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A lysogen or lysogenic bacterium is a bacterial cell in which a phage exists as DNA in its dormant state (prophage). A prophage is either integrated into the host bacteria's chromosome or more rarely exists as a stable plasmid within the host cell. The prophage expresses gene(s) that repress the phage's lytic action, until this repression is disrupted (see lytic cycle). Currently a variety of studies are being conducted to see whether other genes are active during lysogeny, examples of which include phage-encoded tRNA and virulence genes.