Maccabees

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Maccabees (disambiguation).
The descendants of Mattathias

The Maccabees, also spelled Machabees (Hebrew: מכבים or מקבים‎, Maqabim; Latin: Machabi or Machado; Greek: Μακκαβαῖοι Makkabaioi), were the leaders of a Jewish rebel army that took control of Judea, which at the time had been a province of the Seleucid Empire. They founded the Hasmonean dynasty, which ruled from 164 BCE to 63 BCE. They reasserted the Jewish religion, partly by forced conversion, expanded the boundaries of Judea by conquest and reduced the influence of Hellenism and Hellenistic Judaism.

Background[edit]

In the 2nd century BCE, Judea lay between the Ptolemaic Kingdom based in Egypt and the Seleucid empire based in Syria, kingdoms formed after the death of Alexander the Great (356–323 BCE). Judea had been under Ptolemaic rule, but fell to the Seleucids around 200 BCE. Judea at that time had been affected by the Hellenization begun by Alexander. Some Jews, mainly those of the urban upper class, notably the Tobiad family, wished to dispense with Jewish law and to adopt a Greek lifestyle. According to the historian Victor Tcherikover, the main motive for the Tobiads' Hellenism was economic and political.[1] The Hellenizing Jews built a gymnasium in Jerusalem, competed in international Greek games, "removed their marks of circumcision and repudiated the holy covenant".[2]

When Antiochus IV Epiphanes (ca. 215–164 BCE), became ruler of the Seleucid Empire in 175 BCE, the High Priest in Jerusalem was Onias III. To Antiochus, the High Priest was merely a local governor within his realm, who could be appointed or dismissed at will, while to orthodox Jews he was divinely appointed.[3] Jason, the brother of Onias, bribed Antiochus to make him High Priest instead. Jason abolished the traditional theocracy and constituted Jerusalem as a Greek polis.[1][4] Menelaus then bribed Antiochus and was appointed High Priest in place of Jason. Menelaus had Onias assassinated. Menelaus' brother Lysimachus stole holy vessels from the Temple, causing riots that led to his death. Menelaus was arrested for Onias' murder, and was arraigned before Antiochus, but he bribed his way out of trouble. Jason subsequently drove out Menelaus and became High Priest again. Antiochus pillaged the Temple, attacked Jerusalem and "led captive the women and children".[5] From this point onwards, Antiochus pursued a zealous Hellenizing policy. He made possession of the Torah a capital offense and burned the copies he could find.[6] According to 1 Maccabees, he banned many traditional Jewish religious practices: Jewish sacrifice was forbidden, sabbaths and feasts were banned. Circumcision was outlawed, and mothers who circumcised their babies were killed along with their families.[7] Altars to Greek gods were set up and animals prohibited to Jews were sacrificed on them. The idol of Olympian Zeus was placed on the altar of the Temple. The motives of Antiochus are unclear. He may have been incensed at the overthrow of his appointee, Menelaus,[3] or he may have been responding to an orthodox Jewish revolt that drew on the Temple and the Torah for its strength[1] and encouraged by a group of radical Hellenizers among the Jews.[8]

The revolt[edit]

Main article: Maccabean Revolt
Judea under Judah Maccabee
Jonathan's conquests
Simon's conquests

In the narrative of I Maccabees, after Antiochus issued his decrees forbidding Jewish religious practice, a rural Jewish priest from Modiin, Mattathias the Hasmonean, sparked the revolt against the Seleucid Empire by refusing to worship the Greek gods. Mattathias killed a Hellenistic Jew who stepped forward to offer a sacrifice to an idol in Mattathias' place. He and his five sons fled to the wilderness of Judah. After Mattathias' death about one year later in 166 BCE, his son Judas Maccabee led an army of Jewish dissidents to victory over the Seleucid dynasty in guerrilla warfare, which at first was directed against Hellenizing Jews, of whom there were many. The Maccabees destroyed pagan altars in the villages, circumcised boys and forced Jews into outlawry.[8] The term Maccabees as used to describe the Jewish army is taken from the Hebrew word for "hammer".[9]

The revolt involved many battles, in which the Maccabean forces gained notoriety among the Seleucid army for their use of guerrilla tactics. After the victory, the Maccabees entered Jerusalem in triumph and ritually cleansed the Temple, reestablishing traditional Jewish worship there and installing Jonathan Maccabee as high priest. A large Seleucid army was sent to quash the revolt, but returned to Syria on the death of Antiochus IV. Its commander Lysias, preoccupied with internal Seleucid affairs, agreed to a political compromise that restored religious freedom.

The Jewish festival of Hanukkah celebrates the re-dedication of the Temple following Judah Maccabee's victory over the Seleucids. According to Rabbinic tradition, the victorious Maccabees could only find a small jug of oil that had remained uncontaminated by virtue of a seal, and although it only contained enough oil to sustain the Menorah for one day, it miraculously lasted for eight days, by which time further oil could be procured.[10]

Maccabean rule[edit]

Main article: Hasmonean dynasty

Following the re-dedication of the temple, the supporters of the Maccabees were divided over the question of whether to continue fighting or not. When the revolt began under the leadership of Mattathias, it was seen as a war for religious freedom to end the oppression of the Seleucids. However, as the Maccabees realized how successful they had been, many wanted to continue the revolt and conquer other lands with Jewish populations or to convert their peoples. This policy exacerbated the divide between the Pharisees and Sadducees under later Hasmonean monarchs such as Alexander Jannaeus.[11] Those who sought the continuation of the war were led by Judah Maccabee.

On his death in battle in 160 BCE, Judah was succeeded as army commander by his younger brother, Jonathan, who was already High Priest. Jonathan made treaties with various foreign states, causing further dissent between those who merely desired religious freedom and those who sought greater power.

In 142 BCE, Jonathan was assassinated by Diodotus Tryphon, a pretender to the Seleucid throne, and was succeeded by Simon Maccabee, the last remaining son of Mattathias. Simon gave support to Demetrius II Nicator, the Seleucid king, and in return Demetrius exempted the Maccabees from tribute. Simon conquered the port of Joppa where the Gentile population were 'forcibly removed',[12] the fortress of Gezer and expelled the garrison from the Acra in Jerusalem. In 140 BCE, he was recognised by an assembly of the priests, leaders and elders as high priest, military commander and ruler of Israel. Their decree became the basis of the Hasmonean kingdom. Shortly after, the Roman senate renewed its alliance with the Hasmonean kingdom and commanded its allies in the eastern Mediterranean to do so also[citation needed]. Although the Maccabees won autonomy, the region remained a province of the Seleucid Empire and Simon was required to provide troops to Antiochus VII Sidetes, the brother of Demetrius II. When Simon refused to give up the territory he had conquered, Antiochus took them by force.

Simon was murdered in 134 BCE by his son-in-law Ptolemy, and was succeeded as high priest and king by his son John Hyrcanus I. Antiochus conquered the entire district of Judea, but refrained from attacking the Temple or interfering with Jewish observances. Judea was freed from Seleucid rule on the death of Antiochus in 129 BCE.[8]

Independent Hasmonean rule lasted until 63 BCE, when the Roman general Pompeus intervened in Hasmoenan civil war, making it a client kingdom of Rome. The Hasmonean dynasty ended in 37 BCE when the Idumean Herod the Great became king of Israel,[3] designated "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate,[8][13] effectively transforming the Hasmonean Kingdom into Herodian Kingdom - a client kingdom of Rome.

Mention in the Bible[edit]

The story of the Maccabees is told in 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees, which are deuterocanonical books in most Christian biblical canons, and in 3 Maccabees and 4 Maccabees, which are in a few Eastern Christian canons. 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees are part of the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox canons, but not part of the Protestant Old Testament or the Jewish Bible.

Origin of name[edit]

The Holy Maccabees
Stattler-Machabeusze.jpg
Wojciech Stattler's "Machabeusze" ("The Maccabees"), 1844
Born 2nd century BCE
Judea (modern-day Israel)
Died 167–160 BCE
Judea
Honored in
Roman Catholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Churches
Canonized Pre-Congregation
Feast August 1

The name Maccabee[14] is often used as a synonym for the entire Hasmonean Dynasty, but the Maccabees proper were Judah Maccabee and his four brothers. The name Maccabee was a personal epithet of Judah,[15] and the later generations were not his direct descendants. One explanation of the name's origins is that it derives from the Aramaic "makkaba", "the hammer", in recognition of Judah's ferocity in battle.[16] The traditional Jewish explanation is that Maccabee (Hebrew: מקביםMachabi, מקבים) is an acronym for the Torah verse that was the battle-cry of the Maccabees, "Mi chamocha ba'elim YHWH", "Who is like You among the heavenly powers, Hashem!",[17][18] as well as an acronym for "Matityahu Kohen ben Yochanan. The correlating Torah verse Exodus 15:11, The song of Moses and the Children of Israel by the Sea,[17] makes a reference to Elim, with a mundane notion of natural forces, heavenly might, war and governmental powers. The scholar and poet Aaron Kaminka argues that the name is a corruption of Machbanai, a leading commando in the army of King David.[19]

Holy Maccabean Martyrs[edit]

Main article: Woman with seven sons

2 Maccabees and 4 Maccabees recount the martyrdom of seven Jewish brothers, their mother and their teacher. Although these are not said to be of the Maccabee family, they are referred to in Christianity as the Holy Maccabean Martyrs or the Holy Maccabees.

According to one tradition, their individual names are Habim, Antonin, Guriah, Eleazar, Eusebon, Hadim (Halim), Marcellus, their mother Solomonia, and their teacher Eleazar.[20]

The three Ethiopian books of Meqabyan (quite distinct works from the other four books of Maccabees), which are canonical in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahdo Church, also refer to the Maccabee martyrs. The first of these books states that their father was a Benjamite named Maccabeus, and that three of the brothers, who are called Abya, Seela, and Fentos, were captured and martyred for leading a guerilla war against Antiochus Epiphanes.

What is believed to be the Maccabees' relics - kept in the Maccabees Shrine - is venerated in St. Andrew's Church, Cologne, Germany.

The feast day of these saints is 1 August in both the Eastern Orthodox Church, for which 1 August is also the first day of the Dormition Fast and the Catholic Church.

From before the time of the Tridentine Calendar, the Holy Maccabees had a commemoration in the Roman Rite liturgy within the feast of Saint Peter in Chains. This commemoration remained within the weekday liturgy when in 1960 Pope John XXIII suppressed this particular feast of Saint Peter. Nine years later, 1 August became the feast of Saint Alphonsus Maria de' Liguori and the mention of the Maccabee martyrs was omitted from the General Roman Calendar, since in its 1969 revision it no longer admitted commemorations.[21]

Modern perception[edit]

The author of the First Book of Maccabees regarded the Maccabean revolt as a rising of pious Jews against the Seleucid king who had tried to eradicate their religion and against the Jews who supported him. The author of the Second Book of Maccabees presented the conflict as a struggle between "Judaism" and "Hellenism", words that he was the first to use.[8] Most modern scholars argue that the king was reacting to a civil war between traditionalist Jews in the countryside and Hellenized Jews in Jerusalem,[22][23] though the king's response of persecuting the religious traditionalists was unusual in antiquity, and was the immediate provocation for the revolt.[24] According to Joseph P. Schultz, modern scholarship "considers the Maccabean revolt less as an uprising against foreign oppression than as a civil war between the orthodox and reformist parties in the Jewish camp",[25] while John J. Collins writes that while the civil war between Jewish leaders led to the king's new policies, it is wrong to see the revolt as simply a conflict between Hellenism and Judaism, since "The revolt was not provoked by the introduction of Greek customs (typified by the building of a gymnasium) but by the persecution of people who observed the Torah by having their children circumcised and refusing to eat pork."[24] In the conflict over the office of High Priest, traditionalists with Hebrew/Aramaic names like Onias contested with Hellenizers with Greek names like Jason and Menelaus.[26] Other authors point to social and economic factors in the conflict.[1][27] What began as a civil war took on the character of an invasion when the Hellenistic kingdom of Syria sided with the Hellenizing Jews against the traditionalists.[28] As the conflict escalated, Antiochus prohibited the practices of the traditionalists, thereby, in a departure from usual Seleucid practice, banning the religion of an entire people.[1] Other scholars argue that while the rising began as a religious rebellion, it was gradually transformed into a war of national liberation.[29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Tcherikover, Victor Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews, New York: Atheneum, 1975
  2. ^ I Maccabees, i, 15
  3. ^ a b c Oesterley, W.O.E., A History of Israel, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1939.
  4. ^ De Lange, Nicholas, Atlas of the Jewish World, Oxford: Andromeda, 1992
  5. ^ I Maccabees, i, 30-32
  6. ^ I Macccabees. 1:57
  7. ^ "1 Maccabees 1:60-61 (New Revised Standard w/ Apocrypha)". biblestudytools.com. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Nicholas de Lange (ed.), The Illustrated History of the Jewish People, London, Aurum Press, 1997, ISBN 1-85410-530-2
  9. ^ "Jewish Virtual Library". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2013-07-29. 
  10. ^ "Talmud, Tractate Shabbat". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2013-07-29. 
  11. ^ Cohen, Shaye J.D., From the Maccabees to the Mishnah (Second Edition. Westminster John Knox Press, 2006)
  12. ^ Jews in the Mediterranean diaspora: from Alexander to Trajan (323 BCE - 117 CE) John M Barclay University of California press pg 247
  13. ^ Josephus' Jewish War 1.14.4: Mark Antony " …then resolved to get him made king of the Jews… told them that it was for their advantage in the Parthian war that Herod should be king; so they all gave their votes for it. And when the senate was separated, Antony and Caesar went out, with Herod between them; while the consul and the rest of the magistrates went before them, in order to offer sacrifices [to the Roman gods], and to lay the decree in the Capitol. Antony also made a feast for Herod on the first day of his reign;"
  14. ^ Latin: Maccabaeus, Greek: Makkabaios, from Hebrew maqqeb et, hammer (Oxford English Dictionary).
  15. ^ See 11 Maccabees 2:4
  16. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "The Machabees". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. 
  17. ^ a b Scherman, Nosson (ed.) ; contributing editors, Yaakov Blinder, Avie Gold, Meir Zlotowitz ; designed by Sheah Brander (1998). Tanakh = Tanach : Torah, Neviʼim, Ketuvim : the Torah, Prophets, Writings : the twenty-four books of the Bible, newly translated and annotated (1st student size ed., Stone ed. ed.). Brooklyn, N.Y.: Mesorah Publications. pp. 171–172. ISBN 1578191092. 
  18. ^ Exodus 15:11
  19. ^ "What does "Maccabee" mean? - Ask the Rabbi". Oztorah.com. Retrieved 2013-07-29. 
  20. ^ "The Seven Holy Maccabean Martyrs". Holytrinityorthodox.com. 2007-05-20. Retrieved 2013-07-29. 
  21. ^ "Calendarium Romanum" (Libreria Editrice Vatican, 1969), p. 132
  22. ^ Telushkin, Joseph (1991). Jewish Literacy: The Most Important Things to Know about the Jewish Religion, Its People, and Its History. W. Morrow. p. 114. ISBN 0-688-08506-7. 
  23. ^ Greenberg, Irving (1993). The Jewish Way: Living the Holidays. Simon & Schuster. p. 29. ISBN 0-671-87303-2. 
  24. ^ a b Johnston, Sarah Iles (2004). Religions of the Ancient World: A Guide. Harvard University Press. p. 186. ISBN 0-674-01517-7. 
  25. ^ Schultz, Joseph P. (1981). Judaism and the Gentile Faiths: Comparative Studies in Religion. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. p. 155. ISBN 0-8386-1707-7. "Modern scholarship on the other hand considers the Maccabean revolt less as an uprising against foreign oppression than as a civil war between the orthodox and reformist parties in the Jewish camp" 
  26. ^ Gundry, Robert H. (2003). A Survey of the New Testament. Zondervan. p. 9. ISBN 0-310-23825-0. 
  27. ^ Freedman, David Noel; Allen C. Myers; Astrid B. Beck (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 837. ISBN 0-8028-2400-5. 
  28. ^ Wood, Leon James (1986). A Survey of Israel's History. Zondervan. p. 357. ISBN 0-310-34770-X. 
  29. ^ Jewish Life and Thought Among Greeks and Romans: Primary Readings, By Louis H. Feldman, Meyer Reinhold, Fortress Press, 1996, p. 147

External links[edit]