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MacCawell/McCaul (Irish: Mac Cathmhaoil)
Family name
Meaning "Son of Battle Chief"
Region of origin Tyrone, Ulster, Ireland.
Related names Cowell, McGirr, Campbell, Caulfield, McCall.
Parent house Cenél Fearadhaigh / Cenél nEógain / Uí Néill
Titles Chief of the Councils of the North, "Peace-maker of Tyrconnell, Tír Eoghain & Airgíalla", Taoiseach (Chiefs) of Kinel Farry (Clogher).

McCaul, also spelt MacCawell, is an Irish surname, derived from the Gaelic Mac Cathmhaoil, meaning the "son of Cathmhaol", descendant of being implied. The name Cathmhaoil itself is derived from cath mhaol meaning "battle chief".[1] The Mac Cathmhaoil where the leading family of Cenél Fearadhaigh, of the Uí Néill, and where based around Clogher in modern day County Tyrone, Northern Ireland.[1] They were one of the seven powerful septs that supported the O'Neills. The name is now rare in Ulster as it has been Anglicised under various different forms such as , Campbell, McCawl, Caulfield, MacCall, Alwell, Callwell, McCowell, McCuill, Howell, MacHall,[2][3] and McQuade.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10] The MacGirr and Short surname originate from a branch of the Mac Cathmhaoil headed by Maelechlainn mac an ghirr meic Cathmhaoil, "Malachy, the son of the short fellow MacCawell".[1] The variant MacCawell is claimed as being the closest Anglicisation of the Irish name.[1]

The height of their power was in the 12th century where their territory covered most of modern County Tyrone, and deep into County Fermanagh.[1] By the mid fourteenth century their power in Fermanagh, was broken by the rise of the Maguires.[1] Having controlled the seat of power of the diocese of Clogher, the MacCawells provided many abbots, deans, canons etc. to it and neighbouring dicoeses including two bishops.[1] By the end of the sixteenth century there appears to have been a large migration of the sept into the modern counties of Down and Armagh.[1]


The MacCathmhaoils took their patronymic name from Cathmhaol in the 12th century, descended from Feradhach (or Fearadhaigh), grandson of Eoghan son of "Niall of the Nine Hostages" a 5th century Irish King . They were the leading sept of Cenél Fearadhaigh, sometimes called Cenél Fearadhaigh Theas or Cinel-Farry, based in the barony of Clogher, to distinguish them from the offshoots of Cenél Fearadhaigh who remained in Inishowen or thereabouts. After this expansion into mid Ulster with Cenél nEoghain, the MacCathmhaoils were fixed in the Clogher area of County Tyrone, the former capital and inauguration site of Airgíalla. As Cenél Fearadhaigh, it was their function to hold a bastion for Cenél nEoghain against Cenél Conaill on the northwest and the descendants of the Three Collas on the south-west and south.

In the Annals of the Four Masters, under 1185 (16 years after the Norman invasion of Ireland), the second mention is made of a MacCathmhaoil with "Gillchreest MacCathmhaoil, head chieftain of the Cineal Fereadaidh being "the chief of the councils of the north of Ireland", who was slain by Teag O'hEighnigh (O'Heaney) from Tir-Manach (Fermanagh), aided by Muintir Chaonain (O'Keenan). This Gillchreest MacCathmhaoil, was also head chieftain of clan Aongusa (Magennis? McCann?) of eastern Ulster, clan Dubhinreacht (O'Dubhin? Devaney), clan Fogarty O'Ceannfhoda (Tirkennedy in Fermanagh),[11] and clan Colla of Fermanagh." The townland name Druim Mhic Cathmhaiol (McCawells Ridge) on the border of Armagh and Louth might attest to a regional leadership role (in the "Councils of the North") [12] organizing the defenses of Ulster against the Normans. [13] The inauguration of the Cineal Fereadaidh Chiefs probably happened at ancient royal site of Clochar Mac nDaimhín.

They receive mention in Ceart Ui Néill (see The Rights of O'Neill) being, along with MacMurchaidh and O'Devlin, classed as "fircheithearna" (i.e. "true kerns") of Ui Néill. A Kern (soldier) was a Gaelic soldier, specifically a light infantryman of Gaelic Ireland during the Middle Ages. From Ceart Ui Néill 14. "it is their duty to take and to guard hostages; and they are bound by their office to keep watch for the first three nights in camp and on a hosting..." and elsewhere "In his time, it was usual to for victorious conquerors to take captives, usually of exalted rank, as hostages for the good (i.e. subservient) subsequent behaviour of the vanquished".[14]

Later they became an important church family. They were also Brehons (judges of Irish law) in Cenél nEoghain (Tyrone), are famous in Irish history for their learning and the many dignitaries they supplied to the church. In Cenél nEoghain about this time, 1300, the Mac Cathmhaoils were the hereditary advisers of the king,[15] being one of the seven main septs of the Cenél nEoghain Ui Neill. The familys importance is obvious from a glance at the events listed in connection with them under MacCathmhail in the index to the Annals of Ulster.

Family Tree[edit]

This is one version of a list of male descendants from Niall of the Nine Hostages to Raghnall MacCathmhaoil who is claimed as being the first to use the Mac Cathmhaoil surname, seven generations removed from the ancestor whose name he chose to bear:

The Annals[edit]

Below are some entries from the Annals the Annals of Ulster and The Annals of the Four Masters regarding the MacCathmhaoil (translated mostly as MacCawell) the leading sept of Cenél Fearadhaigh and further below some their descendants.

  • 1180, the son of Niall Ua Coemain (O' Keenan) was killed by Donnchadh Mac Cathmail and Donnchadh himself was killed therein.[19]
  • 1185, Gillchreest MacCathmhaoil, royal chief of the Cineal Fereadaidh, clan Aongus, clan Dubhinreacht (O'Dubhin? Devaney), clan Fogarty O'Ceannfhoda (Tirkennedy in Fermanagh), and clan Colla (of Tir-Manach), and head of counsel of the North of Érinn, was slain on the 2nd of Nones (6th) of May [20] by O'hEighnigh (O'Heaney) or O'Negnaidh (O'Neney), chiefs in Fermanagh before the Maguire ascendence in 1202, aided by Muinter-Caemhain (O'Keenan); and they carried off his head, which was obtained from them at the end of a month afterwards.
  • 1216, Murchadh Mac Cathmail, royal chief of Cenel- Feradhaigh, died through miracle of St. Colum-cille.[21]
  • 1238, Flaithbertach Mac Cathmail, arch-chief of Cenel-Feradhaigh, crown of championship and generosity of the Gaidhil (Irish Geal) and arch-chief, moreover, of Clann-Conghaile (Connelly) and Ui-Cennfhoda (Tirkennedy) in Tir-Manach (Fermanagh), was killed by Donnchadh Mac Cathmail, his own kinsman, in treachery.[21]
  • 1252, Conchobur Mac Cathmhail, royal Chief of Cenel Feradhaigh and of many territories besides, tower of hospitality and valour of the North of Ireland, peace-maker of Tirconnell, Tír Eoghain (Tyrone), and Airgíalla, was killed by the routs of the people of Brian O'Neill, while defending his protegees against them, he himself being under the safeguard of O'Gormly and O'Kane.[21] For older translation found in British Muesum see reference.[22]
  • Mac Cathmhaoil chiefs of Kinel-Farry (Cineal Fereadaidh), slain: Murrough 1215, Flaherty 1238, Donough 1251 (slain by the people of Airgíalla), Conor 1252, Donslevy 1262 (slain by Yellow Hugh Buidha O'Neill), Gillapatrick 1370.[23]
  • 1261, A great victory was gained by O'Donnell over Niall Culanagh O'Neill in a battle, in which many of the chiefs of Kinel-Owen, under the conduct of Mac Cawell, Chief of Kinel-Farry, and many other chiefs not mentioned here, were killed or taken prisoners. AFM [24]
  • Mac Cathmhaoils slain: Cu-Uladh 1346, Cu-Uladh, son of Gillapatrick 1370, Donough 1346, Donough son of Edmund (died of wounds) 1518.[25]
  • 1355, a Cattle Raid example and a battle between O'Donnell and O'Neill (with Mac Cathmail) from 1366[26]
  • Brian Mac Cathmhaoil, Bishop of the Diocese of Clogher (1356–1358). He died of the plague in 1358.
  • 1362, Ruaidhri, son of Domnall Ua Neill, was killed by Maelechlainn (Mac Cathmaoil), with one shot of an arrow.
  • 1365, when Malachy of the Mac Cathmhaoil, the ruling house of Clogher, Tyrone, slew an O’Neill of Tír Eoghain, Malachy was known as 'Maelechainn Mac in Ghirr meic Mac Cathmhaoil'. Translated his name is 'Malachy the son of the Short-Fellow Mac Cathmhaoil'. This feat of slaying an O’Neill warranted a change of name so he became Malachy mac in ghirr or simply Malachy MacGirr. Later this family survived the Ulster Plantation, receiving a number of grants of lands at the time. They are to be found later in the 1660s as taxpayers in the Clogher Valley and elsewhere in Tyrone. Today the family is generally found as McGirr, McGerr, McKerr and in the English version as Short.[27]
  • Cu-Uladh Mac an Ghirr Mac Cawell ( -1368), chief of his own tribe and a son of his, who was a learned and illustrious professor of Sciences, died in England.
  • 1370, Gillapatrick Mac Cawell, Chief of Kinel-Farry; Cu-uladh, his son, and his wife, the daughter of Manus Mac Mahon, were treacherously slain by the sons of Hugh Mac Cawell. Murrough, his Gillapatrick's brother then became Chieftain of Kinel-Farry.[28]
  • Donough Mac Cawell, Chief of the two Kinel-Farrys, was slain by Maguire in 1404.
  • 1427, Joan, daughter of the bishop Mac Cathmhail, wife of Maurice Mag Uidhir (Maguire), that is, of the great Archdeacon, died on the 13th of the Kalends of February Jan. 20; one, that maintained a hospital or hospice at Claen inis (now Cleenish) and at Ros-oirther (or Rossorry), in Fermanagh for six and fifty years reputably, humanely and charitably. [29] Note: Claen inis or Cleenish (sloping Island on Lough Erne) was a monastic site founded by St Sinnell in the 6th century, who was said to be the most learned man in Ireland or Britain. Ros-oirther or Rossorry, was a monastery founded in 480 by St. Fanchea and a church in 1048 in Magheraboy, Fermanagh.
  • Art Mac Cathmhaoil, Bishop of Clogher (1390–1432) a pious man, who had kept a house of public hospitality for the poor and indigent, died, after penance in 1432.[30]
  • Duvcovla Mac Cathmhaoil, wife of Owen, died 1444. The old Irish name Dubh-choblaith pronounced Duvcovla means dark victory.[25]
  • 1492, Donnell, son of Henry, son of Owen O'Neill, and Gilla-Patrick MacCawell (MacCathmhaoil), were taken prisoners; and Edmond MacCawell was slain by the sons of Redmond McMahon of Airgíalla, i.e. Glasny and Brian. Many others besides these were slain and taken prisoners on that occasion. Donnell, however, made his escape from the castle of Muineachan (Monaghan) a week after his capture.
  • 1493, A brawl between the Cenel-Feradhaigh themselves in Clochar (of Ui-Daimin) and Aedh, son of Mac Cathmail, namely, son of Edmond, son of Brian Mac Cathmail, was slain there and Brian, son of Toirdelbach, son of Aengus, son of the Dwarf, was slain there also, namely, the Sunday before May Day.[31]
  • Eoghan Mac Cathmhaoil, Bishop of the Diocese of Clogher (1505–1515)
  • William Oge Mac Cathmhaoil, Son of Art, Dean of Clogher died 1508.
  • 1519 raid on the territory of Brian O'Neill at Sliabh Troim (mountain of elder or elderberry) by Domnall O'Neill with the McCathmaoils, Cu-Uladh and Thomas sons of Edmund McCathmaoils and Edmund and Brian two sons of Gilla-Padraic McCathmail were slain. The defeat having taken place at Clogherny, Omagh. Note: Elder or Trom was one of the sacred flowering trees carried in procession at Beltane and a townland called Beltany lies just below it. See photos of Sliabh Troim and Clogherny whose boggy ground may have contributed to their deaths! [32]

Reformation and Dissolution[edit]

The religious and political turmoil of late medieval, Early Modern Ireland, reformation (1517-1750), counter reformation (1545-1648) is reflected in some of these figures. For the church, it became a "battleground for profit and cultural hegemony" where after the Plantation of Ulster a new Protestant ruling class took ownership and later instituted the Penal Laws.[33] Sources found in texts other than the Annals of the Four Masters. (see Dissolution of Monasteries in Ireland) and Clogher & St. Marcartan's Cathedral, history 500–1970)

  • Neal McCamal, Rector of Termonayncomagn died 1367 conveyed to the Primate Milo Sweetman at his manor of Termonfeckin' (near Drogheda inside the Pale). Note: A Termon (in Irish Tearmann), means place of sanctuary, were lands associated with the Church.[34] As territory connected to a church or monastery, it enjoyed certain immunities, privileges and protection as sanctuary lands (though not all church land was termon land). The tenants of termon land were called termoners which is thus a generic name for coarbs and erenaghs.[35]
  • John McKathmayl (McCamul or McCawell). 1441: Rector of Argull (Errigle Keerogue in Clogher, Tyrone), Prebendary of Termon (church lands) and one of the beneficed clergy of Tullaghogue, Tyrone. 1441, May 19: A definitive sentence, "in causa beneficiale," ..."A complaint for non-residence at Argull, preferred against John McKathmayl." 1445, Nov. 21: Excommunication, inter alia (among other things), against John McKathmayl for not paying the Archdeacon his proxies ;[36] Note: proxies were certain sums of money which parish priests pay yearly to the bishop or archdeacon.[37] "There was a suspicion that the Gealic chiefs wished to make the Rectory hereditary in some of their own families; as the coarb-ships and erenaghies had been and were." [38]
  • Eoghan McCawell, Dean of Armagh(1505-1549) "Armagh’s cathedral was in a poor state at the start of the sixteenth century and suffered from a devastating fire in 1511, under Dean Eoghan McCawell (1505-1549) the edifice was renovated, and soon after his death the cathedral was described by Lord Chancellor Cusack as ‘one of the fairest and best churches in Ireland’. The archbishop had to work with the dean and chapter in managing the archiepiscopal estates. All leases of the see lands and the tithes attached to the archbishop’s mensa had to be endorsed with the seal of the dean and chapter. The seal was kept under three locks, the keys to which were held by the dean, chancellor and precentor of Armagh... The primary responsibility of the dean and chapter of Armagh was to ensure that the fabric of the cathedral was well-maintained, and that the liturgy was celebrated in a manner appropriate for the mother-church of the archdiocese." [39] Note: mensa is that portion of the property of a church which is appropriated to defraying the expenses either of the prelate or of the community which serves the church.[40]
  • James MacCawell, first Anglican Archbishop of Cashel 1567-1570.
  • Owen MacCawell, Archdeacon of St. Columba Derry, the Union of Donebooe (DunDoe) 1612-1622.[41] Member of Jury of "The Inquisition to distinguish between crown and church lands" taken at Limavady, Derrry on 30 August 1609.[42]
  • Aodh MacCathmhaoil (1571–1626), Irish Franciscan theologian and Archbishop of Armagh (Aodh means fire) trained at one of the bardic poetry schools (see Bardic Schools, Medieval Ireland) still operating in Ulster and was made tutor to Hugh O'Neill, The O'Neill's sons; went to Spain on defeat of the Gaelic earls, entered the Franciscan Order at Salamanca and later became Catholic Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of Ireland.

Plantation and Dispossession[edit]

The Plantation of Ulster and penal laws (1607-1920s) period is reflected in these figures. Sources found in texts other than the Annals of the Four Masters. With the Plantation of Ulster "With only two, or perhaps three exceptions, every native landlord, and every native tenant within the bounds of the six counties was dispossessed and displaced;..." Later the Penal Laws were intended to degrade the Irish so severely that they would never again be in a position to seriously threaten Colonial rule.[43]

  • Hugh McCawell, Captain: commander of 600 men with Rory and Gillispick McReverin (McGiverin) in the Army of Hugh O'Neill during Nine Years' War (1594-1603).[44][45] Note: McReverin is most likely a misspelling of McGiverin another leading family in Cenel Ferry.
  • 1610 Plantation of Ulster, Land Grants: Grant to Hugh McCawell, jjent., Tullinecrosse, one balliboe, 60 acres. Rent, 13*. 57. (Tullynacross?, County Down?) [46] Note: Tulaigh na croise means "Hill of the cross".[47]
  • 1609 Pardon was granted among others to Edmond Duffe Mc Cawell (Black Edmond), James Rowe Mc Cawell (Red James), Edmond Brier Mc Cawell (Fair-haired Edmond). In 1610 to Patrick Oge Mc Cawell (young Patrick). In 1612 to Tirlagh Grome Mac Cawell (Blue Tirlagh), yeoman/kern (yellow Tirlagh), Brien Glasse McOwen McCawell (Green Brien, son of Owen Mc Cawell). In 1613 to Brien Daire Mc Cawell, Donnell Carragh Mc Cawell, yeomen (kern) of Tyrone county. In 1614 pardon among others to Tirlagh Mc Manus Boy Mc Cawell (Turlough, son of Yellow/Bui Manus Mc Cawell), of Killetragh, Tyrone county. From the Pardon lists, English Patent Rolls, James I.[15] Note: McCawells named Turlough where probably named in honor of The O’Neill Mor Turlough Luineach O'Neill (1532–1595).[48]
  • 1631 Tyrone Tenant Lists: Patricke McCawell houldeth Aghnegarry (in Barony of Omagh), being 1 balliboe. Listed in Inquisition held at Dungannon, 1 May 1631.[49] Hugh McCawell, 60 acres to Hugh McCawell, gent. in County of Tyrone: Precinct of Donganon [50] Note: A balliboe was an ancient division of land dating back to pre-Norman times, the common English translation for a variety of small local land units that varied in name and meaning throughout Ireland. Roughly synonymous with ‘Townland’.[51]
  • 1639 Tyrone Tenant Lists: Inquisition held at Koragh, (Sixmilecross), in 1614 Teige m'Caell (born at Killanele bar Dung.) in Derrybroghes, 1616 (for 1? year) Pattric' m'Cawell (born in town of Wexford) in Branar, 1614 for 1 year Tirlagh Oge m'Cawell (born at Clane in said co.) in Doogerry, Neale Garave m'Cowell (born at Ballentacken) in Tiremany are listed as tenants(among others) of Earl and Countess of Castlehaven.[52][53]
  • 1641 Rebellion/War: Torlogh Grome McCawell and his sons Donnell & Bryen McCawell, Clogher. Planter John Kairnes said that he had been robbed and had stolen from by the Shane Oge O'Neell, Bryen McShane Oge O'Neell, Torlogh Grome McCawell and Shane McCawell of Fenaghdrome (Tyrone) among others.[54] Examination of Henry McCawell - 1653/6/9 (regarding 1641) " ...his brother Patrick McCawell agreed (as this examinant was informed) with Capten Morris and his brother Thomas Morris to carry them by water along Logh Neagh to some place... but by reason of a Storme that was then on the Logh, were forced to retorne with this examinant and his brother Patrick to Mountjoy Castle...where they both remayned prisoners for one night and then set them both at liberty and being asked if he sawe or heard of any of Capten Morrisse his company murdered..."[55] Examination of John Morris "...Aforesaid Patrick Mccawell with us; but he most Earnestly Crying to Mr Hastings for Gods sake to put him Ashoare, least (said he) that Thorlacgh G Quin, who then was Governor of Mountioy Castle, should kill his father,..."[56] Note: The 1641 Depositions are witness testimonies mainly by Protestants, but also by some Catholics, from all social backgrounds, concerning their experiences of the 1641 Irish rebellion. The testimonies document the loss of goods, military activity, and the alleged crimes committed by the Irish insurgents.[57]
  • Yoemen/Kern during 1641 Rebellion: Agholy McCawell, Fergus McCawell of Down and Murtagh McCowell, of Ballinlogh, Down. Note: The name Agholy comes from the Irish Eachmhílidh 'horse-soldier', and has strong Co. Down associations.[58]
  • 1663 Armagh Hearth Tax Rolls: Torlogh McCawell (1 Fire hearth), Collowe McCawell of Ballyreagh (1 Fire hearth). Cormock McCawell & Patrick Modder McCawell of Corcloghan (1 Fire hearth). Donnell McCawell of Tolly (1 Fire hearth). 2 shillings where due on each heart.[59] Phellem McCawell, Kiltibritt [60] Note: Collowe is the 17th century version of heroic name Cú Uladh ‘hound of Ulster' [61][62] and Modder/Madra is Irish for dog.
  • 1666 Tyrone Hearth Tax Rolls: Donachy McCawell, Patrick Cawell Shanlus (Shanliss, Clonoe Parish, Barony of Dungannon), Ferragh McCawell Claoge (Cloghog, Clonoe Parish, Barony of Dungannon on Banks of Lough Neagh, now Dungannon Middle ) [63]
  • 1668 Rebellion: Carragh McCawell late of the parish of Donagh Cavagh (Donacavey, Clogher, Tyrone), and others declared "Rebels and traitors" in June 1668, Proclamation of the Lord Deputy and Council for being in arms against the Kings authority in Tyrone, Monaghan, Antrim and Down. Pursued by the Kings good subjects they escaped in the woods and mountains. The reward set on the head of each rebel is £10.[64] Note: £10 was about the yearly wage of a day Labourer, so perhaps about £20,000 in today's money.[65] Proclamation of the Lord Lieutenant and Council (April 23, 1669), states that "Carragh McCawell is since killed" and regarding other rebels "all who comfort, relieve or abet them, will be considered traitors in the like degree" [66] Note: The name Carragh is likely Gealic for a stone pillar (a standing stone).[67]
  • 1780 Thomas McCawell. Father Thomas McCawell vicar general replaced Bishop Philip McDevitt as pastor of Urney, Tyrone when McDevitt is said to have removed his see from Urney to Derry about 1780. McCawell was a graduate of the Sorbonne in Paris.[68][69]
  • James Caulfield, Catholic Bishop of Ferns, Wexford from 1786 to 1814. During the 1798 Rebellion, Bishop Caulfield like the other Irish Catholic bishops supported the government line. He was regarded as a collaborator (or mediator) with the British and he ordered all Catholics to surrender their arms and be loyal to "the good gracious King George III". He denounced Father Murphy and the other priests who took part in the Wexford Rising. (see poem by Seamus Heaney and song by Patrick Joseph McCall written 1898 Boulavogue) Note: With the promise of Catholic Emancipation in the late 1700s and the setup of Maynooth seminary in 1795 they probably considered it ill advised to rock the boat. However many reformers despaired of peaceful change, particularly in the lack of Tithe reform.
  • 1796 Spinning Wheel List: John McCawel [McCaul], awarded 2 spinning wheels. Hugh McAwel [McCaul], awarded 1 spinning wheel. (Flaxseed Premiums) Drumragh Parish, Omagh, Tyrone.[70]
  • 1812 Cemetery headstone: IHS./ James McCawell died / May ye 5th, 1812. Aged 50 yrs./ Also his wife Eleanor / Martin died February 1, 1795 / Aged 55 yrs. Lord / Have Mercy on their souls. An inscriptions from Donaghcavey Cemetery (or Findonagh) Note: LATIN- in hoc signo spes mea (I.H.S.) - In this sign (the cross of Christ) is my hope.[71]
  • Thomas McCawell (or Campbell), Parish of Fintona, Co. Tyrone. Listed in 1837 as being in the Ribbonmen, a popular movement active against landlords and their agents.[72]
  • 1947 Great Famine: John & Helen McCawell famine immigrants to Canada, died on route or on Grosse Isle, Quebec, Canada. Two of the 7553 buried there. The island was the site of an immigration depot which predominantly housed Irish immigrants coming to Canada, many on coffin ships, to escape the Great Famine, 1845-1849.[73] During the Famine period, an estimated half-million Irish were evicted from their cottages. Many unscrupulous landlords simply paid to send their penniless tenant families overseas to British North America.[74]



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  66. ^
  67. ^ The Place-names of Argyll By H. Cameron Gillies
  68. ^ Donegal Annual Blianiniris Dhun na nGall, Journal of the County Donegal historical Society No.59 2007 , page 79
  69. ^ Catholicism in Ulster, 1603-1983: An Interpretative History By Oliver Rafferty
  70. ^ Spinning Wheel List (Flaxseed Premiums) Drumragh Parish, Tyrone.
  71. ^ Inscriptions from Donaghcavey Cemetery (or Findonagh)
  72. ^ Ribandmen Abt 1837, from the Sessional Papers printed by order of the House of Lords, Session 1839.
  73. ^ Names List, Grosse Isle, Irish Memorial National Historic Site of Canada
  74. ^ The Irish Potato Famine, Coffen Ships

External links[edit]