OS X Server
Screenshot of Snow Leopard Server
|Company / developer||Apple Inc.|
|OS family||Mac OS, Unix|
|Working state||Superseded by OS X plus add-on server package|
|Source model||Closed source (with open source components)|
|Latest stable release||10.8.2 / September 19, 2012|
|Supported platforms||x86, x86-64|
|Kernel type||Hybrid kernel|
|Default user interface||Aqua|
|Official website||Apple - OS X Server|
OS X Server, formerly Mac OS X Server, was a separately sold Unix server operating system from Apple Inc. architecturally identical to its desktop counterpart OS X—with additional server programs and management and administration tools. As of version 10.7 (Lion), Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server were combined into one release and re-branded as OS X. A separate "server" operating system is no longer sold; the server-specific server applications and work group management and administration software tools from Mac OS X Server are now offered as Server App, an add-on package for OS X sold through the Mac App Store along with Server Admin Tools 10.7, available from the Apple support web site.
These tools simplify access to key network services, including a mail transfer agent, AFP and SMB servers, an LDAP server, a domain name server, and others. Also included (particularly in later versions) are numerous additional services and the tools to manage them, such as web server, wiki server, chat server, calendar server, and many others.
Mac OS X Server was provided as the operating system for Xserve computers, rack mounted server computers designed by Apple. Also, it was optionally preinstalled on the Mac mini and Mac Pro and was sold separately for use on any Macintosh computer meeting its minimum requirements.
Mac OS X Server is based on an open source foundation called Darwin and uses open industry standards and protocols. It included services and applications for file sharing, sharing contact information and calendars, schedule events, send secure instant messages, conduct live video conferences, send and receive email, contribute to and comment in wikis, publish a company-wide blog, produce and distribute podcasts, and set up websites.
Mac OS X Server 1.0 (Rhapsody) 
The first version of Mac OS X was Mac OS X Server 1.0. Mac OS X Server 1.0 - 1.2v3 were based on Rhapsody, a hybrid of OPENSTEP from NeXT Computer and Mac OS 8.5.1. The GUI looked like a mixture of Mac OS 8's Platinum appearance with OPENSTEP's NeXT-based interface. It included a runtime layer called Blue Box for running legacy Mac OS-based applications within a separate window. There was discussion of implementing a 'transparent blue box' which would intermix Mac OS applications with those written for Rhapsody's Yellow Box environment, but this would not happen until Mac OS X's Classic environment. Apple File Services, Macintosh Manager, QuickTime Streaming Server, WebObjects and NetBoot were included with Mac OS X Server 1.0 - 1.2v3. It could not use FireWire devices.
Mac OS X Server 10.0 (Cheetah Server) 
Released: May 21, 2001
Mac OS X Server 10.1 (Puma Server) 
|This section requires expansion. (February 2009)|
Released: September 25, 2001
Mac OS X Server 10.2 (Jaguar Server) 
Released: August 23, 2002
The 10.2 Mac OS X Server release includes updated Open Directory user and file management, which with this release is based on LDAP, beginning the deprecation of the NeXT-originated NetInfo architecture. The new Workgroup Manager interface improved configuration significantly. The release also saw major updates to NetBoot and NetInstall. Many common network services are provided such as NTP, SNMP, web server (Apache), mail server (Postfix and Cyrus), LDAP (OpenLDAP), AFP, and print server. The inclusion of Samba version 3 allows tight integration with Windows clients and servers. MySQL v4.0.16 and PHP v4.3.7 are also included.
Mac OS X Server 10.3 (Panther Server) 
Released: October 24, 2003
The 10.3 Mac OS X Server release includes updated Open Directory user and file management, which with this release is based on LDAP, beginning the deprecation of the NeXT-originated NetInfo architecture. The new Workgroup Manager interface improved configuration significantly. Many common network services are provided such as NTP, SNMP, web server (Apache), mail server (Postfix and Cyrus), LDAP (OpenLDAP), AFP, and print server. The inclusion of Samba version 3 allows tight integration with Windows clients and servers. MySQL v4.0.16 and PHP v4.3.7 are also included.
Mac OS X Server 10.4 (Tiger Server) 
Released: April 29, 2005
The 10.4 release adds 64-bit application support, Access Control Lists, Xgrid, link aggregation, e-mail spam filtering (SpamAssassin), virus detection (ClamAV), Gateway Setup Assistant, and servers for Software Update, iChat Server using XMPP, Boot Camp Assistant, Dashboard and weblogs.
On August 10, 2006 Apple announced the first Universal Binary release of Mac OS X Server, version 10.4.7, supporting both PowerPC and Intel processors. At the same time Apple announced the release of the Intel-based Mac Pro and Xserve systems.
Mac OS X Server 10.5 (Leopard Server) 
Released: October 26, 2007
- Simplified Setup. The redesigned Server Assistant steps you through configuration of key server applications, networking settings, and user accounts. Once setup is complete, the new Server Preferences application allows you to manage key services. A new Server Status Dashboard widget provides at-a-glance information on the status of services, as well as on disk space and CPU use.
- Podcast Producer. An end-to-end solution for producing professional-quality podcasts is ideal for product training, sales presentations, university lectures, or employee updates. With the Podcast Capture application in Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard, users can capture audio and video, record onscreen actions, or submit existing QuickTime content to the server. Once the content is uploaded, Podcast Producer in Leopard Server automatically publishes it in formats optimized for playback on almost any device, from HD video to iPod, iPhone, or Apple TV.
- Wiki Server. With Leopard Server users can create collaborative web pages, called wikis, complete with group calendar, blog, and mailing list archive. With the wiki server members can create blog entries, tag and cross-reference material, upload files and images, add comments, and perform keyword searches. Wiki server maintains the complete history, so you can always revert to a previous version of any page.
- iCal Server. Leopard Server includes a calendaring platform that makes it easy for individuals and groups to share calendars, coordinate events, schedule meetings and reserve resources. iCal Server was the first commercial calendar server to support the open CalDAV standard.
- Spotlight Server. Designed for workgroups with shared documents, projects, and file archives. It works with Mac OS X Leopard clients to search content stored on shared volumes across the entire network. Spotlight Server works with the Quick Look and Cover Flow features in Leopard to scan though files—without needing to open them.
- Infrastructure enhancements. With the release of Leopard Server, Mac OS X Server is now an Open Brand UNIX 03 Registered Product conforming to the SUSv3 and POSIX 1003.1 specifications for the C API, Shell Utilities, and Threads. Mac OS X Server can compile and run all existing UNIX 03-compliant code. Many services in Leopard Server—including Apache 2, MySQL 5, Postfix, Podcast Producer, and QuickTime Streaming Server—are 64-bit, able to take maximum advantage of the processing power and addressable memory of 64-bit system hardware. Leopard Server is also 32-bit compatible, 32-bit and 64-bit applications can run side by side, both at native performance.
- RADIUS Server. Leopard Server includes FreeRADIUS for network authentication. It ships with support for wireless access stations however can be modified into a fully functioning FreeRADIUS server.
Mac OS X Server 10.6 (Snow Leopard Server) 
Released: August 28, 2009
Snow Leopard Server sells for a retail price of $499 and includes unlimited client licenses.
- Full 64-bit operating system. On appropriate systems with 4 GB of RAM or more, Snow Leopard Server uses a 64-bit kernel to address up to a theoretical 16 TB of RAM.
- iCal Server 2 with improved CalDAV support, a new web calendaring application, push notifications and the ability to send email invitations to non-iCal users.
- Address Book Server provides a central location for users to store and access personal contacts across multiple Macs and synchronized iPhones. Based on the CardDAV protocol standard.
- Wiki Server 2, with server side Quick Look and the ability to view wiki content on iPhone.
- A new Mail server engine that supports push email so users receive immediate access to new messages. However, Apple's implementation of push email is not supported for Apple's iPhone.
- Podcast Producer 2 with dual-source video support. Also includes a new Podcast Composer application to automate the production process, making it simple to create podcasts with a customized, consistent look and feel. Podcast Composer creates a workflow to add titles, transitions and effects, save to a desired format and share to wikis, blogs, iTunes, iTunes U, Final Cut Server or Podcast Library.
- Mobile Access Server enables iPhone and Mac users to access secured network services, including corporate websites, online business applications, email, calendars and contacts. Without requiring additional software, Mobile Access Server acts as a reverse proxy server and provides SSL encryption and authentication between the user’s iPhone or Mac and a private network.
Mac OS X 10.7 (Lion Server) 
Released: July 20, 2011
Lion Server comes with unlimited client licenses as did Snow Leopard Server. In releasing the developer preview of Mac OS X Lion in February 2011, Apple indicated that beginning with Lion, Mac OS X Server would be bundled with the operating system and would not be marketed as a separate product. However, a few months later, the company said it would instead sell the server components as a US$49.99 add-on to Lion, distributed through the Mac App Store (as well as Lion itself). The combined cost of an upgrade to Lion and the purchase of the Lion Server components, approximately US$80, will nonetheless be significantly lower than the retail cost of Snow Leopard Server (US$499).
OS X 10.8 (Mountain Lion Server) 
Released: July 25, 2012.
There is no separate server edition of Mountain Lion, just as there was no separate server edition of Lion. There is a package, available from the Mac App Store for $19.99, that includes a server management app called Server, as well as other additional administrative tools to manage client profiles and Xsan.
Mountain Lion Server, like Lion Server, comes with unlimited client licenses, and once purchased can be run on an unlimited number of machines.
Server administrator tools 
Mac OS X Server comes with a variety of configuration tools that can be installed on non-server Macs as well:
- Server Admin
- Server Preferences (application)
- Server Assistant
- Server Monitor
- System Image Utility
- Workgroup Manager
- Xgrid Admin
System requirements 
|Operating System Version||Processor||Memory||Hard drive|
|Mac OS X Server 10.4||Mac computer with an Intel, PowerPC G5, PowerPC G4, or PowerPC G3 processor||512 MB of physical RAM||10 GB of available disk space|
|Mac OS X Server 10.5||Mac computer with an Intel, PowerPC G5, or PowerPC G4 (867 MHz or faster) processor||1 GB of physical RAM||20 GB of available disk space|
|Mac OS X Server 10.6||Mac desktop computer with an Intel processor (MacBook / MacBook Pro not recommended)||2 GB of physical RAM||10 GB of available disk space|
|Mac OS X Server 10.7||x86-64 based Macintosh computer||2 GB of physical RAM||7 GB of available disk space|
Technical specifications 
File and print services
Directory services and authentication
Networking and VPN
Mac OS X Server is available in English, Japanese, French, German, Simplified Chinese, Dutch, Italian, Korean, Spanish, and Traditional Chinese.
- "OS X Server brings more power to your business.". Apple. Retrieved 2012-09-19.
- "Mac OS X Server Snow Leopard - UNIX". Apple. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- Apple Inc. (2011-06-06). "Mac OS X Lion With 250 New Features Available in July From Mac App Store". Retrieved 2011-06-06.
- "Apple - Mac OS X Server - Collaboration Services". Archived from the original on 13 August 2006. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- Apple Inc. (2009-06-26). "Mac OS X 10.5 Server - Technical Specifications". Retrieved 2012-10-27.
- Enable full RADIUS support on OS X Server
- "Apple - Mac OS X Server Snow Leopard - 64-bit Computing". Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- "Apple Releases Developer Preview of Mac OS X Lion". Apple. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
- Apple Inc. (2011-11-15). "OS X Lion Server - Technical Specifications". Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- "OS X Server". Apple Inc. June 2012. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- Andrew Cunningham (July 29, 2012). "Server, simplified: A power user's guide to OS X Server". Ars Technica. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- "Mac OS X Server Snow Leopard - Technical Specifications". 8 June 2009. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- "OS X Server Technical Specifications". Apple. Retrieved 2012-11-24.
|Wikibooks has more on the topic of: OS X Server|
- Apple - OS X Server
- Official feedback page
- Apple Introduces Mac OS X Server - Apple press release
- Major Mac OS X Server v10.1 Update Now Available - Apple press release
- Apple Announces Mac OS X Server “Jaguar”, World’s Easiest-to-Manage UNIX-Based Server Software - Apple press release
- Apple Announces Mac OS X Server “Panther” - Apple press release
- Apple Announces Mac OS X Server “Tiger” - Apple press release
- Apple Announces New Mac OS X Server "Leopard" Features - Apple press release
- Apple Introduces Mac OS X Server Snow Leopard - Apple press release