Training programs 
In the United States, MD-PhD (or PhD-MD) degrees can be obtained through dual-degree programs offered at some medical schools. The idea for an integrated training program began at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in 1956 and quickly spread to other research medical schools. In 1964, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) developed a grant to underwrite some universities' MD-PhD programs. This funding was distributed through the Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP). While the MSTP-designation is a very prestigious recognition, there are still many non-MSTP dual-degree programs.
Admission to a dual degree program is not a requirement to receive MD and PhD degrees. An individual has the option to complete each degree separately through single-degree programs. However, the student is responsible for all medical school tuition and does not receive a stipend during their MD education. Furthermore, since the PhD training is not streamlined with the medical training, students will usually take an additional 3–5 years to complete their PhD.
A PhD may also be obtained by physicians during the residency training period. This combined research and graduate-level medical education are offered by a small minority of residency programs. This additional education typically extends the residency period by three to four years.
Training structure 
Upon matriculating in an MD-PhD program, students will often follow a 2-3-2 or 2-4-2 plan. In this system, students will complete the pre-clinical curriculum of their medical school (2 years), transition into PhD graduate training (3–4 years), and then finally complete clinical rotations (2 years). Some students may elect to approach their training with alternate plan, but this is rare and often prohibited by administrators.
Upon receiving the MD-PhD dual degree, physician-scientists may choose a variety of career paths. The most common continues to be residency training with additional laboratory training. This paradigm allows for the true physician-scientist career of developing therapies in the laboratory that can be taken seamlessly into the clinic to directly benefit patients. However, a physician-scientists may also elect to refuse residency training, thereby having a career essentially akin to a conventional PhD scientist. A physician-scientist may also elect to work in the private sector with no further formal academic clinical nor research training.
Benefits of the dual degree 
Financial compensation 
Most MD-PhD programs (all MSTPs) cover all medical school tuition, provide a stipend, and cover health insurance expenses. This allows MD-PhD students to maintain financial-equality to their MD-only counterparts who can earn their full clinical salary sooner but also have to pay off large loans.
Residency programs 
Candidates with MD-PhD dual degrees are favorably looked upon in University-based residencies that encourage research electives.
Career paths 
The vast majority (over 80%) of MD-PhD graduates eventually choose to enter academia, government, or industry where medical research is a central component of their duties. According to a FASEB study conducted in 2000, graduates of NIH-funded MSTPs make up just 2.5% of medical school graduates each year, but after graduation, account for about one third of all NIH research grants awarded to physicians. Many MD-PhD graduates also practice clinical medicine in their field of expertise.
Famous people 
- Barry Blumberg - Recipient of the 1976 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Daniel Gajdusek for their work on the human prion disease kuru
- Francis Collins - Director of the National Institutes of Health and former leader of the Human Genome Project
- Alfred G. Gilman - Recipient of the 1994 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Martin Rodbell for their discoveries regarding G-proteins
- Vilayanur S. Ramachandran - Renowned neuroscientist known for his work in the fields of behavioral neurology and visual psychophysics
- David Satcher - 16th Surgeon General of the United States
Notes and references 
- "CWRU Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP)". cwru.edu. Retrieved 2012-06-20.
- Ley TJ, Rosenberg LE (2005). "The physician-scientist career pipeline in 2005: build it, and they will come". JAMA 294 (11): 1343–51. doi:10.1001/jama.294.11.1343. PMID 16174692.
- Zemlo TR, Garrison HH, Partridge NC, Ley TJ (2000). "The physician-scientist: career issues and challenges at the year 2000". FASEB J 14 (2): 221–30. PMID 10657979.
See also 
- Medical Scientist Training Program
- Tri-Institutional MD–PhD Program
- Biomedical scientist
- MD-MPH - Combined Doctor of Medicine and Master of Public Health
- MD-MBA - Combined Doctor of Medicine and Master of Business Administration
- Association of American Medical Colleges
- American Physician Scientists Association
- MD-PhD Degree Programs by US State
- American Physician Scientists Association
- Guidebook for prospective MSTP or MD-PhD students written by students, but with no citations.
- The MD-PhD: An Academic Path to a Career as a Physician-Scientist
- MD-PhD programmes in Switzerland