|Motto||Natura et Revelatio Coeli Gemini (Latin)|
Motto in English
|Nature and Revelation are twin sisters of heaven|
|Type||Private liberal arts college|
|Endowment||$746 million (2014)|
|President||Brian Rosenberg, PhD|
|Location||Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA|
53 acres (21 ha)
|Colors||Blue and Orange|
|Sports||Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference|
Coordinates: Macalester College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college located in Saint Paul, Minnesota, US. It was founded in 1874 as a Presbyterian-affiliated but nonsectarian college. Its first class entered September 15, 1885. Macalester is an exclusively undergraduate four-year institution and enrolled 1,978 students in the fall of 2013 from 50 U.S. states and 90 countries. The school is known for its large international enrollment and has one of the highest percentages of foreign students in the United States. In 2014, U.S. News and World Report ranked Macalester as the 24th best liberal arts college in the United States, 7th for undergraduate teaching at a national liberal arts college, and 15th for best value at a national liberal arts college.
- 1 History
- 2 Academics
- 3 Tuition and financial aid
- 4 Student life
- 5 Athletics
- 6 Campus
- 7 Notable alumni
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Macalester College was founded in 1874 by Rev. Dr. Edward Duffield Neill, who served as a chaplain in the Civil War and held positions in three U.S. presidential administrations. After journeying to the Minnesota Territory in 1849 to do missionary work, he founded two churches and served as the state’s first superintendent of public education and first chancellor of the University of Minnesota. He believed that only a private college could offer both the academic quality and the values needed to prepare for leadership. He planned a college that would be equal in academic strength to the best colleges in the East. It would be Presbyterian-affiliated but nonsectarian, making it inclusive by the standards of his day.
Charles Macalester, a prominent businessman and philanthropist from Philadelphia, made the establishing gift by donating the Winslow House, a noted summer hotel in Minneapolis. With additional funding from the Presbyterian Church and from the new College’s trustees, Macalester opened in 1885 with five professors, six freshmen, and 52 preparatory students.
In 1887, a classical scholar named James Wallace joined the faculty and quickly established himself as a fine and demanding teacher. He earned a national reputation for scholarship when he published two Greek textbooks that were widely used across the country. When he took on added duties as dean of the College and then as president, he dedicated himself to creating the strongest possible academic experience for Macalester students. He recruited excellent faculty members and carefully added new areas of study to the curriculum.
In spite of academic success, James Wallace’s early years at Macalester were financially difficult. Gradually, his efforts built up a group of donors whose support, together with tuition from a growing student body, put the college on steady footing. By the time he rejoined the faculty in 1906, Wallace had enabled the college to pay off its debt, maintain a balanced budget, and begin to establish an endowment to offer some protection against hard times.
In the 1940s and 1950s President Charles J. Turck gave new emphasis to the College’s internationalism by recruiting foreign students, creating overseas study opportunities, and hiring faculty from diverse backgrounds. As a symbol of commitment to international harmony, he raised the United Nations flag on campus in 1950, and it has flown every day since then, just below the United States flag. Under his leadership, Macalester also broadened its base of community service and intensified its continuing interest in civic and national affairs.
The College engaged in a remarkable period of advancement throughout the 1960s, made possible by DeWitt and Lila Wallace, founders of Reader’s Digest and major benefactors of Macalester. Under the leadership of President Harvey M. Rice, the College strengthened the academic credentials of its faculty, enhanced the academic program, and increased its visibility, attracting students from across the nation and around the world. A major building campaign resulted in a fine arts center and new science facilities which were among the best in the United States.
During this time, Macalester committed itself to a liberal arts curriculum and asserted five traditional and distinguishing values: involvement of students with faculty in the pursuit of learning; creation of a diverse campus community; incorporation of an international perspective in the curriculum and campus life; involvement of the College in the life of the metropolitan area; and espousal of service as a way of life.
The 1990s were another period of significant advancement for Macalester. In 1991, the College’s endowment became significantly stronger than it had been, enabling Macalester to pursue its high ideals with renewed vision and confidence. The College increased the number of faculty positions, adding new depth and more broadly diverse perspectives to the educational program. The improved student-faculty ratio also made possible more flexible and personalized teaching approaches, including significant enhancement of an already strong emphasis on faculty-student collaborative research and writing. The College also increased international study opportunities for students and faculty and strengthened co-curricular programs from athletics to residential life to community service.
Through a comprehensive campus improvement program, virtually every academic and residential building on campus was renovated, as were the athletic facilities. Extensive renovation of the science facilities, which merged two buildings into the Olin-Rice Science Center, was completed in 1997. George Draper Dayton residence hall opened in 1998, the Ruth Stricker Dayton Campus Center in 2001, and the renovated Kagin Commons student services building in 2002. A comprehensive fund-raising campaign completed in 2000 raised $55.3 million to help support some of those building projects as well as scholarship funds, student-faculty research stipends, academic programs, and annual operations.
Macalester’s Institute for Global Citizenship, created in 2005, serves as a catalyst for strengthening programs by which students connect academic study with off-campus applications through internships and service-learning opportunities both in the United States and abroad, and programs by which students explore ways to engage some of the world’s most challenging issues through their chosen professions.
In fall 2008 Macalester publicly launched a $150 million campaign, raising funds for scholarships, faculty support, program enhancement, operating support, and new facilities. As the campaign went public, alumni and friends had already contributed more than $100 million. A new athletic and wellness complex, the Leonard Center, opened in August 2008 housing programs aimed at creating a healthier and more cohesive campus community. In 2009, construction was completed on Markim Hall, a new home for the Institute for Global Citizenship. Plans called for the building to qualify for Platinum certification under the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) system, a building rating system devised by the U.S. Green Building Council that evaluates the sustainability and environmental impact of structures across the nation. In fall 2012, Macalester opened its renovated and expanded Janet Wallace Fine Arts Center.
In 2013, U.S. News and World Report ranked Macalester as the 24th best liberal arts college in the United States. The same report ranked Macalester 12th for undergraduate teaching and 16th for best value at a national liberal arts college.
In 2012, Washington Monthly ranked Macalester 8th best liberal arts college for contributing to the public good. The ranking uses criteria of social mobility (recruiting and graduating low-income students), research (producing cutting-edge scholarship and PhDs), and service (encouraging students to give back to their country).
The Wall Street Journal ranked Macalester as the 38th best "feeder school" out of all national colleges and universities based on the number of students the school sends to the 15 most prestigious grad programs.
In 2006, The New York Times included Macalester in its profile of 20 colleges and universities "established or rising scholarship" which are fast becoming viable alternatives to Ivy League institutions.
In the past 10 years, Macalester students have earned honors including Rhodes Scholarships, British Marshall Scholarships, Fulbright Scholarships, Foreign Government Grants, National Science Foundation Fellowships, Truman Scholarships, Watson Fellowships, Mellon Fellowships and Goldwater Scholarships.
For the class of 2018, Macalester received 6,463 applications and accepted 2,133, an acceptance rate of 33%. Macalester is considered "Most Selective" by the U.S. News & World Report Rankings. Of those admitted, the median SAT scores are 710 for critical reading, 690 for math, and 700 for writing; the median ACT score is 31. 74% of admitted students were in the top 10% of their high school class.
Macalester has 170 full-time faculty, 94% of whom have a doctorate or the highest degree in their field. 17% of faculty are international or U.S. citizens of color. Macalester has a student-faculty ratio of 10:1 and an average class size of 17.
Macalester's stated mission is to be a preeminent liberal arts college with high standards for scholarship with an emphasis on internationalism, multiculturalism, and service to society. Macalester offers over 800 courses from 31 academic departments which offer 37 majors and 63 areas of study. Students are also able to design their own interdisciplinary major. Courses are available in the physical sciences, humanities, mathematics and computer sciences, arts, social sciences, foreign languages, classics, several interdisciplinary fields, and pre-professional programs. Pre-professional programs includes pre-law, pre-medical, a cooperative architecture program, and a cooperative engineering program. The most popular majors are economics, political science, psychology, mathematics, and biology.
Under an agreement with Washington University’s School of Architecture in St. Louis, students may complete three years at Macalester before transferring to Washington University for a senior year of accelerated architectural study, leading to a B.A. from Macalester. Three years of graduate study at Washington University then leads to a Master’s in architecture.
An arrangement between Macalester and both the University of Minnesota and Washington University in St. Louis makes it possible for a student to earn a B.A. degree from Macalester and a B.S. degree in engineering or applied science from either university in five years.
The academic calendar at Macalester is divided into a 14 week fall semester (September to December) and a 14 week spring semester (January to May). All courses are offered for semester credit. Most courses are offered for four semester credits, but the amount of credit may vary.
During January, Macalester students may earn up to two semester credits in independent projects, internships, or Macalester-sponsored off-campus courses. Additionally, Macalester students may earn up to eight semester credits in independent study during the summer through independent projects or internships.
Study abroad and off-campus
Macalester College has a long tradition of providing significant opportunities for students to build an international and intercultural perspective into their college education through international or domestic off-campus study. Students may propose participation from among an ample array of overseas and domestic programs relevant to Macalester’s liberal arts curriculum.
Macalester has programs in the Netherlands, South Africa, Germany, Austria (e.g. at the University of Vienna), Singapore, and France. The majority of students study abroad through independent programs often recommended through advising at Macalester's International Center.
Macalester is a member of the Associated Colleges of the Twin Cities (ACTC), a consortium of five liberal arts colleges in Saint Paul and Minneapolis formed to develop cooperative programs and offer cross-registration to their students. Other members include University of St. Thomas, Augsburg College, Hamline University, and St. Catherine University. In addition to over 800 courses available on campus, Macalester students have access to all courses offered through the consortium without paying additional tuition. ACTC provides free busing between the campuses to all students.
Macalester also has an agreement with the Minneapolis College of Art and Design (MCAD) whereby students may take one course per term at that college, provided that Macalester has approved the course.
As a member of the Cooperating Libraries in Consortium (CLIC), the Macalester library provides students with academic resources outside of the College's library. Through the consortium, students have access to books, articles, and other media available from liberal arts colleges in the Twin Cities. Students also have access to the University of Minnesota libraries, and can obtain copies of papers and articles there from on campus.
Tuition and financial aid
Macalester's comprehensive tuition, room, and board fee for the 2014-2015 academic year is $57,691. Despite the high cost of attendance, Macalester is 1 of only 70 colleges nationally that meets the full financial aid of admitted students.
In the fall of 2013, 74% of admitted first-year students received financial aid, with an average financial aid package of $37,501.
Macalester is well known for its large international enrollment. As of Fall 2013, international students comprise 19% of the student body. Its 1,978 students come from 50 U.S. states and 90 countries. 24% of the U.S. student body are students of color. Macalester is 41% male and 59% female.
The main campus newspaper is the student-run The Mac Weekly, which has a circulation of up to 1,600 and was established in 1914. Almost all the newspaper staff works on a volunteer basis. The paper publishes 12 or 13 volumes, ranging from 12 to 24 pages, each semester. A satirical section, The Mock Weekly, is added to the last issue of each semester. The paper has published a magazine three times, in April 2006 and March and November 2007.
There are over 100 student clubs and organizations on campus, including the college radio station WMCN, the Macalester Peace and Justice Committee, the Experimental College, Student Labor Action Coalition, African Music Ensemble, Macalester Gaming Society, Macalester Mock Trial, Mac Dems, Mac GOP, Mac Greens, Bad Comedy, Fresh Concepts, The Macalester Review: A Political Magazine, The Hegemonocle Humor Magazine, The Trads and other a cappella groups, Cheeba, MacBrews, MacSlackers, MacBike, the Macalester Outing Club, the Macalester Climbing Club, Minnesota Public Interest Research Group (MPIRG), Macalester Conservation and Renewable Energy Society (MacCARES), Macalester International Organization (MIO), MacPlayers, NARAL Macalester Activists for Choice, Queer Union, Macalester Young Artists for Revolutionary Needlework (MacYARN), Macalester Quiz Bowl, Mac Rugby, Medicinal Melodies, and the Physics and Astronomy Club.
On July 6, 1974, the first live broadcast of A Prairie Home Companion was broadcast from the Janet Wallace Auditorium of Macalester College.
On July 5, 2014, A Prairie Home Companion broadcast a three-hour 40th Anniversary show from the Great Lawn.
Civic engagement is a core component of the Macalester education and is included in its mission statement. The college actively encourages student dialogue by bringing in speakers, hosting an International Roundtable to bring distinguished international scholars to discuss emerging global issues, and hosting collective meetings such as Women of Color.
Macalester is a long-time leader in linking academic learning to community involvement. In 2011-2012, 16 departments offered 59 courses with civic engagement components. Each year approximately 200 students complete internships, 65% of which are in the non-profit sector, schools, government, or the arts. Macalester also allows students to earn their work-study financial aid award while working at a local non-profit or elementary school.
50% of Macalester students volunteer every semester. 94% are active volunteers in the Twin Cities urban community while at Macalester. Many student organizations encourage active civic engagement, including MPIRG, Maction, Queer Union (QU), Macalester Habitat for Humanity, and more.
Macalester is the primary financial contributor and sponsor of the Minnesota Institute for Talented Youth, which was founded in 1967 and has its main facilities in the Lampert Building. MITY provides two different gifted education programs during the summer months and one on weekends during the academic year. Macalester also participates in Project Pericles, a commitment to further encourage civic engagement at the college. In 2000, Macalester signed the Talloires Declaration, making a commitment to environmental sustainability, as well as a sweatshop pledge, making a commitment to fair-labor practices in the purchase of college apparel.
Macalester is widely recognized as one of the most LGBTQ-friendly colleges in the nation. The Campus Pride Index awarded Macalester a full five out of five stars for LGBTQ-friendly campuses. In 2007, The Princeton Review named Macalester the most gay-friendly college in the nation.
Every semester Macalester holds the Lavender Reception to celebrate the queer community on campus and provide an opportunity for LGBTQ students to learn about resources and support networks on and off campus. Every year ends with the Lavender Graduation, a celebration that recognizes of the contributions and accomplishments of Macalester's LGBTQ graduating seniors.
For people whose gender expression is not always recognized, Macalester has started an initiative to ensure access to single-stall and all-gender bathrooms across campus. Macalester also offers all-gender housing on campus.
Macalester has a student-powered Gender and Sexuality Resource Center that aims to build a culture of resistance against all forms of oppression. There are also many active LGBTQ student organizations and groups on campus including Queer Union, Allies Project Training, and the Macalester Out and Proud Community.
Awards and recognition
- In 2013, Princeton Review ranked Macalester #3 best athletic facilities, #8 easiest campus to get around, #16 most politically active students, and #17 most LGBT friendly
- In 2013, Lumosity ranked Macalester as the 18th smartest college in the country.
- In 2011, Princeton Review ranked Macalester 3rd best quality of life and 7th most LGBT friendly
- In 2011, Huffington Post ranked Macalester one of the 7 trendiest colleges.
- In 2010, Huffington Post ranked Macalester one of the 10 most intellectual colleges.
- In 2007, Princeton Review ranked Macalester "#1 best quality of life".
- Named "America's Hottest Liberal Arts College" by the 2006 Kaplan/Newsweek "How to Get into College" Guide. According to the magazine, America's Hottest Colleges "have one attribute in common: they're creating buzz among students, school officials and longtime observers of the admissions process...each reflects a place that is preparing students well for a complex world."
- Macalester won the National Cross Examination Debate Association Debate Tournament in 1986 and 1987.
Macalester College is a member of the Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (MIAC). The college's team nickname is the Scots. The football team, after many years of poor performance in the MIAC, competed independently since 2002 until the 2014 season, when under Head Coach Tony Jennison, they joined the Midwest Conference, winning the North Division. At the end of the regular season Macalester had won eight games in a season, for the first time ever in their 121 years of intercollegiate football. The college actually dissolved the football program in 1906, pronouncing, according to the Mac Weekly: "Thoroughly aroused to the evils, real or imaginary, of this game, the public is clamoring for the entire abolition or reform on this 'relic of barbarism.'"
Soccer has always been a popular sport. Both men and women's teams remain competitive, appearing in multiple NCAA playoffs since 1995. The women's team won the NCAA championship in 1998. The 2010 men's team won the MIAC regular-season championship and both the men and women's teams received at-large bids for the 2010 NCAA Division III tournament. Both teams are well-supported by students, parents and alumni. One of Macalester sports fans' most (in)famous cheers – "Drink Blood, Smoke Crack, Worship Satan, Go Mac!" – was cited as one of "7 Memorable Sports Chants" by Mental Floss.
The Cross Country Ski team became a club team in 2004, when skiing was eliminated as an MIAC sanctioned sport. It was the first team to be dismantled since hockey was cut (and turned club) in the 1970s. A women's hockey team formed in 2000 and continues to play at the club level.
Macalester Athletics compete in a new athletic facility, the Leonard Center, which opened in August 2008. The $45 million facility encompasses 175,000 square feet. The Leonard Center includes a 200-meter track, a natatorium, a fitness center, several multipurpose rooms, and a health and wellness center for the college community. Materials from the former facility were disposed of in environmentally friendly ways, and some materials were incorporated into the new structure.
Old Main, Macalester College
|Location||1600 Grand Ave.
Saint Paul, Minnesota
|Architect||William H. Willcox|
|Architectural style||Romanesque Revival|
|NRHP Reference #||77000765|
|Added to NRHP||August 16, 1977|
- Dupre Hall, which houses first-year students and sophomores, is located on the corner of Summit and Snelling Avenues, and was built in 1962. Renovated in 1994, Dupre houses about 260 students and is Macalester's largest residence hall.
- Turck Hall was built in 1957 and most recently remodeled in 2004. It houses nearly 180 first-year students.
- Doty Hall was built in 1964 and is one of two residence halls on campus to feature single-sex floors. In 2012, Doty 1 was designated the gender-neutral or all-gender floor.
- Bigelow Hall is on the corner of Grand Avenue and Macalester Street. Built in 1947 and most recently remodeled in 1992, it is connected via tunnels to Wallace, Doty and 30 Macalester Street and features single-sex and co-ed floor arrangements. It is also connected to Turck via a skyway, and houses sophomores.
- George Draper Dayton Hall (GDD) houses sophomores, juniors and seniors, typically in suites of four to six occupants.
- 30 Macalester Street is one of the newest residence halls on campus, and is more handicap accessible than other residence halls and houses a small amount of students. It is a quiet and substance-free living community.
- Wallace Hall is the oldest residence hall on campus, built in 1907 and renovated in 2002. It houses sophomores.
- Kirk Hall houses upperclassmen and is located between the Campus Center and the Leonard Athletic Center. It is composed of doubles and triples, each of which has a common living area with singles branching off from it.
- With the opening of the Institute for Global Citizenship, Summit House, which previously housed the International Center, has been converted into a residence hall housing 16 students.
- There are three cottages on campus.
- Summit House: Located across Snelling Avenue from Dupre Hall, the Summit House offers residence for up to sixteen upperclassmen. Starting in the Fall 2011 semester, the Summit House operated on a per semester cycle exclusively for students studying abroad for one half of the school's year.
- Veggie Co-op: Located under the bleachers of the stadium, it houses 20 students who eat vegetarian meals together for most of the week. All food in the house is vegetarian. Students buy and make food together for their joined meals.
- Cultural House: Located at 37 Macalester Street, residents of the Cultural House are usually required to work or volunteer for the Department of Multicultural Life and engage in moving towards a more diverse, accepting, and open campus environment.
- All-gender housing (part of Kirk Hall)
- Language Houses: Students are expected to speak the language of their particular house as much as possible. Currently there are six Language Houses, focusing on German, Japanese, French, Spanish, Russian, and Mandarin.
- Inter-Faith House: Located in section 8 of Kirk, the Inter-Faith House is for students wishing to explore faith in their lives and the lives of others.
Recently, Macalester has made news by offering limited all-gender housing options for first-years, juniors, and seniors. George Draper Dayton Hall, the Grand-Cambridge Apartments, Kirk Hall, and the six cottages all offer all-gender housing options. As of the 2012-2013 academic year, one floor of the first-year residence hall Doty is designated as all-gender for first-year students. However, these housing options still do not provide the opportunity for students of different sexes to share a room. Student-led groups are working to increase all-gender options and make all-gender bathrooms more widely available across campus.
Food services on campus are provided by Bon Appétit, a national company. The cafeteria, located in the Ruth Stricker Dayton Campus Center, is called Café Mac. Three different meal plans are available for students who live on campus (excepting those in specialty housing or co-ops). The standard option (and the only option for first-year students) is 19 all-you-can-eat meals per week (3 per weekday and 2 on each day of the weekends). For the same price, 10- or 14-meal plans are available, which offer additional flexible "dining dollars" for à la carte meals. Café Mac includes several different stations, all of which provide vegan and gluten-free options. Vegetarian, vegan, gluten-free, and food containing nuts or peanuts are flagged so that all students can manage their dietary concerns. Students who live off-campus may opt for a plan that includes 75 meals per semester.
In the 2011 College Sustainability Report Card published by the Sustainable Endowments Institute, Macalester received an overall grade of "A−", earning it the recognition as an "Overall Campus Sustainability Leader". In 2011, The Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE) awarded Macalester College a Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System (STARS) Silver Rating in recognition of its sustainability achievements.
There are many student organizations on campus that focus on sustainability, including Macalester Conservation and Renewable Energy Society (MacCARES), Minnesota Public Interest Research Group (MPIRG), Mac Bike, Macalester Urban Land and Community Health (MULCH), and Outing Club.
In April 2003, Macalester was able to install a 10 kW Urban Wind Turbine on-campus thanks to that year's senior class gift donating the installation cost and Xcel Energy donating the tower and turbine. The student organization MacCARES is currently developing a proposal for Macalester to invest in a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine in the range of 2MW. Other projects include the Eco-House, a student residence with a range of green features and research opportunities; a rain garden which prevents storm water from running-off into ground water, a bike share program, and a veggie co-op. Recently, the Class of 2008 designated its senior class gift to a Sustainability Fund to support initiatives to improve environmental sustainability on campus and in the greater community. On January 1, 2013, Macalester started on campus composting.
Macalester declared a goal in September 2009 to become carbon neutral by 2025 and Zero-Waste by 2020. The school is a signatory to the Talloires Declaration and the American College and University President's Climate Commitment, the latter obligating the college to work toward carbon neutrality. On April 18, 2012, President Brian Rosenberg signed the “Commitment to Sustainable Practices of Higher Education Institutions on the Occasion of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development”.
In 2009, the school opened Markim Hall, a LEED Platinum building that houses the school's Institute for Global Citizenship. The building uses 45% less water and 75% less energy than a typical building in Minnesota. Macalester is currently planning on remodeling its Music, Theater, and Art buildings and is designing them to Minnesota B3 Guidelines.
- DeWitt Wallace, 1911, founder of Reader's Digest, philanthropist
- Walter Mondale, 1950, former vice president of the United States and U.S. ambassador to Japan 1993-1997
- Kofi Annan, 1961, former UN secretary general and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate
- Siah Armajani, 1963, world-famous sculptor
- Tim O'Brien, 1968, award-winning novelist, author of The Things They Carried
- Charles Baxter, 1969, University of Minnesota professor and author and National Book Award Winner for The Feast of Love
- Carl Lumbly, 1973, actor, starred in show Alias, guest starred in shows such as LA Law and ER
- Gary Hines, 1974, founder and leader of the Grammy Award-winning Sounds of Blackness, which originated as a student group at Macalester
- Shawn Lawrence Otto, 1981, co-writer and co-producer of movie House of Sand and Fog
- Gary Arndt, 1991, Award winning travel photographer
- Ari Emanuel, talent agent, basis for the character Ari Gold on HBO's Entourage
- Juan Figueroa, president of Universal Health Care Foundation of Connecticut and former president and general counsel of the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund
- Danai Gurira, actress, best known for her character Michonne on AMC's The Walking Dead
- Paul Raushenbush, American Baptist minister and Editor of Religion at The Huffington Post
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- About MITY
- Macalester is LGBT friendly after all, says Campus Pride Index - Minneapolis - News - The Blotter
- Macalester named most gay-friendly college | Twin Cities Daily Planet
- LGBTQ@Mac - Multicultural Life - Macalester College
- All Gender Bathrooms
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- Sustainability - Student Organizations
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- Sustainability - Policies
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- [dead link]
- Kilde, Jeanne Halgren. Nature and Revelation: A History of Macalester College (University of Minnesota Press, 2010) 400 pp. ISBN 978-0-8166-5627-1
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