||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (April 2014)|
MAC-10 (.45 ACP) with suppressor and without magazine.
|Place of origin||United States|
|Used by||See Users|
War on Terror
|Designer||Gordon B. Ingram|
|Manufacturer||Military Armament Corporation|
|Weight||2.84 kg (6.26 pounds) empty w/o suppressor|
|Length||269 mm (10.7 inches) with stock removed
295 mm (11.6 inches) with stock retracted
548 mm (1 foot 9.6 inches) with stock extended
545 mm (1 foot 9.45 inches) with stock retracted w/suppressor
798 mm (2 feet 7.4 inches) with stock extended w/suppressor
|Barrel length||146 mm (4.49 inches)|
|Cartridge||.45 ACP (11.43x23mm)
|Rate of fire||1,090 rounds/min (9mm)
1,145 rounds/min (.45 ACP)
|Muzzle velocity||366 m/s (1,201 ft/s) for 9mm
280 m/s (919 ft/s) for .45 ACP
|Effective firing range||50 m (.45 ACP)
70 m (9×19mm Parabellum)
|Maximum firing range||100 m (for .45 ACP)|
|Feed system||30-round detachable box magazine (.45 ACP)
32-round detachable box magazine (9mm)
The MAC-10 (Military Armament Corporation Model 10, officially the M-10) is a compact, blowback operated machine pistol developed by Gordon B. Ingram in 1964. It is chambered in either 45 ACP or 9mm. A two-stage suppressor by Sionics, was designed for the MAC-10, which not only abated the noise created, but made it easier to control on full automatic.
The M-10 was built predominantly from steel stampings. A notched cocking handle protrudes from the top of the receiver, and by turning the handle 90° would lock the bolt, and act as an indicator that the weapon is unable to fire. The M-10 has a telescoping bolt, which wraps around the barrel. This allows a more compact weapon, and balances the weight of the weapon over the pistol grip where the magazine is located. The M-10 fires from an open bolt, and the light weight of the bolt results in a rapid rate of fire. In addition, this design incorporates a built in feed ramp as part of the trigger guard (a new concept at the time) and to save on cost the magazine was recycled from the M3 Grease Gun. The barrel is threaded to accept a suppressor, which worked by reducing the discharge's sound, without attempting to reduce the velocity of the bullet. At the suggestion of the United States Army, it also acted as a foregrip to inhibit muzzle rise when fired. Ingram added a small bracket with a small strap beneath the muzzle to aid in controlling recoil during fully automatic fire. The original rate of fire for the M-10 in .45 is approximately 1090 rpm. That of the M11/nine 9mm is approximately 1250 rpm, and that of the M11 .380 is 1380 rpm.
The primary reason for the original M-10 finding recognition was its revolutionary sound suppressor designed by Mitchell Werbell III of Sionics. This suppressor had a two-stage design, with the first stage being larger than the second. This uniquely shaped suppressor gave the MAC-10 a very distinctive look. It was also very quiet, to the point that the bolt could be heard cycling, along with the suppressed report of the weapon's discharge; however, only if subsonic rounds were used. The suppressor when used with a Nomex cover created a place to hold the firearm with the secondary hand, making it easier to control. During the 1970s the United States placed restrictions on the exportation of suppressors, and a number of countries canceled their orders of M-10s as the effectiveness of the MAC-10's suppressor was one of its main selling points. This was one factor that led to the bankruptcy of Military Armament Corporation, another being the company's failure to recognize the private market. The original Sionics suppressor is 11.44 inches in length, 2.13 inches in overall diameter, and weighs 1.20 pounds.
The term "MAC-10" is commonly used, but unofficial, parlance. Military Armament Corporation never used the nomenclature MAC-10 on any of its catalogs or sales literature, but because "MAC-10" became so frequently used by Title II dealers, gun writers, and collectors, it is now used more frequently than "M10" to identify the gun.
Calibers and variants
While the original M-10 was available chambered for either .45 ACP or 9mm, the M-10 is part of a series of machine pistols, the others being: the MAC-11 / M-11A1 semi, which is a scaled down version of the M-10 chambered in .380 ACP; and the M-11/9, which is a modified version of the M-11 with a longer receiver chambered in 9mm, later made by SWD (Sylvia and Wayne Daniel), Leinad and Vulcan Armament.
In the United States, machineguns are NFA items. As Military Armament Corporation was in bankruptcy large number of incomplete sheet metal frame flats were given serial numbers then bought by a new company, RPB industries. Some of the previously completed guns (already stamped MAC), were stamped on the other side RPB - thus making a 'double stamp' gun.
RPB Industries made many open-bolt semi-automatic and sub-machine guns before the ATF seized roughly 200 open bolt semi autos during the drug wars of 1981. ATF insisted that all future semiautomatic versions were to be manufactured with a closed-bolt design as the open-bolt semiautomatics were considered too easy to illegally convert to full automatic operation.
Wayne Daniel, a former RPB machine operator, purchased much of their remaining inventory and formed SWD, designing a new weapon which was more balanced, available either fully or semi-automatic with his new ATF approved closed bolt design. This design is still present today.
There are several carbine versions of the M-11/9 and Cobray and SWD manufactured a smaller version chambered in .380 ACP as a semiautomatic pistol called the M-12.
Accessories and aftermarket items
Lage Manufacturing makes a variant, called "MAX" uppers. The company is based in Chandler, Arizona. The "MAX" upper can reduce the original rate of fire to about 600 RPM (.45 ACP) and 700 RPM (9x19mm). The upper adds a picatinny optic rail, a side cocking charging handle, and a forend.
Lage Manufacturing is currently marketing a drop-in .22LR caliber conversion upper variant for the M11-A and Max-11.
Alliance Armament is making slowfire uppers that accept unmodified Suomi 36 round stick magazines, 50 round coffin mags, and 71 round drum magazines. They also produce a 7.62x25 PPSh-41 compatible conversion for the upper, which based on the low cost and high power of the round, should become very popular, especially with subgun competitors.
Besides Military Armament Corporation, MAC-10s and MAC-10 parts have been produced by RPB Industries as well as complete guns. Another company was Leatherwood Texas MAC, Cobray Company/SWD/Leinad, Jersey Arms Works, MasterPiece Arms, Section Five Firearms  and Vulcan (Velocity Arms, V-series).
1994 Assault weapons ban in the US
Due to its menacing appearance and the reputation the open-bolt version gathered before the 1982 open-bolt ban, the semi-auto civilian version of the MAC-10, which operates differently than its military counterpart, became a target of the 1994 Assault Weapons Ban. The ban enacted various requirements which defined an assault weapon. Not only was the MAC-10 named directly in the ban, it failed two of the requirements: 1. A semi-auto version of an automatic firearm. And 2: A manufactured weight of 50 ounces or more when the pistol is unloaded. The imposed weight limit was 50oz (1.4 kg), which the MAC-10 exceeded with its weight of 100.16oz (2.84 kg).
Additionally, the firearm had a threaded barrel to allow installation of a suppressor, and the magazine capacity was thirty two rounds. In response, Wayne Daniel redesigned the M-11 to no longer accept the suppressor, and created a new magazine release that would only allow ten round magazines as the 1994 Assault Weapons Ban mandated. The new firearm was called the PM11/9.
Foreign copies and derivatives
The BXP is 9 mm submachine gun developed in the mid-1980s by the South African company Mechem (currently a division of Denel, formerly under ARMSCOR) and brought into production in 1984. Due to international arms embargoes of Apartheid South Africa, the country was forced to design and manufacture their own weapons. The weapon was intended for use by security forces. The manufacturing rights shifted from hand to hand several times during the years, passing from Mechem to Milkor Marketing and later to Truvelo Armoury, the current manufacturer (as for 2009).
The Cobra carbine is a semi-automatic firearm of Rhodesian origin manufactured during the Bush War Era as a self-defense weapon for farmers and is chambered for the Parabellum round. The layout of this weapon is somewhat based on the Uzi submachine gun.
Patria submachine gun
The Pistola Ametralladora Patria is a close copy of the MAC-10 and features a cooling jacket/barrel extension much like the South African BXP. The P.TO. country was developed for the major of the Air Force Argentina, Luis Ricardo Dávila, and protected by national Patent n° 220494/5/6/7 on 20/08/1980. It uses 9mm caliber rounds for easy transportation, and can be operated in either hand.
The Enarm MSM/SMG was a submachine gun of Brazilian origin based on the Uzi and MAC-10 weapons. It was chambered in the 9x19mm Parabellum round and also came with a foregrip. Although the weapon performed well in trials, it was discontinued due to financial reasons.
- Dominican Republic
- Saudi Arabia
- Spain: Used by various police forces.
- United Kingdom: Used by the SAS.
- United States: Was used by special forces, including LRRPs and Navy SEALs, in the Vietnam War.
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