200 with LHTEC CTS800 engines and the Super Lynx 300, which also had a new cockpit and avionics derived from the AgustaWestland EH101. Both of these models have achieved several export sales.
Future Lynx/Lynx Wildcat
The British Army and Royal Navy Lynx fleets are due to be upgraded to a new common advanced Lynx variant based on the Super Lynx 300, with a new tailboom, undercarriage, cockpit, avionics and sensors. Initially referred to as the Future Lynx, then Lynx Wildcat, this type has since been renamed as the AW159 Wildcat.
The Lynx is a multi-purpose twin-engine battlefield helicopter. Early versions were powered by a pair of Rolls-Royce Gem 2 turboshaft engines, which powered a four-blade semi-rigid main rotor. The rotors were of a completely new design, the blades were composed of a honeycomb sandwich structure. The Lynx is an agile helicopter, capable of performing loops and rolls, and is capable of considerable speeds. Many of the Lynx's components had been derived from earlier Westland helicopters such as the Scout and Wasp.
The Lynx features a two-man cockpit for a pilot and observer sitting side by side. The cabin located behind the cockpit is accessed through a pair of large sliding doors on each side of the fuselage; the cabin can accommodate up to nine equipped troops depending upon seating configuration, an alternative configuration houses radio equipment in the cabin area when being used in the command post role, surplus fuel for long journeys can also be housed in the cabin. Those Lynxes operated by British Army were fitted with a Marconi Elliot AFCS system for automatic stabilisation on three axes.
The Lynx AH.1 entered service with the Army Air Corps (AAC) in 1979, followed by the Lynx HAS.2 with the Fleet Air Arm (FAA) in 1981. The FAA Lynx fleet was upgraded to Lynx HAS.3 standard during the 1980s, and again to Lynx HMA.8 standard in the 1990s. Most Army Lynxes were later upgraded to Lynx AH.7 standard.
The AAC operated the Lynx AH.7 and AH.9 as utility helicopters. Army owned AH.7s and AH.9s were also in service with the Commando Helicopter Force (CHF) of the FAA, where they operated as attack/utility and reconnaissance helicopters in support of the Royal Marines. Lynx HAS.3 and HMA.8 variants operate as anti-submarine warfare and maritime attack helicopters armed with the Stingray torpedoes, Sea Skua anti-ship missiles and depth charges, from Royal Navy warships. It has also seen extensive service during peacekeeping operations and exercises, and it is standard equipment for most Royal Navy surface combatants when they deploy.
The Lynx HAS.2 ASW variant took part in combat operations during the Falklands War in 1982. Although none were shot down, three were lost aboard vessels that were hit by Argentine air attacks, these vessels being HMS Coventry, HMS Ardent and MV Atlantic Conveyor.
On 14 May 1989, in only the second fatal accident involving a Lynx, all nine Royal Navy personnel on board died when the HAS3GM No. XZ244 attached to HMS Brilliant crashed near Mombasa, Kenya, while en route from the ship to the city's airport for a period of shore leave. One of the doors had detached when opened in flight, colliding with the tail rotor, causing the aircraft to split in half. As a result, modifications to the doors and restrictions on opening them in flight were introduced. As of 2004, it was still the deadliest Lynx crash. 
Navy Lynx helicopters used a number of Sea Skua missiles to devastating effect against the Iraqi Navy during the 1991 Gulf War. The Lynx also saw service with British Army forces in the same conflict.
During The Troubles in Northern Ireland, on 19 March 1994 the IRA managed to bring down AH7 No. ZD275 with improvised mortar. Struck at 100ft while coming into land at Crossmaglen Army base, the pilot managed to crash land, which destroyed the aircraft but ensured the survival of all 4 on board.
In September 2000, the Lynx was used to rescue an operation to rescue British soldiers in Sierra Leone during Operation Barras. In 2002, a Lynx attached to HMS Richmond crashed 200 miles off the coast of Virginia.
The Lynx was used during the invasion of Iraq in 2003. A flight of either AAC or CHF Lynx AH.7s were based at Basra Air Station under command of the Joint Helicopter Force (Iraq) on a rotational basis, but were restricted operationally during the summer months due to the very high daytime temperatures affecting lifting capacity and endurance.
On 6 May 2006, the downing of AH Mk.7 No. XZ6140 by a man portable surface-to-air missile over central Basra, southern Iraq, marked the first British helicopter and only the second British aircraft downed due to enemy fire in the war (the first was an RAF Hercules). Among the 5 killed were Wing Commander Coxen and Flight Lieutenant Sarah-Jayne Mulvihill, the most senior British officer to die in the conflict, and the first British servicewoman to die in action in 22 years, respectively . Coxen had been on the flight as he was due to take command of the British helicopter forces. In the course of recovering the bodies, British troops were met by rioting civilians and were fired on by militia, with some Iraqi civilians reportedly killed in the clashes.  The crash and subsequent fighting let to a review of the vulnerability of transporting troops in helicopters as well as the safety of forces on the ground in southern Iraq.
On 26 April 2014, the Mk 9A No. ZF540 crashed near its base at Kandahar Airfield in Afghanistan, killing the 3 crew and 2 passengers. This was the first fatal accident in the conflict involving a British military helicopter, and the third biggest loss of life of British troops in a single incident in Afghanistan since the invasion.
|This section requires expansion. (July 2014)|
The Lynx Mk.2(FN) entered service with the French Navy's Aviation navale in 1979.
In 1978, the Brazilian Navy became the first foreign operator of the Lynx helicopter, having took delivery of its first of a batch of five that year. During the 1990s, the fleet was more than doubled by the acquisition of a further batch of nine. During overseas deployments, such as for multinational training exercises and contributing to United Nations operations, the Lynx has been described as "eyes and the ears of the fleet". In 2014, a mid-life upgrade process was agreed for Brazil's Lynx fleet, which are to receive newer LHTEC CTS800-4N engines, new avionics, satellite navigation systems, countermeasures, and night vision-compatible cockpit displays.
On 28 February 2011, a Royal Netherlands Navy Naval Aviation Service Lynx was captured in Libya during an evacuation mission. Three navy personnel were taken prisoner by Libyan troops and two civilians were evacuated by other means.
- Westland WG.13
- Prototype, first flight 21 March 1971. Thirteen prototypes built.
- Lynx AH.1
- Initial production version for the British Army Air Corps, powered by 671 kW (900 hp) Gem 2 engines, with first production example flying 11 February 1977, and deliveries continuing until February 1984, with 113 built. Used for a variety of tasks, including tactical transport, armed escort, anti-tank warfare (60 were equipped with eight TOW missiles as Lynx AH.1 (TOW) from 1981), reconnaissance and casualty evacuation.
- Lynx AH.1GT
- Interim conversion of the AH.1 to partial AH.7 standard for the Army Air Corps with uprated engines and revised tail rotor.
- Lynx HT.1
- Planned training version for Royal Air Force. Cancelled.
- Lynx AH.5
- Upgraded version for the Army Air Corps, with 835 kW (1,120 shp) Gem 41-1 engines and uprated gearbox. Three built as AH.5 (Interim) as Trials aircraft for MoD. Eight ordered as AH.5s for Army Air Corps, of which only two built as AH.5s, with remaining six completed as AH.7s. Four were later upgraded to AH.7 standard and one was retained for trials work as an AH.5X.
- Lynx AH.6
- Proposed version for the Royal Marines with undercarriage, folding tail and deck harpoon of Naval Lynx. Not built.
- Lynx AH.7
- Further upgraded version for the Army Air Corps, with Gem 41-1 engines and uprated gearbox of AH.5 and new, larger, composite tail rotor. Later refitted with BERP type rotor blades. Twelve new build, with 107 Lynx AH.1s converted. A small number also used by the Fleet Air Arm in support of the Royal Marines. The Lynx AH.7 can also be outfitted for the anti-armour role, with the attachment of 2 pylons, each carrying four, BGM-71 TOW, anti-tank guided missiles. In the light-lift role, it can carry an aircrewman armed with a cabin door mounted machine gun, as well as troops for fast-rope or abseiling insertions, or regular landings. It can also transport cargo. Now replaced by the WAH-64 Apache as the only attack helicopter.
- Lynx AH.7(DAS)
- AH.7 with Defensive Aids Subsystem.
- Lynx AH.9 ("Battlefield Lynx")
- Utility version for Army Air Corps, based on AH.7, but with wheeled undercarriage and further upgraded gearbox. Sixteen new-built plus eight converted from AH.7s.
- Lynx HAS.2 / Mk.2(FN)
- Initial production version for the Royal Navy (HAS.2) and the French Navy (Mk.2(FN)), powered by Gem 2 engines and with wheeled undercarriage, folding rotors and tail and deck harpoon. HAS.2 equipped with British Sea Spray radar, with Mk.2(FN) having French radar and dipping sonar. When it is used in the anti-submarine role, it can carry two torpedoes or depth charges. For anti-surface warfare, it is equipped with either four Sea Skua missiles (Royal Navy) or four AS.12 missiles (French Navy). 60 built for Royal Navy, and 26 for France.
- Lynx HAS.3
- Improved version of HAS.2 powered by Gem 42-1 engines and with upgraded gearbox. Thirty built from new, with deliveries starting in March 1982 and all remaining HAS.2s (53 aircraft) converted to HAS.3 standards.
- Lynx HAS.3S
- Improved version of the HAS.3 for the Royal Navy fitted with secure radio systems.
- Lynx HAS.3GM
- Modified helicopters for the Royal Navy, for service in the Persian Gulf, with improved electronic warfare equipment, revised IFF and provision for Forward looking infrared (FLIR) under fuselage. Originally deployed for 1990–91 Gulf War. Designated HAS.3S/GM when fitted with secure radios. (GM denotes Gulf Modification).
- Lynx HAS.3ICE
- HAS.3 modified for Antarctic service aboard ice patrol ship HMS Endurance. Designated HAS.3SICE when fitted with secure radios.
- Lynx HAS.3CTS
- HAS.3 upgraded with avionics system proposed for HMA.8. Seven converted as test beds.
- Lynx Mk.4(FN)
- Upgraded version for the Aéronavale, with Gem 42-1 engines. Fourteen built.
- Lynx HMA.8
- Upgraded maritime attack version based on Super Lynx 100. Gem 42-200 engines, BERP type main rotors and larger tail rotor of AH.7. Fitted with FLIR in turret above nose, with radar moved to radome below nose.
- Lynx HMA.8(DSP)
- Digital Signal Processor.
- Lynx HMA.8(DAS)
- Defensive Aids Subsystem. DSP aircraft were modified.
- Lynx HMA.8(SRU)
- SATURN (Second-generation Anti-jam Tactical UHF Radio for NATO) Radio Upgrade. DAS aircraft modified. Incorporates SIFF (Successor to IFF).
- Lynx HMA.8(CMP)
- Combined Mods Programme. SRU aircraft modified with improved communications and defensive systems.
- Note: At the time of writing, all HMA.8 aircraft have been upgraded to CMP standard and as such HMA.8(CMP) aircraft have since been re-designated back to HMA.8(SRU). The Lynx HAS.8 fleet are currently undergoing further modifications, by the Lynx Operational Support Team, to improve self-defense, mission execution and survivability. These modifications will not affect the SRU designation.
- Lynx Mk.21
- Export version of the HAS.2 for the Brazilian Navy. Brazilian navy designation SAH-11. Nine delivered.
- Super Lynx Mk.21A
- Version of the Super Lynx (based on HAS.8) for the Brazilian navy, with Gem 42 engines and 360° traverse Seaspray 3000 radar under nose. Nine new build helicopters plus upgrades of remaining five original Mk.21s.
- Lynx Mk.22
- Unbuilt export version for the Egyptian Navy.
- Lynx Mk.23
- Export version of the HAS.2 for the Argentine Navy. Two built. Grounded due to British embargo on spares following Falklands War. Single surviving helicopter later sold to Denmark. The two Lynx 23s took part in the Argentine invasion and occupation of the Falkland Island in March 1982 as part of Task Force 40, one was lost in a accident on the Santisma Trinidad on 2 May 1982.
- Lynx Mk.24
- Unbuilt export utility version for the Iraqi army.
- Lynx Mk.25
- Export version of the HAS.2 for the Royal Netherlands Navy. Designated UH-14A in Dutch service. Used for utility and SAR roles. Six built.
- Lynx Mk.26
- Unbuilt export armed version for the Iraqi army.
- Lynx Mk.27
- Export version for the Royal Netherlands Navy with 836 kW (1,120 kW) Gem 4 engines. Equipped for ASW missions with dipping sonar. Designated SH-14B in Dutch service. 10 built.
- Lynx Mk.28
- Export version of the AH.1 for the Qatar Police. Three built.
- Lynx Mk.64
- Export version of the Super Lynx for the South African Air Force.
- Lynx Mk.80
- Export version for the Royal Danish Navy based on the HAS.3 but with non-folding tail. Eight built.
- Lynx Mk.81
- Upgraded ASW version for the Royal Netherlands Navy, powered by Gem 41 engines with no sonar but fitted with towed Magnetic anomaly detector. Designated SH-14C in Dutch service, and mainly used for training and utility purposes. Eight built.
- UH-14A/SH-14B/SH-14C Lynx upgraded to a common standard by the Royal Netherlands Navy under the STAMOL programme with Gem 42 engines, provision for dipping sonar and FLIR. 22 upgraded.
- Lynx Mk.82
- Unbuilt export version for the Egyptian army.
- Lynx Mk.83
- Unbuilt export version for the Saudi Arabian army.
- Lynx Mk 84
- Unbuilt export version for the Qatar army.
- Lynx Mk 85
- Unbuilt export version for the United Arab Emirates army.
- Lynx Mk.86
- Export SAR version of the HAS.2 for the Royal Norwegian Air Force.
- Lynx Mk.87
- Embargoed export version for the Argentine navy. Two completed and sold to Denmark as Mk.90 other six not built
- Lynx Mk.88
- Export version for the German Navy with Gem 42 engines, and dipping sonar. Nineteen built. Super Lynx Mk.88A is an upgraded version with Gem 42 engines, under-nose radome with 360° traverse radar and FLIR above nose. Seven new build helicopters plus conversion of Mk.88s.
- Lynx Mk.89
- Export version of HAS.3 for the Nigerian navy. Three built.
- Lynx Mk.90
- Export version for the Royal Danish Navy, modified from embargoed Argentine Mk.87s. Lynx Mk.90A is the upgraded version. The Lynx Mk.90 and Mk.90A were upgraded to Super Lynx standard and designated Mk.90B.
- Lynx Mk.95
- Version of Super Lynx for the Portuguese Navy, with Bendix radar in undernose radome, dipping sonar but no FLIR. Three new build plus two converted ex-Royal Navy HAS.3s.
- Super Lynx Mk.99
- Version of Super Lynx for the South Korean Navy, with Seaspray 3 radar in undernose radome, dipping sonar, and FLIR, for anti-submarine and anti-ship operations. Twelve were built. Super Lynx Mk.99A is the upgraded version with improved rotor, with a further 13 built. Hulls were produced in the United Kingdom while South Korea supplied domestic ISTAR, electro-optical, electronic warfare, and fire-control systems, as well as flight control actuators and undercarriage.
- Super Lynx Mk.100
- Super Lynx for the Royal Malaysian Navy, with 990 kW (1,327 hp) CTS-800-4N engines. Six built.
- Super Lynx Mk.110
- Super Lynx 300 for Thai Navy. Four ordered.
- Super Lynx Mk.120
- Export version for the Royal Air Force of Oman. 16 built.
- Super Lynx Mk.130
- Export version for the Algerian Navy. Four ordered.
- Super Lynx 300
- Advanced Super Lynx with CTS-800-4N engines.
- Lynx HT.3
- Proposed training version for the Royal Air Force, not built.
- Enhanced Lynx variant with Westland 30 tail boom and rotor, Gem 60 engines, new wheeled tricycle undercarriage and MIL-STD-1553 databus. Only one prototype built (serial/registration ZE477 / G-17-24) in 1984.
- Battlefield Lynx
- Proposed export version of Lynx AH.9.
- Battlefield Lynx 800
- Proposed export version of Lynx AH.9 with LHTEC T800 engines, the project was suspended in 1992. One demonstrator helicopter was built and flight tested.
- Lynx ACH
- Proposed Advanced Compound Helicopter technology demonstrator, partly funded by the Ministry of Defence. Announced in May 1998, the ACH was planned to be powered by RTM322 engines with variable area exhaust nozzles and a gearbox from the Westland 30-200, have wings attached at cabin roof level and BERP rotor blades. It was predicted to fly approximately 50% faster than a standard Lynx.
- Westland 30
- medium helicopter based on the Lynx, using some dynamic systems with a new, enlarged fuselage for up to 22 passengers.
- AgustaWestland AW159 Wildcat
- a development of the Super Lynx with two LHTEC CTS800 engines; previously known as the Future Lynx.
NOTES: AH = Army Helicopter, HAS = Helicopter, Anti-Submarine, HMA = Helicopter, Maritime Attack, IFF = Identification Friend or Foe, (GM) = Gulf Modification, (S) = Secure speech radio, and SIFF = Successor to IFF.
Specifications (Super Lynx Series 100)
Data from Flight International World Aircraft and Systems Directory (3rd ed.)
- Crew: 2 or 3
- Capacity: 8 troops
- Payload: 1,480 kg  (Brochure)
- Length: 15.241 m (50 ft)
- Rotor diameter: 12.80 m (42 ft)
- Height: 3.734 m for mk7; 3.785 m for mk9 (12.25 ft for mk7; 12.41 ft for mk9)
- Disc area: 128.71 m² (1,385 ft²)
- Empty weight: 3,291 kg (7,255 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 5,330 kg (11,750 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce Gem turboshaft, 835 kW (1,120 shp) each
- Naval: 2 x torpedoes or 4x Sea Skua missiles or 2 x depth charges.
- Attack: 2 x 20mm cannons, 2 x 70mm rocket pods CRV7, 8 x TOW ATGM
- General: 7.62mm General Purpose Machine Guns (AH.7 and AH.9), Browning AN/M3M .50 calibre heavy machine gun (HAS.3 and HMA.8)
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- List of active United Kingdom military aircraft
- List of aircraft of the Army Air Corps
- List of utility helicopters
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- Penny, Stewart. "Fitter Feline". Flight International, 16–22 July 2002. pp. 92–95.
- "T800-engined Lynx set for Paris debut". Flight International, 30 January – 5 February 1991. p. 16.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Westland Lynx.|
- Super Lynx 300 page on AgustaWestland.com
- The Westland Scout, Wasp, & Lynx page on vectorsite.net
- Westland Lynx section on helis.com
- Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) rotorcraft world records page
- "Westland-Aerospatiale Lynx" a 1974 Flight article