The Macdaniel affair or Macdaniel scandal occurred in England in 1754 when it came to light that a gang, led by Stephen MacDaniel, had been prosecuting innocent men to their deaths in order to collect reward money. It was an unintended consequence of British government rewards for the capture of criminals. Before those rewards were instituted, thief-takers depended primarily on privately funded rewards from victims seeking return of stolen property or other restitution. However, this scandal formed part of the impetus for the formation of salaried public police forces who did not depend on rewards.
- Delmas-Marty, Mireille; J. R. Spencer (first published in French 1995, English translation 2002). "European Criminal Procedures (pdf)". Presses Universitaires de France / Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2008-07-05.[dead link]
- Benson, Bruce (1998). To Serve and Protect: Privatization and Community in Criminal Justice. NYU Press. ISBN 0-8147-1327-0.
- Rawlings, Philip; Tim Newburn, Les Johnston, Frank Leishman (2002). Policing: A Short History. Willan Publishing. ISBN 1-903240-26-3.
- McLynn, Frank (1989). Crime and punishment in eighteenth-century England. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-01014-4.
- Langbein, John H. (2003). The Origins of Adversary Criminal Trial. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-925888-0.
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