Place of origin
|Meat (Lamb, beef, or chicken), tomatoes, onions, garlic, cabbage, leaf or root vegetables, peanuts|
Maafe (var. Mafé, Maffé, Maffe, sauce d'arachide (French), tigadèguèna or tigadenena (Bamana; literally 'peanut butter sauce'), or Groundnut Stew, is a stew or sauce (depending on water content) common to much of West Africa. It originates from the Mandinka and Bambara people of Mali. Variants of the dish appear in the cuisine of nations throughout West Africa and Central Africa. A very similar dish of stewed oxtail called Kare-kare is found in the Philippines.
Recipes for the stew vary wildly, but commonly include chicken, tomato, onion, garlic, cabbage, and leaf or root vegetables. In the coastal regions of Senegal, maafe is frequently made with fish. Other versions include okra, corn, carrots, cinnamon, hot peppers, paprika, black pepper, turmeric, and other spices. Maafe is traditionally served with white rice (in Senegambia), fonio in Mali, couscous (as West Africa meets the Sahara), or fufu and sweet potatoes in the more tropical areas, such as the Ivory Coast. Um'bido is a variation using greens, while Ghanaian Maafe is cooked with boiled eggs. A variation of the stew, "Virginia peanut soup", even traveled with enslaved Africans to North America.
The dish originated with the Mandinka and Bambara people of Mali. The proper name for it in the Mandinka language is domodah or tigadegena (lit. 'peanut butter sauce,' where tige is 'peanut,' dege is 'paste,' and na is 'sauce') in Bamanankan. The word Mafé or Maafe is the Wolof word for dish.
Domodah is also used by all Senegambians, having been borrowed from the Mandinka language. It is a favorite dish among several Senegambian ethnic groups. With the huge expansion of groundnut cultivation during the colonial period, Maafe has also become a popular dish across West Africa, even outside West Africa such as in Cameroon and France.
- James McCann. Stirring the pot: a history of African cuisine, p132. Ohio University Press, 2009ISBN 0-89680-272-8
- Dorinda Hafner. "Maafe - Chicken And Peanut Stew - Mali". Chef2Chef culinary portal. Retrieved 2007-03-03.
- Um'bido (greens & Peanuts) Recipe
Ghanaian Maafe: My Changing Memories of Mafe
- Where Settlers, Slaves and Natives Converged, a Way of Eating Was Born, By Geneva Collins, Washington Post Staff Writer, Wednesday, May 9, 2007; Page F01.
- James McCann. Stirring the pot: a history of African cuisine, p132. Ohio University Press, 2009. ISBN 0-89680-272-8
- Emma Gregg, Richard Trillo. Rough guide to the Gambia, p39. Rough Guides, 2003. ISBN 1-84353-083-X
- Kitchen Window: My Changing Memories of Mafe, Afi-Odelia E. Scruggs. NPR.org, November 9, 2005
- EATS & DRINKS:Incomparable Senegalese, Tama Janowitz, New York Press, (nd). Credits Maafe as a Malian dish.
- West African restaurant to open, Christina Yang, The Daily Pennsylvanian, 10/31/2002.
- The Modern Soul of African Cuisine, Food Product Design news, 05/04/2007.
- celtnet.org.uk, Mafe recipe.
- Recipe at Yahoo Answers.
- Recipe from Ghana.
- varriation of the Senegambian recipe.
- celtnet.org.uk, Um'bido recipe, Variation of Maafe.
- Malian recipe: Dorinda Hafner. A Taste of Africa. (2002).
- Maffe - Senegalese recipe, ascribing a Malian source.
- Mafe recipe, Ivory Coast variation.
- Maffé à la Viande, with Lamb.
- chicken and vegetables braised in peanut sauce. Gourmet Magazine, January 2002. Credits Maafe as a Bambara dish.