M30-Apoptosense ELISA

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M30 Apoptosense ELISA is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed for the detection of soluble caspase-cleaved keratin 18 (ccK18, K18-Asp396, formerly cytokeratin 18, ccCK18 or CK18-Asp396).

History[edit]

The M30 Apoptosense ELISA is a PEVIVA product owned by VLVbio (Bromma, Sweden) and was developed in collaboration with the Karolinska Institute in 2000.

Distributors:

Uses[edit]

The M30 Apoptosense ELISA is a non-invasive test for the detection of apoptosis of epithelially derived cells. Caspases are activated in apoptotic cells and cleave intracellular protein substrates. K18 is one such substrate, expressed by many epithelial cells (e.g. hepatocytes, intestinal cells). Cleaved K18 is released into the circulation after cell death. The main uses of M30 Apoptosense ELISA are to:

  1. Measure apoptosis of tumor cells in response to cytotoxic drugs (breast, prostate and other forms of carcinomas).[1][2]
  2. Measure hepatocyte apoptosis to aid the diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and steatosis in patients with hepatitis C virus infection.[3][4]
  3. Serve as a biomarkers of epithelial apoptosis in liver and intestinal graft-versus-host disease.[5]

Biology[edit]

Caspases cleave keratin 18 at two sites during apoptosis. Cleavage at Asp396 generates a neo-epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody M30.[6] This antibody does not recognize uncleaved K18 and is therefore specific for apoptotic epithelial cells. M30 Apoptosense ELISA utilizes a second monoclonal antibody (M5) which recognizes an epitope N-terminal from the M30 epitope.

M30 Apoptosense ELISA can be combined with the M65 ELISA (Peviva, VLVbio) to determine cell death mode (apoptosis versus necrosis).[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kramer G et al. (2004). "Differentiation between Cell Death Modes using Measurements of Different Soluble Forms of Extracellular Cytokeratin 18". Cancer Research 64 (5): 1751–1756. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.can-03-2455. PMID 14996736. 
  2. ^ Hägg Olofsson M et al. (2007). "Cytokeratin-18 is a useful serum biomarker for early determination of response of breast carcinomas to chemotherapy.". Clin Cancer Res 13 (11): 3198–3206. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-0009. PMID 17545523. 
  3. ^ Bantel H et al. (2004). "Detection of apoptotic caspase activation in sera from patients with chronic HCV infection is associated with fibrotic liver injury.". Hepatology 40: 1078–87. doi:10.1002/hep.20411. PMID 15486927. 
  4. ^ Feldstein AE et al. (2009). "Cytokeratin-18 fragment levels as noninvasive biomarkers for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a multicenter validation study.". Hepatology 50: 1072–8. doi:10.1002/hep.23050. PMC 2757511. PMID 19585618. 
  5. ^ Luft T et al. (2007). "Serum cytokeratin-18 fragments as quantitative markers of epithelial apoptosis in liver and intestinal graft-versus-host disease.". Blood 110 (13): 4535–42. doi:10.1182/blood-2006-10-049817. PMID 17702900. 
  6. ^ Leers M et al. (1999). "Immunocytochemical detection and mapping of a cytokeratin 18 neo-epitope exposed during early apoptosis.". J Pathol 187 (5): 567–72. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9896(199904)187:5<567::AID-PATH288>3.0.CO;2-J. PMID 10398123. 
  7. ^ Kramer G et al. (2004). "Differentiation between Cell Death Modes using Measurements of Different Soluble Forms of Extracellular Cytokeratin 18". Cancer Research 64 (5): 1751–1756. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.can-03-2455. PMID 14996736. 

External links[edit]