Wire chamber

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A multi-wire chamber (or just wire chamber) is a type of proportional counter that detects charged particles and photons,[1] by means of gaseous ionization detection of particles of ionizing radiation.[2]

Description[edit]

Wire chamber with wires (W) and cathode (-) plates (P). The particles flying through T will ionize and set free a charge that an amplifier A collects (impulse at the output)

A proportional counter uses a wire, under high voltage, which runs through a metal or conductive enclosure whose walls are held at ground potential. The enclosure is filled with carefully chosen gas, such as an argon/methane mix, such that any ionizing particle that passes through the tube will ionize surrounding gaseous atoms. The resulting ions and electrons are accelerated by the electric field around the wire, causing a localised cascade of ionization which is collected on the wire and results in an electric current proportional to the energy of the detected particle. This allows the experimenter to count particles and importantly, in the case of the proportional counter, to determine their energy.

Adaptions of design are the thin gap, resistive plate and drift chambers. The drift chamber is also sub-divided into ranges of specific use in the chamber designs known as time projection, microstrip gas, and those types of detectors that use silicon.[3][4]

Development[edit]

The multi-wire chamber is a development of the spark chamber.[5] In 1968, Georges Charpak, while at the European Organization for Nuclear Research in CERN, invented and developed the multi-wire proportional chamber (MWPC). The chamber was an advancement of the earlier bubble chamber rate of detection of only one or two particles every second to 1000 particle detections every second. The MWPC produced electronic signals from particle detection allowing scientists to examine data via computers.[6][7][8]

Methodology[edit]

In a typical experiment, the chamber contains a mixture of these gases:[2]

  • argon (about 2/3)
  • isobutane (just under 1/3)
  • freon (0.5%)

The chamber could also be filled with:

  • liquid xenon;[9]
  • liquid tetramethylsilane;[10] or
  • tetrakis(dimethylamine)ethylene (TMAE) vapour.[11]

Additional gases used are shown in T.Ferbel page 81.[12]

Equipotential line and field line in a MWPC

Use[edit]

The development of the chamber enabled scientists to study the trajectories of particles with much improved precision, in addition to which, to also for the first time observe and study the rarer interactions that occur through particle interaction. The Mw chamber is an advancement of the proportional chamber that has the capacities to measure the energies of particles instead of just the measurement of number of particles as in previous detection by counters, for example the Geiger counter.[13] This is achieved by a change to the sensory apparatus of the instrument in that instead of one anode wire surrounded by a cathode plate, a number of equidistant wires provide sensory information from within two parallel plates.[2][14]

For high energy physics experiments, it is also valuable to observe the particle's path. For a long time, bubble chambers were used for this purpose, but with the improvement of electronics, it became desirable to have a detector with fast electronic read-out. (In bubble chambers, photographs were made, printed and then looked through.) A wire chamber is a chamber with many parallel wires, arranged as a grid and put on high voltage, with the metal casing being on ground potential. As in the Geiger counter, a particle leaves a trace of ions and electrons, which drift toward the case or the nearest wire, respectively. By marking off the wires which had a pulse of current, one can see the particle's path.

The chamber has a very good relative time resolution, good positional accuracy, and a self-triggered operation (Ferbel 1977).[12][15]

Drift chambers[edit]

If one also precisely measures the timing of the current pulses of the wires and takes into account that the ions need some time to drift to the nearest wire, one can infer the distance at which the particle passed the wire. This greatly increases the accuracy of the path reconstruction and is known as a drift chamber.

Element of a drift chamber

The drift chamber functions by balancing the loss of energy from particles caused by impacts with particles of gas, with the accretion of energy created with high-energy electrical fields in use to cause the particle acceleration.[16] Design is similar to the Mw chamber but instead with central layer wires at a greater distance apart.[5] The detection of charged particles within the chamber is possible by the ionizing of particles of gas due to the motion of the charged particle.[17]

The Fermilab detector CDF II contains a drift chamber called the Central Outer Tracker.[18] The chamber contains argon and ethane gas, and wires separated by 3.56 millimetres gaps.[19]

Drift chamber at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris

If two drift chambers are used with the wires of one orthogonal to the wires of the other, both orthogonal to the beam direction, a more precise detection of the position is obtained. If an additional simple detector (like the one used in a veto counter) is used to detect, with poor or null positional resolution, the particle at a fixed distance before or after the wires, a tri-dimensional reconstruction can be made and the speed of the particle deducted from the difference in time of the passage of the particle in the different part of the detector. This setup gives up the detector called Time Projection Chamber (often written just TPC)

For measuring the velocity of the electrons in a gas (drift velocity) there are special drift chambers, Velocity Drift Chambers which measure the drift time for known location of ionisation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ F. Sauli (1977), - Principles of operation of multiwire proportional and drift chambers Retrieved 2012-02-25
  2. ^ a b c W.Frass. Physics - C4 : Particle Physics Major Option - Particle Detectors. Oxford University. p. 11. Retrieved 2012-02-25.  was located via Dr. C.N. Booth PHY304 Particle Physics Sheffield University
  3. ^ I. Kisel - [1] Retrieved 2012-02-28
  4. ^ University of Manchester - HEP - 101 Retrieved 2012-02-28
  5. ^ a b Physics. Guildford: University of Surrey. Retrieved 2012-02-28. 
  6. ^ Computers in Physics, Sep/Oct 1992 - The Polish Language School for Foreign Students - Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań - European Organization for Nuclear Research Retrieved 2012-02-25
  7. ^ H. Johnston - Physics world Retrieved 2012-02-25
  8. ^ "Milestones:CERN Experimental Instrumentation, 1968". IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. Retrieved 4 August 2011.  - U.S. Department of Energy Research and Development Accomplishments Retrieved 2012-02-23
  9. ^ S.E.Derenzo - SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University ( U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science ); Muller, Richard; Derenzo, Stephen; Smadja, Gerard; Smith, Dennis; Smits, Robert; Zaklad, Haim; Alvarez, Luis (1971). "Liquid-Filled Proportional Counter". Phys. Rev. Lett. 27 (8): 532–535. Bibcode:1971PhRvL..27..532M. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.27.532. Retrieved 2012-02-28. 
  10. ^ Degrange, B.; Guillon, J.; Moreau, F.; Nguyen-Khac, U.; De La Taille, C.; Tisserant, S.; Verderi, M. (1992). "Low energy calorimetry in a multiwire chamber filled with tetramethylsilane". Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 311 (3): 539. Bibcode:1992NIMPA.311..539D. doi:10.1016/0168-9002(92)90652-K. 
  11. ^ Schotanus P, Van Eijk CWE, Hollander RW; C.W.E. Van Eijk. "Detection of LaF3:Nd3+ scintillation light in a photosensitive multiwire chamber". Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. Bibcode:1988NIMPA.272..913S. doi:10.1016/0168-9002(88)90780-2.  ; > G. Charpak Research on particle imaging detectors p.537 World Scientific, 1995 Retrieved 2012-02-28
  12. ^ a b T. Ferbel - (CERN report 1977) Thomas Ferbel, ed. (1991). Experimental techniques in high-energy nuclear and particle physics. World Scientific. ISBN 981-02-0867-7. Retrieved 2012-02-25. 
  13. ^ K Taggart St George's College Weybridge Retrieved 2012-02-28
  14. ^ Nobel Media AB 2012 educational Retrieved 2012-02-28
  15. ^ (secondary)[ W.Heisenberg Physics & Philosophy:The Revolution in Modern Science Werner 1958 → [2] ] "...the Position and the Momentum of a Particle Cannot Be Specified Simultaneously with Unlimited Precision..." → [3] quoted in D A McQuarrie - Quantum Chemistry - (secondary R.Cli (M.Jammer) -Uncertainty Principle- The Oxford Companion to Philosophy ISBN 0-19-866132-0] ) Retrieved 2012-02-23 → J.Papa - The Institute of Optics - University of Rochester - ...not possible to know simultaneously the position and momentum of particles... - (secondary - R. Muncaster et al - A-level physics Nelson Thornes, 1993 [2012-02-19] ) Retrieved 2012-02-25
  16. ^ F. E. Close, M. Marten, C. Sutton (11 Nov 2004). The particle odyssey: a journey to the heart of the matter. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860943-4. Retrieved 2012-02-12. 
  17. ^ W. Blum, W. Riegler, L. Rolandi (4 Oct 2008). Particle detection with drift chambers. Springer. Retrieved 2012-02-28. 
  18. ^ Kotwal, Ashutosh V; Gerberich, Heather K; Hays, Christopher (2003). "Identification of cosmic rays using drift chamber hit timing". Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 506: 110. Bibcode:2003NIMPA.506..110K. doi:10.1016/S0168-9002(03)01371-8. Retrieved 2013-08-05. 
  19. ^ Fermilab - glossary-photo- J. L. Lee Retrieved 2012-02-12

External links[edit]

  • hypermail_ archive of links to CLAS drift chambers