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Anantanarayanan was born on Madras on 1 May 1907 and had his schooling at Sir M. Ct. Muthiah High School and the Hindu High School. He did his graduation at the Presidency College, Madras and post-graduation at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.
Anantanarayanan joined the Indian civil service on 15 October 1929 and served as Sub-Collector and Joint Magistrate in various districts of the Madras Presidency. He became a District Judge on 8 March 1940 and was appointed to the Madras High Court on 10 August 1959. Anantanarayanan served as Chief Justice of Tamil Nadu from 1966 till his retirement on 1 May 1969. Anantanarayanan also served as Director of Legal Studies, Madras from 1955 to 1959.
Anantanarayanan died on 18 November 1981 at his son's residency in Bombay.