|Place of origin||Italy (modern macaroni)|
|Main ingredients||Durum wheat|
Macaroni is a variety of dry pasta in the shape of narrow tubes, originating from Italy, made with durum wheat, usually without egg. It is normally cut in short lengths; if cut in lengths with a curve it is usually called elbow macaroni. Some home machines can make macaroni shapes, but, like most pasta, macaroni is usually made commercially by large-scale extrusion. The curved shape is caused by different speeds on opposite sides of the pasta tube as it comes out of the machine. The name comes from the Italian maccheroni, plural form of maccherone. A different name, chifferi or lumaconi, refers to bigger size of elbow-shape pasta.
The academic consensus supports that the word is derived from the Greek μακαρία (makaria), a kind of barley broth which was served to commemorate the dead, which in turn comes from μάκαρες (makares), "blessed dead", and that from μακάριος (makarios), collateral of μάκαρ (makar), meaning "blessed, happy". The Italian linguist G. Alessio argues that the word can have two origins: the first from the Medieval Greek μακαρώνεια (makarōneia) "dirge" (stated in sec. XIII by James of Bulgaria), which would be passed to mean "funeral meal" and then "food to serve" during this office (see today's μαχαρωνιά - macharōnia in Eastern Thrace, in the sense of "rice-based dish served at the funeral"), in which case the term would be composed of the double root of μακάριος "blessed" and αἰωνίος (aiōnios), "eternally", and the second from the Greek μακαρία "barley broth", which would have added the suffix -one.
In North America, macaroni is most often made in elbow shape.
In areas with large Chinese populations open to Western cultural influence, such as Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia and Singapore, the local Chinese have adopted macaroni as an ingredient for Chinese-style Western cuisine. In Hong Kong's cha chaan teng ("Tea Restaurant") and Southeast Asia's kopi tiam ("coffee shop"), macaroni is cooked in water and then washed of starch, and served in clear broth with ham or frankfurter sausages, peas, black mushrooms, and optionally eggs, reminiscent of noodle soup dishes. This is often a course for breakfast or light lunch fare.
Russian language borrowed the word (as Russian: макароны) as the only term for all varieties of pasta.
In addition to dishes similar to those made with other types of pasta, macaroni and cheese is a popular dish in English-speaking countries, often made with elbow macaroni. A sweet macaroni pudding, similar to a rice pudding, is also often made.
- Maccheroni, History of Maccheroni (it)
- Oxford Dictionary, Macaroni
- Il Devoto-Oli. Vocabolario della lingua italiana, edited by Luca Serianni and Maurizio Trifone, Le Monnier.
- μακαρία, (def. III), Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
- Macaroni, on Compact Oxford English Dictionary
- "Macaroni", Online Etymology Dictionary
- Macaroni, on Webster's New World College Dictionary
- Andrew Dalby, Food in the Ancient World from A to Z, Routledge, 2003, on Google books
- Reader's Digest Oxford Complete Wordfinder
- Dhirendra Verma, Word Origins, on Google books
- Mario Pei, The story of language, p.223
- William Grimes, Eating Your Words, Oxford University Press, on Google books
- Mark Morton, Cupboard Love: A Dictionary of Culinary Curiosities, on Google books
- μάκαρ, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
- αἰωνίος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
- G. Alessio, "Atti dell'Accademia Pontaniana", t. 8, 1958-59, pp. 261-280
- AP, Explore the world of Canto-Western cuisine, January 8, 2007
- traditionalenglishpuddings.com: macaroni pudding
|Look up macaroni in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|