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MRE11 meiotic recombination 11 homolog A (S. cerevisiae)
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols MRE11A ; ATLD; HNGS1; MRE11; MRE11B
External IDs OMIM600814 MGI1100512 HomoloGene4083 GeneCards: MRE11A Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE MRE11A 205395 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 4361 17535
Ensembl ENSG00000020922 ENSMUSG00000031928
UniProt P49959 Q61216
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_005590 NM_018736
RefSeq (protein) NP_005581 NP_061206
Location (UCSC) Chr 11:
94.15 – 94.23 Mb
Chr 9:
14.78 – 14.84 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Double-strand break repair protein MRE11A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRE11A gene.[1]


This gene encodes a nuclear protein involved in homologous recombination, telomere length maintenance, and DNA double-strand break repair. By itself, the protein has 3' to 5' exonuclease activity and endonuclease activity. The protein forms a complex with the RAD50 homolog; this complex is required for nonhomologous joining of DNA ends and possesses increased single-stranded DNA endonuclease and 3' to 5' exonuclease activities. In conjunction with a DNA ligase, this protein promotes the joining of noncomplementary ends in vitro using short homologies near the ends of the DNA fragments. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 3. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms.[2]

Orthologs of MRE11A[edit]

Mre11, an ortholog of human MRE11A, occurs in the prokaryote archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.[3] In this organism the Mre11 protein interacts with the Rad50 protein and appears to have an active role in the repair of DNA damages experimentally introduced by gamma radiation.[3] Similarly, during meiosis in the eukaryotic protist Tetrahymena Mre11 is required for repair of DNA damages, in this case double-strand breaks,[4] by a process that likely involves homologous recombination. These observations suggest that human MRE11A is descended from prokaryotic and protist ancestral Mre11 proteins that served a role in early processes for repairing DNA damage.


MRE11A has been shown to interact with:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Petrini JH, Walsh ME, DiMare C, Chen XN, Korenberg JR, Weaver DT (February 1996). "Isolation and characterization of the human MRE11 homologue". Genomics 29 (1): 80–6. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1217. PMID 8530104. 
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: MRE11A MRE11 meiotic recombination 11 homolog A (S. cerevisiae)". 
  3. ^ a b Quaiser A, Constantinesco F, White MF, Forterre P, Elie C (2008). "The Mre11 protein interacts with both Rad50 and the HerA bipolar helicase and is recruited to DNA following gamma irradiation in the archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius". BMC Mol. Biol. 9: 25. doi:10.1186/1471-2199-9-25. PMC 2288612. PMID 18294364. 
  4. ^ Lukaszewicz A, Howard-Till RA, Novatchkova M, Mochizuki K, Loidl J (October 2010). "MRE11 and COM1/SAE2 are required for double-strand break repair and efficient chromosome pairing during meiosis of the protist Tetrahymena". Chromosoma 119 (5): 505–18. doi:10.1007/s00412-010-0274-9. PMID 20422424. 
  5. ^ Kim ST, Lim DS, Canman CE, Kastan MB (1999). "Substrate specificities and identification of putative substrates of ATM kinase family members". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (53): 37538–43. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.53.37538. PMID 10608806. 
  6. ^ a b c d Wang Y, Cortez D, Yazdi P, Neff N, Elledge SJ, Qin J (2000). "BASC, a super complex of BRCA1-associated proteins involved in the recognition and repair of aberrant DNA structures". Genes Dev. 14 (8): 927–39. PMC 316544. PMID 10783165. 
  7. ^ a b Chiba N, Parvin JD (2001). "Redistribution of BRCA1 among four different protein complexes following replication blockage". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (42): 38549–54. doi:10.1074/jbc.M105227200. PMID 11504724. 
  8. ^ Paull TT, Cortez D, Bowers B, Elledge SJ, Gellert M (2001). "Direct DNA binding by Brca1". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (11): 6086–91. doi:10.1073/pnas.111125998. PMC 33426. PMID 11353843. 
  9. ^ Zhong Q, Chen CF, Li S, Chen Y, Wang CC, Xiao J, Chen PL, Sharp ZD, Lee WH (1999). "Association of BRCA1 with the hRad50-hMre11-p95 complex and the DNA damage response". Science 285 (5428): 747–50. doi:10.1126/science.285.5428.747. PMID 10426999. 
  10. ^ a b Goedecke W, Eijpe M, Offenberg HH, van Aalderen M, Heyting C (1999). "Mre11 and Ku70 interact in somatic cells, but are differentially expressed in early meiosis". Nat. Genet. 23 (2): 194–8. doi:10.1038/13821. PMID 10508516. 
  11. ^ Xu X, Stern DF (2003). "NFBD1/MDC1 regulates ionizing radiation-induced focus formation by DNA checkpoint signaling and repair factors". FASEB J. 17 (13): 1842–8. doi:10.1096/fj.03-0310com. PMID 14519663. 
  12. ^ a b Trujillo KM, Yuan SS, Lee EY, Sung P (1998). "Nuclease activities in a complex of human recombination and DNA repair factors Rad50, Mre11, and p95". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (34): 21447–50. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.34.21447. PMID 9705271. 
  13. ^ Cerosaletti KM, Concannon P (2003). "Nibrin forkhead-associated domain and breast cancer C-terminal domain are both required for nuclear focus formation and phosphorylation". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (24): 21944–51. doi:10.1074/jbc.M211689200. PMID 12679336. 
  14. ^ Matsuzaki K, Shinohara A, Shinohara M (2008). "Forkhead-associated domain of yeast Xrs2, a homolog of human Nbs1, promotes nonhomologous end joining through interaction with a ligase IV partner protein, Lif1". Genetics 179 (1): 213–25. doi:10.1534/genetics.107.079236. PMC 2390601. PMID 18458108. 
  15. ^ Desai-Mehta A, Cerosaletti KM, Concannon P (2001). "Distinct functional domains of nibrin mediate Mre11 binding, focus formation, and nuclear localization". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (6): 2184–91. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.6.2184-2191.2001. PMC 86852. PMID 11238951. 
  16. ^ Dolganov GM, Maser RS, Novikov A, Tosto L, Chong S, Bressan DA, Petrini JH (1996). "Human Rad50 is physically associated with human Mre11: identification of a conserved multiprotein complex implicated in recombinational DNA repair". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 (9): 4832–41. PMC 231485. PMID 8756642. 
  17. ^ Zhu XD, Küster B, Mann M, Petrini JH, de Lange T (2000). "Cell-cycle-regulated association of RAD50/MRE11/NBS1 with TRF2 and human telomeres". Nat. Genet. 25 (3): 347–52. doi:10.1038/77139. PMID 10888888. 

Further reading[edit]