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A Serbian Army M-84
|Type||Main battle tank|
|Place of origin||Yugoslavia|
|In service||1985 – present|
|Used by|| Croatia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
|Designer||Military Technical Institute Belgrade|
|Designed||1979 - 1983|
|Produced||1984 - 1991 Yugoslavia d 1996-2003 Croatia|
|Crew||3 (commander, gunner, driver)|
|Armor||composite alloy; including high-hardness steel, tungsten and plastic filler with ceramic component.|
|125 mm 2A46 smoothbore gun|
|7.62 mm coaxial machine gun, 12.7mm anti-aircraft gun, 5 smoke grenade lanuchers|
1,000 hp (746 kW)
|Fuel capacity||1200 + 400l|
Development and production
The M-84 is based on the Soviet T-72 but with several modifications, including a domestic fire-control system, improved composite armor, and a 1000-hp engine. The M-84 entered service with the Yugoslav People's Army in 1984. The improved M-84A version entered service a few years later.
There were about 240 Yugoslav factories which directly participated in the production of the M-84 and about 1,000 others which participated indirectly. The main factories were:
In the late 1980s, a project for a successor tank called the M-91 Vihor (Whirlwind) was started. Unlike the M-84, the Vihor was not a copy of a Soviet tank, but a completely new design heavily influenced by its predecessor. Two prototypes were created by 1991. One was completely finished, but the factory, located in Croatia, refused to deliver it to the Yugoslav People's Army. The second prototype only had its body completed. Due to the disintegration of Yugoslavia, the M-91 project was paused until the end of the war in Croatia. After 1994, the second tank body was fitted with a new turret and the entire project was renamed Croatian main battle tank M-95 Degman. The M-95 Degman is still in prototype/experimental/technological-testbed phase.
Croatia also created an M-84D Degman upgrade package for the M-84. The Croatian army planned to upgrade all of its 75 M-84 tanks to the M-84D revision, but due to the economical crisis the upgrade was postponed.
The latest Serbian version of the M-84 is the M-84AS, unveiled in 2004. It features a new fire control system, Kontakt-5 ERA armor, AT-11 Sniper anti-tank missiles, Agava-2 thermal sight, and the Shtora defensive suite. It is very similar to the Russian T-90S, both in appearance and in capability.
About 150 M-84 tanks were exported to Kuwait. The disintegration of Yugoslavia in the 1990s prevented further exports of the M-84.
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The M-84A is armed with a 125 mm smooth bore cannon. The gas cylinder positioned in the middle of the barrel is shielded with a thermal coating that minimizes deformation of the barrel from high temperatures and ensures it is cooled at the same rate during rapid firing. The M-84 uses an automatic loader, which enables it to sustain a firing rate of 8 rounds per minute.
The cannon's ammunition is stowed underneath the turret (40 rounds) within the hull of the tank. This concept was inherited from the original Soviet design for T-72 and is both a strength and weakness of the tank. While the lower hull beneath the turret is one of the least likely place to be hit and penetrated by antitank rounds or mines, it also means, that in the event of penetration and secondary detonation of the ammunition, the crew and tank are unlikely to survive the resulting catastrophic explosion. This weakness was exploited by Croatian soldiers in the Croatian War of Independence to the detriment of the Yugoslav People's Army's tank crews. In later stages of the conflict, losses were reduced by adjusting and improving tactics.
Along with its primary armament, the M-84 is also armed with one 7.62mm coaxial machine gun, and one 12.7mm anti-aircraft gun mounted on the commander's turret.
All versions of the M-84 have a crew of three. The commander sits on the right side of the turret, the gunner on the left, and the driver sits centrally at the front end of the vehicle. Like most Soviet derived vehicles, the M-84 series of tanks do not have a manual loader, due to the tank's autoloader system.
The armor of the M-84AS tank consists of cylindrical pad, high-hardness steel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum as well as modular Kontakt-5 reactive armor plates. The basic tank has a cast steel turrent with maximal thickness of 410mm, later in the M84A version a segment out of a non-metal was sandwiched between layers of steel. The glacis uses laminate armor, glass in plastic resin between two steel plates, in the A version an 16mm steel plate was welded on the glacis.
Twelve smoke grenades are positioned in front of the turret in banks of five and seven grenades. Thermal imaging and infrared guidance are positioned on the top-right side of the turret. The M-84 has a search light used in short-range combat situations.
The M-84 tank has nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection capabilities.
The base M-84 engine is a 12-cylinder water-cooled V46-6 diesel engine, rated at 574 kW (780 hp). The improved M-84A has a more powerful, V46-TK 735 kW (1,000 hp) engine. With maximum fuel capacity (1,200 litres) the tank's range is 450 km, and with external fuel tanks, this range can be extended to 650 km.
The Croatian-made variants have enhanced power plants. The M-84A4 Sniper model has a German-built 820 kW (1,100 hp) engine, while the M-84D has an 895 kW (1,200 hp) engine, the most powerful of all M-84 variants. The M-84D also has greater fuel capacity (1,450 litres).
The tank can ford 1.2 meters of water at any time, or up to 5 meters with a snorkel.
M-84 (Yugoslavia) - The initial version based on the Soviet T-72M and produced between 1984 and 1987. Less than 150 units manufactured.
- M-84A (Yugoslavia) - An upgraded version similar to the Soviet T-72M1 but with a significantly more powerful engine and additional armour plating. It comes with the new SUV-M-84 computerized fire-control system, including the DNNS-2 gunner's day/night sight, with independent stabilization in two planes and integral laser rangefinder. It also comes with the TNP-160 periscope, TNPA-65 auxiliary periscope, and DNKS-2 day/night commander's periscopes, as well as the TNPO-168V driver's periscope. Produced between 1988 and 1991, closely analogous to the M-84AB. Roughly 450 vehicles manufactured including the M-84AB.
- M-84AB (Yugoslavia) - Kuwaiti version of the M-84A. Additionally, the M-84AB is fitted with new communication and intercom systems. The Kuwaiti 35th ash-shahid (Martyr's) Armoured Brigade, armed with several dozen M-84ABs, took part in Operation Desert Storm. During the fighting, only two M-84ABs were lost, but both were later recovered. Kuwait originally ordered over 200 tanks but received only 150 before the break-up of Yugoslavia and the resulting end of production.
- M-84ABN (Yugoslavia) - The M-84AB fitted with land navigation equipment.
- M-84ABK command tank (Yugoslavia) - The M-84AB fitted with extensive communication equipment, land navigation equipment, and a generator for the command role.
- M-84A4 Sniper (Croatia) - This version includes the all-new SCS-84 day/night sight, DBR-84 ballistic computer and improved elevation and traverse sensors. Croatia purchased around 40 of these models from 1996 till 2003 from its domestic factory. As rumored, these tanks have a different engine of German origin, rated at 1,100 hp instead of the 1,000 hp powerplant originally installed, but this information has never been officially confirmed. A Racal communication suite also replaced the older communication set. As of 2008[update], the entire Croatian M-84 tank fleet was upgraded to the M-84A4 standard.
- M-84AI armored recovery vehicle (Yugoslavia and Poland) - During the mid-1990s Kuwait requested an armored recovery vehicle variant of the M-84A tank as part of the deal to buy a large batch of M-84A tanks. The vehicle had to be developed in very short time so it was decided that it should be based on an already working foreign vehicle rather than designed and built independently. The Polish WTZ-3 license was bought and Polish parts were used in the M-84AI project completed in the factory "14 October" in Kruševac. There was also a plan for a M-84ABI for Kuwait, but this idea failed. It is armed only with a 12.7mm machine-gun fitted to the commander's hatch and 12 smoke grenade mortars (8 right and 4 left). Standard equipment includes: A TD-50 crane, front-mounted stabilizing dozer blade, main and secondary winches.
- M-84AS (Serbia) - This is the latest upgrade package of the M-84A in the Serbian Army. Adding a new fire control system, new armor consisting of cylindrical pad, high-hardness steel, titanium, aluminum, and NERA as well as modular Kontakt-5 armor, new AT-11 Sniper and Agava-2 thermal sights, and the Shtora defense suite. The first public appearance of the M-84AS was in July 2004 at the Nikinci military base. It appeared to be very similar to the Russian T-90S, both in appearance and in capability. The differences reportedly consist of better armor on the T-90S, whereas the M-84AS has superior maneuverability. The M-84AS was also tested by Kuwaiti Army as part of an international tender, but a bid by a Turkish company was selected instead. It can also survive multiple hits at relatively close ranges from ATGMs or other hits from tanks. New thermal imaging cameras were mounted for the commander and driver so that the tank can operate at night. It is fitted with the 125 mm 2A46M smooth bore gun and a 1,200 hp diesel engine giving a maximum speed of 72 km/h. In addition, there were a number of undisclosed Arab countries that are interested in the purchase of the M-84AS.
- M-84D (Croatia) - This variant brings existing M-84 variants to the M-84D standard, equipped with a new 1,200 hp (895 Kw) engine and new RRAK ERA armor. The M-84D is equipped with a Rafael - Samson Remote Controlled Weapon Station, and a new Omega ballistic computer (Slovenian Fotona-made digital ballistic computer). The M-84D has an electric cupola, which means it can fire at two targets at once. It has a new SDZ defense system, which has the capability to protect the crew from biological, chemical and nuclear strikes. The M-84D is also equipped with new thermal imaging that is able to see at night, through fog, in shade, and during a storm. A new Racal communication system was also installed, which now comes as standard on all new M84D and M84A4 tanks. Diehl, the German firm which supplies track for the Leopard 2 is also supplying tracks for the Croatian M-84D and M-84A4 tanks. The M-84A4 and M-84D have an operational range of 700 km and a maximum speed of 65 km/h.The M-84D has also a 15% faster auto loader, meaning 9 shells per minute instead of 8 shells per minute. The M-84D is a second version of the upgraded tanks.It has also chains on the back of the tank to protect the engine and has SLAT armor around the ammunition to prevent an ATG or a shell from hitting it. M-84D received few additional upgrades, Turret basket was added to provide extra space for extra ammunition and to provide increased armor protection. Turret basket has additional slat armor, which adds additional armor to the exterior of the tank. M84D and M84A4 are to receive 12.7mm Kongsberg Protector Remote Weapon Stations which are to be integrated on to all M84D and M84A4 tanks. M-84D will also feature LIRD-4B - Laser irradiation detector and warner and LAHAT anti tank missiles. There is a potential for integration of Swiss 120 mm compact gun developed by RUAG. This option is being now seriously considered as this would allow Croatia to use NATO 120 m standard ammunition. 120 mm RUAG compact gun is a preferred option over German Rheinmetall L44 120 mm cannon which is more expensive and would require German support, whereas RUAG will provide technical know how and technology transfer to Đuro Đaković specijalna vozila d.d.. Only two Croatian tanks have been upgraded to this standard due to budgetary restraints.
Prior to the Gulf War, Kuwait ordered 170 M-84ABs, 15 M-84ABI ARVs and 15 M-84ABK command tanks, from Yugoslavia. Four M-84A tanks were delivered, however the Iraqi Army soon captured them after the occupation. Further deliveries were stopped for the duration of the war. The Kuwaiti 35th Al-Shaheed Armored Brigade was equipped with 70 M-84s. During the retaking of the country, the 35th Brigade did not directly take part in battles with Iraqi tanks because of the M-84s alikeliness to Iraqi T-72/Asad Babils. The M-84 was however very effective against T-62s and T-55s but some unconfirmed reports claim that a few of them were damaged, but recovered and repaired.
During the Ten-Day War, the Yugoslav People's Army (YPA) attempted to regain control over border crossings, airports and other strategic positions in Slovenia. The Slovenian Territorial Defence had no armored units of its own, as such YPA M-84s were commonly used to break through barricades. The YPA lost some 20 M-84s to insurgent tactics. Slovenia inherited all the M-84s within its territory, once the ceasefire and Slovenia's independence was accepted.
The M-84 saw action in the Battle of Vukovar, where the YPA deployed large columns of main battle tanks in urban areas without the adequate support of the infantry. Tanks and APCs found themselves extremely exposed and suffered significant losses mainly to RPGs.
During the Bosnian War, M-84s saw little action; the mainstay of all three warring parties was the T-55. At the beginning of war, YPA units located in Bosnia and Herzegovina had passed their equipment to the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS). The VRS had several dozen M-84s with the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina managing to capture only three M-84s. A number of M-84 tanks were used during the Siege of Sarajevo, as well during smaller localized conflicts.
The number of M-84 tanks destroyed during the Bosnian war is unknown.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (July 2011)|
- Bosnian Army is equipped with 16 M-84 MBTs. In 2008, at least 50 operational tanks were withdrawn from active service due to financial reasons.
- Croatian Army is equipped with 78 M-84A MBTs upgraded to M-84A4 Sniper standard by 2008 and awaiting further upgrade.
- Kuwaiti Army is equipped with 149 M-84AB MBTs in M-84AB, M-84ABK and M-84ABN versions bought prior to Operation Desert Storm from Yugoslavia.
- 35th Shahid (Martyr's) Armoured Brigade equipped with 70 M-84s.
- The Serbian Army operates 212 M-84s and M-84A's.
- 15th Tank Battalion
- 26th Tank Battalion
- 36th Tank Battalion
- 46th Tank Battalion
- The Slovenian Army has 54 M-84 tanks in its fleet. Most of them were modernized to the M-84A4 Sniper standard but only 13 remain fully operational.
- Tracked Combat Vehicles Centre equipped with 13 M-84 tanks.
- The Yugoslav People's Army operated about 450 M-84s in M-84 and M-84A versions. The M-84 was intended to fully replace the T-34, M4 Sherman and M47 Patton tanks then held in storage as well as some of the older T-55 units. Most JNA tanks were passed to the successor state - FR Yugoslavia, while a number was also captured by Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia in the war.
- 1st Armored Brigade of 14th Corps at Vrhnika.
- 4th Armored Brigade of 10th Corps at Jastrebarsko.
- 211th Armored Brigade of 21st Corps at Niš.
- 252nd Armored Brigade of 37th Corps at Kraljevo
- 329th Armored Brigade of 5th Corps at Banja Luka
- 51st Armored Brigade of 24th Corps at Pančevo.
- 243rd Armored Brigade of 41st Corps from Skopje.
- 265th Armored Brigade of 32nd Corps at Varaždin.
- Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
- Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
- First M-84 tanks operated by Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina were captured in 1992 near Doboj.
- 1st Tesanjska Brigade, operated 3 M-84s.
- Republika Srpska
- The Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) operated about 65 M-84s. Since the VRS was integrated into the Armed Forces of Bosnia-Herzegovina the fate of the remaining M-84s is unknown.
- Republic of Serbian Krajina
- Military of Serbian Krajina was equipped with some 31 M-84s.
- 2nd Armored Brigade operated 31 M-84s.
- Related developments
- Designation sequence
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