In 2004, Monsanto sought approval in Europe to introduce MON 863. Approval was granted in 2005 for use in feed and in 2006 for use in food. There was controversy over acceptance by regulatory bodies of industry-funded toxicity studies and over the design of those studies led by Pr Gilles-Éric Séralini, who was on the committee that reviewed MON863 for the French government,
^ ab"The MON863 case - a chronicle of systematic deception" (PDF). Greenpeace. Retrieved 2010-07-22. MON863 is a genetically modified corn that expresses a Bt-toxin. This toxin is a modified version of the delta endotoxin Cry3Bb1 which originates from the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis. The genetic manipulation is aimed at protecting maize plants against a pest called corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.). MON863 differs from other Bt-corns already placed on the market (MON810, BT11, Bt176), which produce a modified Cry1Ab toxin conferring resistance to a pest called European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), in that it produces an artificial Cry3Bb1 toxin. In addition to the modified Cry3Bb1 toxin gene MON863 contains an antibiotic resistance marker gene.