Mobile ad hoc network
Each device in a MANET is free to move independently in any direction, and will therefore change its links to other devices frequently. Each must forward traffic unrelated to its own use, and therefore be a router. The primary challenge in building a MANET is equipping each device to continuously maintain the information required to properly route traffic. Such networks may operate by themselves or may be connected to the larger Internet. They may contain one or multiple and different transceivers between nodes. This results in a highly dynamic, autonomous topology.
MANETs are a kind of Wireless ad hoc network that usually has a routable networking environment on top of a Link Layer ad hoc network. MANETs consist of a peer-to-peer, self-forming, self-healing network in contrast to a mesh network has a central controller (to determine, optimize, and distribute the routing table). MANETs circa 2000-2015 typically communicate at radio frequencies (30 MHz - 5 GHz).
Multi-hop relays date back to at least 500 BC. The growth of laptops and 802.11/Wi-Fi wireless networking have made MANETs a popular research topic since the mid-1990s. Many academic papers evaluate protocols and their abilities, assuming varying degrees of mobility within a bounded space, usually with all nodes within a few hops of each other. Different protocols are then evaluated based on measures such as the packet drop rate, the overhead introduced by the routing protocol, end-to-end packet delays, network throughput, ability to scale, etc.
- Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are used for communication among vehicles and between vehicles and roadside equipment. Intelligent vehicular ad hoc networks (InVANETs) are a kind of artificial intelligence that helps vehicles to behave in intelligent manners during vehicle-to-vehicle collisions, accidents, drunken driving etc.
- Smart Phone Ad hoc Networks (SPANs) leverage the existing hardware (primarily Bluetooth and Wi-Fi) in commercially available smart phones to create peer-to-peer networks without relying on cellular carrier networks, wireless access points, or traditional network infrastructure. SPANs differ from traditional hub and spoke networks, such as Wi-Fi Direct, in that they support multi-hop relays and there is no notion of a group leader so peers can join and leave at will without destroying the network.
- Internet based mobile ad hoc networks (iMANETs) are ad hoc networks that link mobile nodes and fixed Internet-gateway nodes. For example, multiple sub-MANETs may be connected by in a classic Hub-Spoke VPN to create a geographically distributed MANET. In such type of networks normal ad hoc routing algorithms don't apply directly.
- Military / Tactical MANETs are used by military units with emphasis on security, range, and integration with existing systems. Common waveforms include the US Army's SRW, Harris's ANW2 and HNW, Persistent Systems' Wave Relay, Trellisware's TSM and Silvus Technologies' StreamCaster.
- A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is an ad-hoc network but an ad-hoc network is not necessarily a MANET.
Data monitoring and mining
MANETS can be used for facilitating the collection of sensor data for data mining for a variety of applications such as air pollution monitoring and different types of architectures can be used for such applications. It should be noted that a key characteristic of such applications is that nearby sensor nodes monitoring an environmental feature typically register similar values. This kind of data redundancy due to the spatial correlation between sensor observations inspires the techniques for in-network data aggregation and mining. By measuring the spatial correlation between data sampled by different sensors, a wide class of specialized algorithms can be developed to develop more efficient spatial data mining algorithms as well as more efficient routing strategies. Also, researchers have developed performance models for MANET by applying queueing theory.
A lot of research has been done in the past but the most significant contributions have been the PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) and trust based security. None of the protocols have made a decent trade off between security and performance. In an attempt to enhance security in MANETs many researchers have suggested and implemented new improvements to the protocols and some of them have suggested new protocols.
These attacks on MANETs challenge the mobile infrastructure in which nodes can join and leave easily with dynamics requests without a static path of routing. Schematics of various attacks as described by Al-Shakib Khan  on individual layer are as under:
- Application Layer: Malicious code, Repudiation
- Transport Layer: Session hijacking, Flooding
- Network Layer: Sybil, Flooding, Black Hole, Grey Hole. Worm Hole, Link Spoofing, Link Withholding, Location disclosure etc.
- Data Link/MAC: Malicious Behavior, Selfish Behavior, Active, Passive, Internal External
- Physical: Interference, Traffic Jamming, Eavesdropping.
- AmbientTalk, an experimental programming language for MANETs
- List of ad hoc routing protocols
- Delay-tolerant networking
- Wireless community network
- Wireless mesh network
- Backpressure Routing
- Data Mining
- Wireless Sensor Networks
- Tomas Krag and Sebastian Büettrich (2004-01-24). "Wireless Mesh Networking". O'Reilly Wireless Dev Center. Retrieved 2009-01-20.
- Ma, Y.; Richards, M.; Ghanem, M.; Guo, Y.; Hassard, J. (2008). "Air Pollution Monitoring and Mining Based on Sensor Grid in London". Sensors 8 (6): 3601. doi:10.3390/s8063601.
- Ma, Y.; Guo, Y.; Tian, X.; Ghanem, M. (2011). "Distributed Clustering-Based Aggregation Algorithm for Spatial Correlated Sensor Networks". IEEE Sensors Journal 11 (3): 641. doi:10.1109/JSEN.2010.2056916.
- Kleinrock, Leonard (1975). "Packet Switching in Radio Channels: Part I--Carrier Sense Multiple-Access Modes and Their Throughput-Delay Characteristics".
- Shi, Zhefu; Beard, Cory; Mitchell, Ken (2008). "Tunable traffic control for multihop CSMA networks".
Mobile ad hoc social network (Overview):
- Abdul Shabbir, Anasuri Sunil Kumar (January 2012). "An Efficient Authentication Protocol for Security in MANETs". IJCCT 3 (1): 71–74.
- Kahn, R. E. (January 1977). "The Organization of Computer Resources into a Packet Radio Network". IEEE Transactions on Communications. COM-25 (1): 169–178.
- Jubin, J., and Tornow, J. D. (January 1987). "The DARPA Packet Radio Network Protocols". Proceedings of the IEEE 75 (1).
- N. Schacham and J. Westcott (January 1987). "Future directions in packet radio architectures and protocols". Proceedings of the IEEE 75 (1): 83–99. doi:10.1109/PROC.1987.13707.
Ad hoc network papers (overview):
- Royer, E., Chai Keong Toh (April 1999). "A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks". IEEE Personal Communications 6 (2): 46–55. doi:10.1109/98.760423.
- Mauve, M., Widmer, J., Hartenstein, H. (December 2001). "A Survey on Position-Based Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks". IEEE Network 1 (6): 30–39. doi:10.1109/65.967595.
- D. Djenouri, L. Kheladi, N. Badache. (4th quarter 2005). "A Survey of Security Issues in Mobile Ad hoc and Sensor Networks". IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials 7 (4). Check date values in:
- Maihöfer, C. (2nd quarter 2004). "A Survey on Geocast Routing Protocols". IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials 6 (2). Check date values in:
- Aneja, Nagender and Gambhir, Sapna (2013). "Ad-hoc-Social-Network-A-Comprehensive-Survey". IJSER.
- IETF MANET group
- NIST MANET and Sensor Network Security project
- Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Bibliography
- Hybrid Ad Hoc Mesh Networks in Military
- IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Society – for VANETs
- Smart Multi-Grid Wifi Mesh: Integrated wifi mesh network provides metering, traffic safety, wifi access to communities in US.