Badge of the Médaille Militaire (obverse)
|Awarded by France|
|Eligibility||Privates, NCOs, Commanders-in-chief generals and admirals|
|Awarded for||Valour in combat or long service|
|Established||January 22, 1852|
|Next (higher)||Order of Liberation|
|Next (lower)||National Order of Merit|
Ribbon of the Military Medal
The Médaille militaire (English: Military Medal) is a military decoration of the French Republic for all ranks for acts of bravery in action against an enemy force. It is officially inferior in precedence to the Légion d'honneur, but unlike the Légion it is awarded only for military service (whereas the Légion d'honneur is frequently awarded for administrative or political activities). An award of the Légion d'honneur for military activities is accompanied by an award of the Médaille militaire. The médaille can also accompany awards of the Légion d'honneur for generals and admirals who have defeated the enemy.
The Médaille militaire is a relatively commonly awarded medal. For example, half a million were awarded in World War II (in comparison, the British Military Medal was only awarded 135,000 times in its period of use from 1916 to 1993). In Commonwealth terms, the Médaille militaire indicates an act of courage roughly equivalent to a Commonwealth "mention in dispatches".
Like many other French awards, the médaille can be awarded for different reasons. It can be awarded to foreign nationals serving with or alongside the French armed forces.
- To members of the military other than commissioned officers (including enlisted ranks, non-commissioned officers and aspirants or Officer Designate).
- As an award for valour, it is the second highest award ranking immediately after the Légion d'honneur.
- As an in between medal for enlisted members, NCO and O(D) awarded the Légion d'honneur for "combat actions", nowadays mostly done posthumously.
- As a service medal, for long-serving to NCOs.
- To generals and admirals who have been commanders-in-chief, as a supreme award for leadership. These general officers must already have been awarded the grand cross of the Légion d'honneur.
The Médaille militaire is a silver laurel wreath, 28 mm (1.1 in) in diameter, wrapped around a central gold medallion bearing the left profile of Marianne, effigy of the French Republic, the original 2nd Empire variant bore the left profile of Emperor Napoleon III. The central gold medallion is surrounded by a blue enamelled ring bearing the gilt inscription "RÉPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE" (English: "FRENCH REPUBLIC") with a small gilt five-pointed star at the bottom for a 4th Republic award, three stars for a 5th Republic variant, the 3rd Republic variant bore the date 1870, the 2nd Empire variant bore the gilt inscription "LOUIS-NAPOLEON" in lieu of "RÉPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE" and had flowers on both sides of the small star at the bottom. The original variant was topped by a silver imperial eagle with a loop through which the suspension ring passed, all other variants were and are topped by a device composed of a breastplate superimposed over crossed cannons, a naval anchor, sabres, swords and battle axes, to which the suspension ring passes through a loop for attachment to a ribbon. The reverse of the medallion is common to all variants since inception of the award, it bears the relief inscription on three lines "VALEUR ET DISPLINE" (English: "VALOUR AND DISCIPLINE) and is surrounded by a blue enamelled ring.
The ribbon of the Médaille militaire is 37 mm (1.5 in) wide, yellow in color with 6 mm-wide (0.24 in) green stripes on each edge. This ribbon was borrowed from the Order of the Iron Crown which it effectively replaced in France.
to all variants
The Médaille militaire was awarded in some number to British and allied forces (allies of the French Empire) during the Crimean War of 1854-56 and in reasonably large numbers to allied forces in the 1914-18 war. During the Second World War, the Médaille reached its highest numbers of foreign bestowals, most often to members of the British Army as well as to the United States military. The general's médaille was awarded to Winston Churchill, Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Josip Broz Tito, as supreme commanders of the UK, US and Yugoslav military forces, but to also effective military leaders, such as General of the Army Dwight Eisenhower, and to Admiral of the Fleet Andrew Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope.
In addition to the individual medal, the Médaille militaire is also authorized as a unit award to those military commands who display the same criteria of bravery as would be required for the individual medal. The médaille is displayed on the flag of these units. It is one of the rarest unit awards in the French military.
This unit award should not be confused with the fourragère de la médaille militaire, which is a cord suspended from the shoulder of a military uniform worn by members of units which had been mentioned in despatches. A fourragère aux couleurs du ruban de la médaille militaire (fourragère in the colours of the ribbon of the médaille militaire) is worn by units which had been mentioned four times, a fourragère aux couleurs de la légion d'honneur et de la médaille militaire (fourragère in the colours of the ribbons of the légion d'honneur and the médaille militaire) for units mentioned twelve times. Ten American units can wear the fourragère de la médaille militaire.
Notable recipients (partial list)
The individuals listed below were recipients of the "Médaille Militaire:
- Private John Alexander VC (UK)
- Nurse and resistance fighter Berty Albrecht (posthumous)
- Marshal of France (1864) François Achille Bazaine
- World War 1 pilot Arthur Bluethenthal (USA) (posthumous)
- World War 1 African American fighter pilot Eugene Jacques Bullard
- Sergeant Louis-Ferdinand Céline
- Sergeant Eugène Chavant
- Marshal of France, Great Britain and Poland, Ferdinand Foch
- Prime Minister Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (UK)
- USMC Sergeant Major Daniel Joseph "Dan" Daly (USA)
- Private Herman Davis (USA)
- First sergeant Samuel "Sam" Dreben (USA)
- President Dwight D. Eisenhower (USA)
- Corporal François Faber (posthumous)
- Colonel René Paul Fonck
- Corporal Edward Foster VC (UK)
- Russian flying ace Viktor Georgiyevich Fyodorov
- Jean Gabin
- Police prefect Louis Lépine
- Capitaine Georges Felix Madon
- World War 2 fighter ace Paul-Joseph de Montgolfier
- Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (UK)
- Norwegian Crown Prince and Chief of Defence Olav V
- Corporal Thomas A. Pope (USA)
- Father of the French Air Force, General Pierre Auguste Roques
- President Franklin D. Roosevelt (USA) (posthumous)
- Marshal Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain
- Master corporal Pierre-Auguste Sarrus
- Master corporal Pierre Schoendoerffer
- Partisan leader and Prime Minister Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Médaille militaire.|
- Battini, Jean; Zaniewicki, Witold (2003). Guide pratique des décorations françaises actuelles. Paris: LAVAUZELLE. pp. 51–58. ISBN 2-7025-1030-2.
- "List of recipients of the Médaille militaire compiled from en.Wikipedia". English Wikipedia. Retrieved 2012-06-24.
- "Bluethenthal, Arthur "Bluey"". Jewsinsports.org. Retrieved December 22, 2010.
- Joseph Siegman (2000). Jewish sports legends: the International Jewish Hall of Fame. Brassey's. ISBN 1-57488-284-8. Retrieved December 22, 2010.
- Also awarded the U.S. Medal of Honor, the British Distinguished Conduct Medal, and the Croix de guerre for bravery displayed in Hamel, France.
- France Phaléristique (in French)