MAX Light Rail
|MAX Light Rail|
|Locale||Portland metropolitan area, Oregon|
|Transit type||Light rail|
|Number of lines||4|
|Number of stations||87|
|Daily ridership||130,000 (avg. weekday boardings, FY2012)|
|Began operation||September 5, 1986|
|System length||52.4 mi (84.3 km)|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) (standard gauge)|
MAX Light Rail, or Metropolitan Area Express, is a light rail system consisting of four separate lines (Blue, Green, Red, and Yellow lines) serving 87 stations in the Portland metropolitan area in Oregon. The system, which has an average daily weekday ridership between 125,000 and 135,000, is owned and operated by TriMet and began service in 1986.
Since its inception about $3 billion has been invested in light rail in Portland (as of 2004).
Early system history 
In the mid-1970s, TriMet (or Tri-Met, as it was known until 2002) began a study for light rail using funds intended for the cancelled Mount Hood Freeway. The light rail project was known as the Banfield Light Rail Project, named for the freeway (I-84) that part of the alignment followed. The TriMet board approved the project in September 1978.
Construction of the 15-mile (24 km) route started in 1982, and the system opened on September 5, 1986. Of the project's total cost of $214 million, 83 percent was funded by the federal Urban Mass Transportation Administration (now known as the Federal Transit Administration). Less than two months before the opening, TriMet adopted the name Metropolitan Area Express, or MAX, for the new system following an employee contest.
As planning of a second light rail line, to the west side, gained momentum in the late 1980s, the MAX line came to be referred to as the Eastside MAX line, so as to distinguish it from the Westside MAX project. The 18-mile (29 km) Westside line, to Beaverton and Hillsboro, began construction in 1993 and opened in 1998. Except for a few rush-hour trips, all trips on the now-two light rail lines were connected in downtown. The resulting 33-mile (53 km) east-west line has always been operated as a single, through route, and it became known as the Blue Line in 2001, after TriMet adopted color designations for its separate light rail routes.
Current system 
The MAX system currently consists of four lines, each designated by a color.
- Blue Line: Hillsboro – City Center – Gresham
- Green Line: Clackamas – City Center – Portland State University
- Red Line: Portland International Airport – City Center – Beaverton
- Yellow Line: Expo Center – City Center – Portland State University
The MAX system was built in a series of five separate projects, and each line runs over one or more of the previously opened segments. The use of colors to distinguish the separately operated routes was first adopted in 2000 and brought into use in 2001. The 2004-opened Yellow Line originally followed the same routing in downtown Portland as the Red and Blue lines, along First Avenue, Morrison Street and Yamhill Street, but it was shifted to a new alignment along the Portland Transit Mall on August 30, 2009, introducing light rail service along the Mall. The Green Line began serving the Mall on September 12, 2009.
The system currently has a total of 87 stations. 51 stations are served by the Blue Line, 28 stations by the Green Line, 29 by the Red Line, and 22 by the Yellow Line, with 40 stations served by two or more lines and 8 by three. The system's central stations are at Pioneer Courthouse Square, on the Portland Transit Mall. All four lines pass through the Rose Quarter and cross the Steel Bridge.
The trains operate on direct current and utilize two voltages, 750V DC nominal on sections west of NE 9th Avenue & Holladay Street and 825V DC nominal on the remainder. The two systems are electrically isolated.
After the Yellow Line was rerouted to the Portland Transit Mall, the Steel Bridge consists of the only portion of the MAX Light Rail system that is shared by all four lines.
Trains run every 15 minutes from early in the morning Monday through Friday until late at night, while weekends consists of every 18 minutes. The Blue Line runs every 10 minutes during rush hour. Headways between trains are shorter in the central section of the system, where lines overlap. Actual schedules vary by location and time of day. At many stations, a live readerboard shows the destination and time-to-arrival of the next several trains, using data gathered by a vehicle tracking system.
In addition to regular MAX service, the Portland Vintage Trolley runs along the Portland Mall MAX tracks on some Sundays, serving the same stops. From 1991 until 2009, the vintage trolley service followed a section of the original MAX line, between the Galleria/Library stations and Lloyd Center, but in September 2009 the service moved to the newly opened MAX alignment along the transit mall, running from Union Station to Portland State University.
MAX uses a proof-of-payment system; riders must carry a receipt at all times. Fares are purchased before boarding, and receipt is retained as proof of paid fare. Passengers must board the train before the receipt's expiration, and are allowed to ride past the time on the receipt, provided the train was boarded before the expiration time. Receipts are good for 2 hours after purchase, and can be used an unlimited number of times, for travel in any direction, as well as for buses, Portland Streetcar, and C-Tran. From 1986 until 2012, TriMet's fare system was zonal, or distance-based, with higher fares for longer rides, and three fare zones (five until 1988). However, in September 2012 the agency discontinued all use of fare zones.
MAX fares (as of September 1, 2012) are:
- Adult: $2.50 (valid for any ride within time-stamp)
- Youth: $1.65 (ages 7–17 and students in high school or pursuing a GED). Must show proof of age or student status if asked.
- Honored Citizen: $1 (persons 65 years of age or older, or disabled)
- LIFT Paratransit: $2.15
- Children under 7: Free when accompanied by fare-paying passenger
- Day Passes (valid until the end of service, circa 2:30 a.m., but not 24 hours):
- Adult $5
- Youth: $3.30
- Honored Citizen: $2
Seven-day, 14-day and 30-day passes are available for each category of passenger. One-month passes are available from TriMet ticket outlets, but as of September 2012, the ticket-vending machines at MAX stations issue 30-day passes instead of one-month passes, with the period of validity starting on the day of purchase, rather than the beginning of a calendar month.
Transfer receipts from buses are also valid fare on MAX, provided they have not expired before boarding, and MAX tickets are valid on bus routes, under the same condition. On the Portland Streetcar system, a new streetcar-only ticket priced at $1 was introduced in September 2012, and this ticket and a similar streetcar-only annual pass are not valid on MAX or on TriMet buses, but all other Portland Streetcar tickets are valid on MAX. The ticket-vending machines on board the streetcars are equipped to issue TriMet-compatible tickets, as well as streetcar-only tickets.
Until 2012, riding was free in Fareless Square, which included all of downtown and part of the Lloyd District, but the 37-year-old fare-free zone was discontinued on September 1, 2012, as part of systemwide cost-cutting measures.
|Segment description||Date opened||Line(s)||Endpoints||# of new
|Eastside (Banfield)||September 5, 1986||All Lines||Cleveland Avenue to Library/Galleria/SW 9th/10th||31||15.1|
|Westside||September 12, 1998||Blue, Red||Hatfield Government Center to Library/Galleria/SW 9th/10th||20||17.6|
|Airport||September 10, 2001||Red||Portland International Airport to Gateway TC||4||5.6|
|Interstate Avenue||May 1, 2004||Yellow||Expo Center to Rose Quarter TC||10||5.8|
|Portland Transit Mall||August 30, 2009||Green, Yellow||Portland State University to Steel Bridge west approach||14 (7 per direction)||1.8|
|I-205||September 12, 2009||Green||Clackamas Town Center to Gateway TC||8||6.5|
Under construction 
- Downtown Portland – Milwaukie (PSU South/SW Jackson Street – SE Park Avenue)
- Projected opening: 2015; length: 7.3 miles (11.7 km); stations: 10 
- Route: From downtown Portland to Milwaukie either as the MAX Orange Line (starting at Union Station and running via the Transit Mall) or as an extension of the MAX Yellow Line, and following a combination of SE 17th Avenue, McLoughlin Blvd., and Union Pacific Railroad (formerly Southern Pacific) rail line corridor.
Proposed lines and extensions 
- Yellow Line Extension to Vancouver, WA (Expo Center - Marshall Center/Clark College)
- Projected opening: 2019 length: 2.9 miles (4.7 km); Stations: 5
- Route: From Expo Center to Clark College in Vancouver. This Yellow Line extension would serve Hayden Island and Vancouver, and initial planning for it is taking place in conjunction with the Columbia River Crossing project. Tracks in Vancouver would be laid out as a northbound and southbound couplet on Broadway and Washington, respectively. This couplet would merge onto 17th before terminating at Clark College. As of February 2010, it was projected that construction could begin in 2014 for the Washington segment, 2015 for the Oregon segment, if the project is approved.
Other extensions 
- TriMet has indicated that additional extensions have been studied or discussed with Metro and cities in the region. These proposed extensions include the following, with light rail being considered along with other alternatives:
General description 
In parts of the MAX system, particularly in central Portland and Hillsboro, MAX trains run on surface streets. Except for on the Portland Transit Mall, trains run in reserved lanes closed to other motorized vehicles. On the Transit Mall, trains operate on the same lanes as TriMet buses (although MAX trains have traffic priority). Elsewhere, MAX runs within its own exclusive right-of-way, in street medians, alongside freeways, and on former freight railroad lines.
Where the tracks run along a street, intersections are generally controlled by traffic signals which give trains preemption. Where the tracks occupy a completely separate right-of-way, level crossings are protected by automatic crossing gates giving trains the right-of-way. A three-mile (4.8 km) section consists of two tunnels below Washington Park. While this section has only one station, it is 260 feet (79 m) below ground level, making it the deepest transit station in North America and one of the deepest in the world.
Because of Portland's relatively small 200-foot (61 m) downtown blocks, trains operate with only one or two cars. The MAX cars are about 90 feet (27.4 m) long, so a stopped train consisting of more than two cars would block intersections. All service is typically operated with two-car trains, except for certain trips during late-night hours. During the first few years of Red Line and Yellow Line service, those lines normally used single cars on a portion of their service, but as ridership has grown and additional light rail cars have been acquired, those lines now normally use all two-car trains. The 2009-introduced MAX Mall Shuttle, which provided supplementary service along the Portland Transit Mall on weekday afternoons only, normally always used a single car; it was discontinued in June 2011.
Rolling stock 
There are currently four models of MAX cars, designated by TriMet as "Type 1", "Type 2" and so on.
The Type 1 cars were manufactured by a joint venture between La Brugeoise et Nivelles and Bombardier Corporation before the latter acquired the former, and featured a raised floor with steps at the doors. These cars are based on a La Brugeoise et Nivelles design used in Rio de Janeiro Line Line 2 The first car was completed at the factory in late 1983 and arrived in Portland in 1984.
With the partial opening of Westside MAX in 1997, new cars made by Siemens and called Type 2 by TriMet were introduced. These cars have a low-floor design, a first for light rail cars in North America, digital readerboards and a slightly more open floor plan. The floor is nearly level with the platforms, and small ramps called "bridge plates" extend (on request) from two of the four doors, enabling passengers in wheelchairs to roll on and off of the car easily. These permitted the elimination of wheelchair lifts that had been located at every station and were time-consuming to use. Type 1 cars are now always paired with a Type 2 or 3 car so that each train is wheelchair-accessible.
The first low-floor light rail car was delivered in 1996 and the type was first used in service on August 31, 1997. The new cars also came equipped with air-conditioning, a feature originally lacking from the Type 1 cars, but TriMet later retrofitted air-conditioning to all of the older MAX cars, in 1997–98. The initial order of 39 Type 2 cars was expanded, in stages, eventually to a total of 52 cars.
The Type 3 cars are essentially identical to the Type 2 cars in design, but have TriMet's new paint scheme. They began to enter service in fall 2003, but were not in use in large numbers until the opening of the Interstate Avenue MAX line in 2004, which was the reason for their acquisition. They include automatic passenger counters which are located above the doorways, using photoelectric sensors.
In 2001–02, TriMet modified the interior of the Type 2 cars to add space for bicycles. Eight seats per car were removed and replaced—in four places per car—with hooks from which a bicycle can be hung. The Type 3 cars carried this newer layout as built.
Twenty-two new Siemens S70 vehicles, designated Type 4 cars, were purchased in conjunction with the I-205 and Portland Mall MAX projects. They feature a more streamlined design than previous models, have more seating and are lighter in weight and therefore more energy-efficient. At about 95 feet (28.96 m) long, they are about three feet longer than Type 2 and Type 3 cars, which were 92 feet (28.04 m). The Type 4 MAX cars began to enter service in August 2009. All four different types of cars are used on all four MAX lines.
For the new Orange Line (under construction), TriMet placed an order with Siemens in April 2012 for another 18 S70 cars, the same model as the Type 4. These are expected to include some minor modifications, such as improved interior seating. The agency has designated them Type 5, and their fleet numbers are planned to be 521–538. (The numbers 511–514 are already in use for TriMet's Vintage Trolley cars.) They are scheduled to be delivered in 2014–15.
The Type 1, 2 and 3 cars have destination signs of the roll-type, whereas the signs in the Type 4 cars are LED-type. In the rollsigns, the designated route color (blue, green, red or yellow) is shown as a colored background under white (or black) text in the display, while in the LED signs the route color is indicated by a colored square at the left end of the display, and all text is orange lettering against a black background.
|Designation||Car numbers||Manufacturer||Model No.||First used||No. of Seats/
Notes on capacities:
- The capacities given are for a single car; a two-car train has double the capacity.
- The Type 2 cars originally had 72 seats, but eight seats were later removed, to make space for bicycles.
- All of these capacity figures are based on "normal" loading conditions (defined as 4 standing passengers per square meter by industry standards); under so-called "crush" loading conditions (6-8 standees per m2), all of these cars are capable of carrying many more passengers than stated here.
See also 
- List of tram and light-rail transit systems
- Mount Hood Freeway
- Portland Streetcar
- Transportation in Portland, Oregon
- Westside Express Service
- "June 2012 Monthly Performance Report" (PDF). TriMet. p. 1. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- "Record ridership for MAX and WES in May". TriMet. June 13, 2011. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- Ozawa, Connie P., ed. (2004). The Portland Edge: Challenges and Successes in Growing Communities. Island Press. p. 19. ISBN 1-55963-695-5.
- Hortsch, Dan (September 27, 1978). "Tri-Met board votes to back Banfield light-rail project". The Oregonian, p. F1.
- Federman, Stan (March 27, 1982). "At ground-breaking: Festivities herald transitway". The Oregonian, p. A12.
- Koberstein, Paul (September 7, 1986). "Riders swamp light rail as buses go half-full and schedules go by the way". The Oregonian, p. A1.
- Federman, Stan (September 5, 1986). "All aboard! MAX on track; ride free". The Oregonian, p. A1.
- Tri-Met (July 25, 1986). Light rail name announced. Press release.
- Anderson, Jennifer (May 5, 2006). "Stumptown Stumper". Portland Tribune. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- Stewart, Bill (September 21, 2000). "Local colors roll out: Tri-Met designates the Blue, Red and Yellow lines". The Oregonian.
- "TriMet - MAX Blue Line". TriMet. Retrieved 2008-11-02.
- "TriMet - MAX Green Line". TriMet. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- "TriMet - MAX Red Line". TriMet. Retrieved 2008-11-02.
- "TriMet - MAX Yellow Line". TriMet. Retrieved 2008-11-02.
- Morgan, Steve (1st quarter, 2010). "Expansion for Portland's MAX: New routes and equipment". Passenger Train Journal (White River Productions, Inc.) 2010 (1): 38–40.
- "New MAX line opens downtown". Portland Tribune. August 28, 2009. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- "One Breakpoint is Enough: Traction Power Simulation in Portland" (PDF). Transportation Research Board. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- "Vintage Trolley Schedule". Portland Vintage Trolley website. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- Bailey Jr., Everton (August 30, 2012). "TriMet boosts most fares starting Saturday; some routes changing". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- "One-month pass". TriMet. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- Mayer, James (August 2, 2012). "New streetcar fares explained". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- "Streetcar Fares". Portland Streetcar Inc. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- "Portland-Milwaukie Light Rail Project Fact Sheet" (PDF). TriMet. December 2011. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
- "Columbia River Crossing information packet". ODOT, WSDOT. February 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-05.
- "Transit Investment Plan FY 2012". TriMet. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Rivera, Dylan (September 5, 2009). "MAX Green Line signals decades of rail growth". The Oregonian. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- "Westside Light Rail MAX Blue Line extension (fact sheet)". TriMet. November 2009. Retrieved January 23, 2011.
- Rose, Joseph (June 3, 2011). "TriMet will make several seasonal bus line adjustments Sunday". The Oregonian. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- "‘Roomy, good-looking’ light-rail cars please Tri-Met official" (November 27, 1983). The Sunday Oregonian, p. B5.
- "First car for light rail delivered" (April 11, 1984). The Oregonian, p. C4.
- Oliver, Gordon (April 15, 1993). "Tri-Met prepares to purchase 37 low-floor light-rail cars". The Oregonian, p. D4.
- Vantuono, William C. (July 1993). "Tri-Met goes low-floor: Portland's Tri-Met has broken new ground with a procurement of low-floor light rail vehicles. The cars will be North America's first low-floor LRVs." Railway Age, pp. 49–51.
- O'Keefe, Mark (September 1, 1997). "New MAX cars smooth the way for wheelchairs". The Oregonian, p. B12.
- Oliver, Gordon (August 1, 1996). "MAX takes keys to cool new model". The Oregonian, p. D1.
- Oliver, Gordon (September 26, 1997). "Tri-Met expands light-rail car order". The Oregonian, p. B6.
- Stewart, Bill (August 20, 2001). "MAX will add racks for bikes, not bags". The Oregonian.
- "MAX: The Next Generation". TriMet. Archived from the original on March 4, 2009. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- Redden, Jim (August 6, 2009). "TriMet puts new light-rail cars on track". Portland Tribune. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- Rose, Joseph (July 31, 2012). "TriMet asks cramped MAX riders to help design next-generation train's seating". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- Tramways & Urban Transit magazine, June 2012, p. 235. UK: LRTA Publishing. ISSN 1460-8324.
- "Glossary section, Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 2nd Edition (TCRP Report 100)" (PDF). Transportation Research Board. October 2003. pp. 9 ("car weight designations"). Retrieved 2009-06-16.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: MAX light rail|
- TriMet's MAX pages
- MAX Light Rail at nycsubway.org
- Puget Sound Transportation Projects - Portland MAX
- Railway Technology - Portland MAX Light Rail