Ma'alot massacre

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Ma'alot massacre
Part of Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon
Israel outline northwest.png
Red pog.svg
The attack site
Location Ma'alot, Israel
Coordinates 33°01′00.35″N 35°17′09.90″E / 33.0167639°N 35.2860833°E / 33.0167639; 35.2860833
Date 15 May 1974
Target Netiv Meir elementary school
Attack type
Spree killing, hostage taking, school shooting
Deaths 31 Israelis (+ 3 attackers)
Non-fatal injuries
70 Israelis
Perpetrators Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine

The Ma'alot massacre[1] occurred in May 1974 and involved a two-day hostage-taking of 115 people which ended in the deaths of over 25 hostages. It began when three armed members of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP)[2] entered Israel from Lebanon. Soon afterwards they attacked a van, killing two Israeli Arab women while injuring a third and entered an apartment building in the town of Ma'alot, where they killed a couple and their four-year-old son.[3] From there, they headed for the Netiv Meir Elementary School, where they took more than 115 people (including 105 children) hostage on 15 May 1974, in Ma'alot. Most of the hostages were teenagers from a high school in Safad on a Gadna field trip spending the night in Ma'alot. The hostage-takers soon issued demands for the release of 23 Palestinian militants from Israeli prisons, or else they would kill the students. On the second day of the standoff, a unit of the Golani Brigade stormed the building. During the takeover, the hostage-takers killed children with grenades and automatic weapons. Ultimately, 25 hostages, including 22 children, were killed and 68 more were injured.

The attack[edit]

Ma'alot, located on a plateau in the hills of the Western Galilee region of Israel, six miles south of the Lebanese border,[4] is a development town founded in 1957 by Jewish immigrants, mainly from Morocco and Tunisia. The attack was carried out by three members of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) dressed in Israel Defense Forces uniforms.[5]

The DFLP terrorists infiltrated through the Nahal Mattat Nature Reserve from south of the Lebanese village of Ramish. The group entered Israel near Moshav Zar'it on Sunday night, 13 May. They were armed with AK-47 assault rifles, grenades, and plastic explosives of Czechoslovakian manufacture. They hid until the next night in the orchards near the Druze village of Hurfeish. A border patrol unit discovered their footprints but could not follow the trail, and mistakenly reported to superiors that the footprints belonged to smugglers.[citation needed]

Proceeding to Ma'alot up the winding road, they encountered a van driven by a Druze resident of Hurfiesh bringing Christian Arab women from the village of Fassuta home from work at the Ata Textile Works in the Haifa Bay area. The leader of the operation, Linou, stood on the roadway and opened fire on the vehicle, instantly killing one woman, and wounding both the driver and other workers, one of whom later died of her wounds. The driver turned off the headlights and drove backwards up the hill towards Moshav Tzuriel.

Reaching Ma'alot, the terrorists knocked on the doors of several homes.[3] Fortuna and Yosef Cohen heard the noise and opened their door. The terrorists shot and killed the couple, their 4-year old son Eliahu and wounded their 5-year old daughter Miriam. Fortuna, seven months pregnant, tried to flee the intruders, but she was also shot. The only one in the family who survived unhurt was 16-month-old Yitzhak, a deaf-mute.[3] From there, the militants headed for the Netiv Meir Elementary School where students on a school trip were lodged. On the way, they met Yaakov Kadosh, a sanitation worker, and asked for directions to the school. They beat and shot him, leaving him for dead.

Netiv Meir Elementary School was a three-story concrete building with apartment buildings under construction nearby. The terrorists entered the building at 4 am, taking 102 students hostage. The teenagers spending the night in the school building were out on a three-day trip. They were students from a high school in Safad. Allegedly one of the parents of the slain teenagers had begged the headmaster to cancel the trip after learning that terrorists had entered the area. By then it was considered too late to cancel the trip because all the arrangements had been made.[6] Three of four teachers escaped by jumping through the window, abandoning their 90 pupils to their fate, which created a lot of bitterness among the parents. The teachers were immediately suspended from their posts by local authorities.[6] 85 students and several teachers were held hostage. The students were forced to sit on the floor at gunpoint, with explosive charges between them.

In the morning, the terrorists demanded the release from Israeli prisons of 23 Arab and three other prisoners, including Kozo Okamoto – a Japanese national involved in the 1972 Lod Airport Massacre. Unless these conditions were met, they declared that they would kill the students. The deadline was set for 6:00 pm the same day.

At 10 AM a young man named Sylvan Zerach, at home on leave from the army, stood near the base of the tall concrete water tower not far from the school building to get a closer view of what was going on. He was killed by the terrorists. At an emergency session of the Knesset, a decision was reached to negotiate, but the hostage-takers turned down a request for more time.[7]

Takeover operation[edit]

At 17:25, the commander of the elite Sayeret Matkal special forces group was given the 'green light' to storm the building. The assault force was divided into three units; two to break in from the entrance while a third was to climb a ladder and enter from a window facing north. The squads moved into position from the blind side to the east, from the frames of some apartment buildings under construction. The operation was to have been coordinated with simultaneous sniper fire on the three hostage-takers. At 17:32 the first squad entered the building through the main entrance on the first floor, which was blocked with tables and chairs. The first three-man team, led by Yuval Galili of Kibbutz Geva, was hit by gunfire on the stairs leading to the second floor. Galili threw a phosphorus grenade into the second floor hallway to create a smokescreen. The smoke from the explosion blinded the second team led by Amiran Levine, which had been ordered to take out Linou, at that time posted at the third floor window where he had shot Zerach.[citation needed]

When they broke into the classroom where the students were being held, Haribi grabbed a student, Gabi Amsalem, and held him at gunpoint on the floor. Rachim was shot dead but Linou managed to reach the classroom, grab several magazines from the teacher's desk and reload his weapon. He then sprayed the students with machinegun fire and tossed grenades out the window. When a burst of fire broke his left wrist, he threw two grenades at a group of girls huddled on the floor. Several students leaped from the windows to the ground, some ten feet below.

Beside the three DFLP militants, twenty-two high school students were killed in the attack, including Ilana Turgeman, Rachel Aputa, Yocheved Mazoz, Sarah Ben-Shim'on, Yona Sabag, Yafa Cohen, Shoshana Cohen, Michal Sitrok, Malka Amrosy, Aviva Saada, Yocheved Diyi, Yaakov Levi, Yaakov Kabla, Rina Cohen, Ilana Ne'eman, Sarah Madar, Tamar Dahan, Sarah Sofer, Lili Morad, David Madar and Yehudit Madar. Over 50 were wounded. The student victims were buried in their hometown, Safed.[8] Some of the 10,000 mourners who attended the funerals chanted "Death to the terrorists."[9]

Ma'alot massacre victims in the Safed cemetery

Victims[edit]

Arab Terrorists: fatalities[edit]

  • Ali Ahmad Hasan al-Atmah (Linou), 27, of Haifa
  • Ziyad Abdar-Rahim Ka’ik (Ziyad), 22, of Tayiba
  • Muhammad Muslih Salim Dardour (Harbi), 20, of Beit Hanina

Israeli response[edit]

The next day Israel Defense Forces planes bombed offices and training bases of the DFLP and PFLP. According to a BBC report, the bombing inflicted damage in seven Palestinian refugee camps and villages in southern Lebanon killing at least 27 people and leaving 138 injured.[9]

After an investigation Attorney General Meir Shamgar decided that the three teachers who escaped and abandoned their students had done no wrong. Parents of the victims angrily rejected the report.[10]

The massacre led to the creation of the Yamam special police unit.

Amos Horev, President of Haifa's Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, headed a Commission of Inquiry in May 1975 that investigated the massacre. The subsequent Commission Report listed a number of mistakes made by the government and security forces, and made several recommendations.[11]

Commemoration[edit]

In 2007, American filmmakers visited Ma'alot to film a documentary on the massacre. A memorial corner in the library of the Netiv Meir school displays photographs of the victims and archival footage on the massacre. A feature movie, Their Eyes Were Dry, retells the story of the massacre.[2]

A Reform synagogue in southern California is named Shir Ha-Ma'alot ("Song of Ascent") in memory of the victims.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sources describing the event as a "massacre":
    • "The day after the Ma'alot massacre, condemned by Pope Paul VI and most Western leaders as "an evil outrage…" Frank Gervasi. Thunder Over the Mediterranean, McKay, 1975, p. 443.
    • "The previous day Israel had been traumatized by the Ma'alot massacre, which had resulted in the deaths of numerous schoolchildren." William B. Quandt. Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict Since 1967, Brookings Institution Press, 2001, p. 432.
    • "Faced with a public outcry over the Ma'alot massacre, they demanded of Syria a pledge to forbid terrorist to cross the Golan into Israel." Milton Viorst. Sands of Sorrow: Israel's Journey from Independence, I.B. Tauris, 1987, p. 192.
    • "...Organization (PLO) crimes, like the massacre of Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympic Games in 1972 and the Ma'alot massacre of children in 1974." Richard J. Chasdi. Tapestry of Terror: A Portrait of Middle East Terrorism, 1994–1999, Lexington Books, 2002, p. 6.
    • "The PFLP was responsible for the Ma'alot massacre on May IS, 1974 during which 22 Israeli children were killed." Alex Peter Schmid, A. J. Jongman, Michael Stohl. Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories, & Literature, Transaction Publishers, 2005, p. 639.
    • "On 22 November 1974, six months after the Ma'alot massacre, the United Nations General Assembly voted to accept the Palestine Liberation Organisation as an..." Martin Gilbert. The Jews in the Twentieth Century: An Illustrated History, Schocken Books, 2001, p. 327.
    • Khoury, Jack. "U.S. filmmakers plan documentary on Ma'alot massacre", Haaretz, 7 March 2007.
  2. ^ a b Khoury, Jack. "U.S. filmmakers plan documentary on Ma'alot massacre", Haaretz, 7 March 2007.
  3. ^ a b c "Bullets, Bombs and a Sign of Hope", TIME, 27 May 1974.
  4. ^ Mayhew, Iain. "Israel’s Front Line Children", Daily Mirror, 10 August 2006.
  5. ^ Adam Dolnik, Keith M. Fitzgerald, Gary Noesner. Negotiating Hostage Crises with the New Terrorists, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008, pp. 28–29.
  6. ^ a b "Suspend 3 Teachers Who Escaped from School Building in Maalot". JTA. 22 May 1974. Retrieved 3 October 2012. 
  7. ^ Stohl, Michael. 1983. "Demystifying Terrorism: The Myths and Realities of Contemporary Political Terrorism," in M. Stohl (ed.) The Politics of Terrorism, 2nd edition. Marcel Dekker, p. 10.
  8. ^ Shuman, Ellis. "Where terrorists learned to attack schools", Israelinsider, 6 September 2004. Accessed 11 December 2008.
  9. ^ a b "1974: Dozens die as Israel retaliates for Ma'alot", BBC News, On this day: 16 May. Accessed 11 December 2008.
  10. ^ David Landau (4 September 1974). "Shamgar Says There is No Basis for Prosecution of Maalot Teachers, Hike Leader, Guide Who Fled from". JTA. Retrieved 3 October 2012. 
  11. ^ Ami Pedahzur (20 May 1974). The Israeli secret services and the struggle against terrorism. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-14042-3. Retrieved 17 June 2010. 
  12. ^ "Congregation Shir Ha-Ma'alot". Retrieved 27 April 2011.