M-80 (explosive)

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For other uses, see M80.
Standard M-80 firecrackers

M-80s are a class of large firecrackers, sometimes called salutes.[1] The Simulator, Artillery, M80 was originally made in the early 20th century by the U.S. military to simulate explosives or artillery fire;[2] later, M-80s were manufactured as fireworks. Traditionally, M-80s were made from a small cardboard tube, often red, approximately 1 12 inches (3.8 cm) long and 916 inch (1.4 cm) inside diameter, with a fuse or wick coming out of the side; this type fuse is commonly known as cannon fuse or Visco fuse, after a company responsible for standardizing the product. The tubes often hold approximately 2½–3 grams of pyrotechnic flash powder; one source states that an M-80 has at least 3 grams of powder.[3] Some contain 5 grams or more.

Legality[edit]

Canada[edit]

M-80s are not authorized under the law, thus making importation, possession, transportation, storage or manufacturing illegal in Canada.[4]

Germany[edit]

In Germany there is a military hand grenade simulator called "DM22" containing about 5g of flash powder. It is the successor to the "DM12" which contained ~16g flash powder but was considered too dangerous years ago (bangers available for the general public in Germany are not allowed to contain flash powder, only black powder). For comparison, the Quarter stick contains ~35 grams of powder.

United States[edit]

Due to property damages and bodily harm caused by M-80s, Class C fireworks—now known as consumer fireworks (class 1.4G), as opposed to display fireworks (which were Class B, and are now 1.3G)[5]— civilians are no longer allowed to carry a pyrotechnic device containing more than 50 milligrams of pyrotechnic flash powder. In 1966, M-80s and cherry bombs were banned by the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) and the Child Protection Act of 1966. Furthermore, they were then made illegal by the ATF (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives) in the 1970s. In 1975, U.S. federal regulations were passed to limit all consumer-grade fireworks in the United States to a maximum of 50 milligrams flash powder, down from a previous maximum of 200 milligrams (though firecrackers mounted onto a rocket stick, or other aerial firework devices, such as Rockets, Roman Candles, and Cakes, may have up to 130 mg).

M-80s can still be legally manufactured in the United States by those holding a federal explosives license. Federal and state officials sometimes distribute them to farmers to scare away wildlife encroaching on their crops.[6]

While there are currently many firecrackers sold legally in the United States today to consumers under names such as "M-80 Firecracker", "M-8000", or "M-##" (where ## is a number), none of these contain more than 50 mg of flash powder, and the name is just a lure to make consumers think they are more powerful than they are.[7] These firecrackers most commonly have a small capsule with up to 50 mg of powder and a fuse in it. Surrounding the capsule is plaster or a similar material, and finally a red tube and two plastic endcaps. Because of the size of these firecrackers, buyers are occasionally deceived into thinking that the entire tube is full. Also the fuse, at times, protrudes from the ends of these firecrackers, as opposed to the middle of the tube in real M-80s. Genuine M-80s have paper endcaps, and contain 50–60 times more powder. (Contrary to urban legend, an M-80 that contains 3,000 mg of powder is not equivalent to a quarter-stick of dynamite. Dynamite generally contains a stable nitroglycerin based high explosive, whereas M-80s or any other kind of firecracker contains a low explosive powder, like flash powder or black powder.)[6] Some illicits, however, contain(ed), or were reported to contain, small amounts of picric acid (similar to TNT), for greater effect.

M-80s containing the full original explosive charge continue to be manufactured, bought, and used illegally in the United States. However, in many other countries where regulations are less stringent, large firecrackers such as the M-80 and its equivalents continue to be legally produced, sold, and used. Note that despite their destructive potential, the M-80 being classified as an explosive is debatable. They produce varying strengths of shock waves. As a result, several governments have classified such large salutes as explosive devices.

Czech Republic[edit]

In the Czech Republic there is a military cannon simulator known as Delova Rana. A Delova rana can contain up to 70 grams of flash powder. They are approved for civilian use even though they pose many safety hazards. A common consumer Delova rana is the Delova Rana Profi which contains 45 grams of flash powder.

Accidents[edit]

Numerous injuries accompanied M-80 use during the 1950s and 1960s, and still occur, as M-80s are still produced and sold. Despite instructions to only ignite the product on the ground (many M-80s even have the words "do not hold in hand" written on the tube[1]), many users attempt to light an M-80 while holding it, intending to throw it before it explodes. Others attempt to relight a device that went out. Due to their illicit nature, M-80s may also contain unstable compositions, such as picric acid, nitroglycerin or chlorate/sulfur mixtures, which adds to the possibility of injury. There have been documented cases of users losing their fingers or hands.[8] Peter Criss, the drummer for the rock band Kiss, was a victim of an M-80 during a 1976 Richmond Coliseum concert when a fan threw an M-80 onto the stage, nearly knocking him off his drum riser and leaving him with partial hearing loss for the remainder of the night.[clarification needed][9] In 1983, an explosion at a secret unlicensed fireworks factory producing M-80 and M-100 fireworks near Benton, Tennessee killed eleven, injured one, and inflicted damage within a radius of several miles.[10] The operation was by far the largest and most successful illegal fireworks operation, and the initial blast, heard as far away as fifteen miles from the site, was arguably the largest fireworks explosion ever documented.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Fireworks Glossary: S". Retrieved 2006-07-06. 
  2. ^ United States Army Field Manual No. 3.23-30, Grenades and Pyrotechnic Signals, Chapter 5-5d, September 2003. M for military and 80 for volume equal to 80 grains of ordnance gunpowder (known today as "black powder"). Black powder as used in muzzle-loading rifles and pistols is still measured by "flapjack" in grains. Eighty grains would be an appropriate charge for deer hunting with a 50-caliber rifle.
  3. ^ "M80s: The Big Illicit Bang," Wall Street Journal, Weekend Journal Section, July 3–5, 2009, p. W12
  4. ^ Authorization Guidelines for Consumer and Display Fireworks
  5. ^ "Report of the Committee on Pyrotechnics, NFPA Great to throw in metal garbage cans" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  6. ^ a b "M-80s: The Big, Illicit Bang," The Wall Street Journal, July 3–5, 2009, p. W12
  7. ^ Bradley, Colin. "About M-80s". Retrieved 2006-07-06. 
  8. ^ Greene, Michael A. and Joholske, James (June 2005). 2004 Fireworks Annual Report: Fireworks-Related Deaths, Emergency Department-Treated Injuries, and Enforcement Activities During 2004 (PDF). Retrieved 2006-07-06. 
  9. ^ Gooch, Curt; Suhs, Jeff (2002). KISS Alive Forever: The Complete Touring History. Billboard Books. p. 69. ISBN 0-8230-8322-5. 
  10. ^ a b "Fireworks suspect charged with deaths". news.google.com. The Spokesman-Review. May 30, 1983. Retrieved April 19, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

  • John Donner, A Professional's Guide to Pyrotechnics: Understanding and Making Exploding Fireworks, Paladin Press, 1997.