MON 863 is a genetically engineered variety of maize produced by Monsanto.
In 2004 Monsanto sought approval in Europe to introduce MON 863. Approval was granted in 2005 for use in feed and in 2006 for use in food. There was controversy over acceptance by regulatory bodies of industry-funded toxicity studies and over the design of those studies led by Pr Gilles Eric Séralini, who was on the committee that reviewed MON863 for the French government,
See Genetically modified food controversies for details of this controversy, which extended beyond MON 863.
Following legal action by parties including the Swedish Board of Agriculture and Greenpeace, a Münster appeals court ruled that Monsanto would be forced to publicly reveal its research data.
Modified mechanisms 
MON 863 is genetically altered to express a modified version of Cry3Bb1, a delta endotoxin which originates from Bacillus thuringiensis. This protects the plant from corn rootworm. Unlike MON 810, Bt 11, and Bt 176 which each produce a modified Cry1Ab, MON 863 instead produces a modified Cry3Bb1 toxin and contains nptII, a marker gene for antibiotic resistance.
Legal status 
MON 863 is approved for use in Australia, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States.
See also 
- ^ Staff (8 August 2005) concerning the placing on the market, in accordance with Directive 2001/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, of a maize product (Zea mays L., line MON 863) genetically modified for resistance to corn rootworm Commission of the European Communities, Offical Journal, Retrieved 17 November 2012
- ^ Staff (13 January 2006) concerning the placing on the market, in accordance with Directive 2001/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, of a maize product (Zea mays L., line MON 863) genetically modified for resistance to corn rootworm and in 2006 in food Commission of the European Communities, Offical Journal, Retrieved 17 November 2012
- ^ Seralini bio on CRIIGEN
- ^ Reilly, Michael (2010-01-23). "Is Genetically Modified Corn Toxic?". Discovery News. Retrieved 2010-07-21.
- ^ a b "The MON863 case - a chronicle of systematic deception" (PDF). Greenpeace. Retrieved 2010-07-22. "MON863 is a genetically modified corn that expresses a Bt-toxin. This toxin is a modified version of the delta endotoxin Cry3Bb1 which originates from the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis. The genetic manipulation is aimed at protecting maize plants against a pest called corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.). MON863 differs from other Bt-corns already placed on the market (MON810, BT11, Bt176), which produce a modified Cry1Ab toxin conferring resistance to a pest called European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), in that it produces an artificial Cry3Bb1 toxin. In addition to the modified Cry3Bb1 toxin gene MON863 contains an antibiotic resistance marker gene."
- ^ a b Doull, J.; Gaylor, D.; Greim, H.A.; Lovell, D.P.; Lynch, B.; Munro, I.C. (2007). "Report of an Expert Panel on the reanalysis by of a 90-day study conducted by Monsanto in support of the safety of a genetically modified corn variety (MON 863)". Food and Chemical Toxicology 45 (11): 2073–85. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.08.033. PMID 17900781.
- ^ Coghlan, Andy (2010-01-22). "Engineered maize toxicity claims roundly rebuffed". New Scientist. Retrieved 2010-07-21.
- ^ Lorch, Antje (2005-09-30). "EFSA’s Opinion on MON863 hybrids" (PDF). ifrik. Greenpeace. Retrieved 2010-07-22. "MON863 contains an GM antibiotic resistance gene (nptII) against kanamycin and neomycin."
- ^ "Technical & Safety Information - Focus on MON 863 / YieldGard Rootworm". Monsanto. Retrieved 2010-07-22. "Based on these reviews, this maize has been authorized for planting in the United States and Canada since 2003 and is additionally approved for import and food use in many countries around the world, including Japan, Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Australia/New Zealand, China, Russia, Singapore, Mexico and the European Union."
- ^ Staff Focus on MON 863 / YieldGard® Rootworm Monsanto Consume, Technical And Safety Information, Accessed 5 April 2012