|40,655 by birth (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006)
93,570 by ancestry (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2011)
up to 200.000 by ancestry est. (United Macedonian Diaspora, 2012)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Predominantly Macedonian Orthodox|
Macedonian Australians are Australians of ethnic Macedonian descent. Many have their origins in the 1920s and 1930s although larger numbers came to Australia after World War II and the Greek Civil War. By far the largest wave of immigration was during the 1960s and 1970s.
- 1 Demography
- 2 Language
- 3 History of Macedonians in Australia
- 4 Sports
- 5 Religion
- 6 List of notable Macedonian Australians
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
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In the 2006 Census, 40,656 Australian residents are listed as having been born in the Republic of Macedonia. A total of 83,978 residents declared their ancestry as Macedonian, either alone or in combination with another ancestry. As at 2006 the Macedonian language is spoken at home by 67,833 residents. In 2001 the Republic of Macedonia was the 26th most common birthplace in Australia.
Australian cities with the largest Macedonian-born communities are Melbourne (17,286, in particular the outer suburbs), Sydney (11,630, in particular in the Southern) and Wollongong (4,279 - about 1.6% of the Wollongong population).
In 2001, 81,898 people claimed Macedonian Ancestry, in 2006 this rose to 83,978 in 2006. Macedonian was the 21st most common Ancestry group. Of the total number who claimed Macedonian ancestry in 2001 39,244 or 47.9% were born in the Republic of Macedonia, 35,805 or 43.7% were born in Australia, 2,919 or 3.6% were born in Greece and roughly 5% were born elsewhere.
Most Macedonian Australians are of the Orthodox Christian faith, although there is a small number of Muslims and Methodists. 36,749 Macedonian-born Australian residents declared they were Christian, and 2,161 stated they were Muslim. In 2001 there were a total of 53,249 adherents to the Macedonian Orthodox Church. 28,474 or 53.5% of these were born in the Republic of Macedonia, 21,324 or 40% were born in Australia, 1,340 or 2.5% were born in Greece and roughly 4% were born elsewhere.
The Macedonian language was the tenth most common language spoken in Australia after English. In 2006, 67,835 people spoke the Macedonian language at home. In 2001 one-third of Macedonian speakers were aged over 65, 25.9% were aged from 55-64, 31.8% were aged from 25-54, 1.2% were aged from 13-24 and 7.7% were aged from 0-12. 53.2% or 38,826 speakers were born in the Republic of Macedonia, 37.6% or 27,051 speakers were born in Australia, 4.4% or 3,152 speakers were born in Greece and a further 1.3% or 908 speakers were born in Yugoslavia.
Most Australians born in Macedonia use the Macedonian language at home (35,070 or 86% out of 40,656 in 2006). Proficiency in English for Australians born in Macedonia was self-described by census respondents as very well by 33%, well by 33%, 26% not well (8% didn't state or said not applicable).
The most significant populations of Macedonian speakers as of 2001 were Melbourne - 30,083, Sydney - 19,980, Wollongong - 7,420, Perth - 5,772, Newcastle - 1,993, Geelong - 1,300, Queanbeyan - 1,105.
Many suburbs have large Macedonian speaking communities, the most largest are; Port Kembla (20.9%), Thomastown (16.7%), Banksia (16.1%), Coniston (15.9%) and Lalor (14.8%). In 2001, Cringila was titled the "most Macedonian" suburb in all of Australia with 32.8% of its population speaking Macedonian at home.
History of Macedonians in Australia
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2009)|
Macedonians have been arriving in Australia since the late 1880s on Pečalba. Pečalbari (the man in the family) would go and work overseas to earn money then return home with the spoils. This restricted major settlement. The two major waves of early Macedonian immigration, according to Peter Hill, were when in 1924 America implemented tougher immigration policies and in 1936 when the Ioannis Metaxas regime came into power. By 1921 there were 50 Macedonians in Australia, by 1940 this number had reached over 6,000., the majority of whom were from Florina, Kastoria and Bitola. After World War II and the Greek Civil War many Macedonians from Greece came to Australia, these people are known as Aegean Macedonians, they settled in areas including Richmond and Footscray. However before the Second World War many Macedonians did not have a strong sense of national identity, but of regional identity. Most of them considered themselves as Macedonian Bulgarians.
When the Yugoslav policies that encouraged its citizens to work overseas were introduced many Ethnic Macedonians within Yugoslavia left for Australia. The peak of this emigration was in the early 1970s. They settled in mainly industrial districts, particularly in Wollongong and Newcastle, in the Melbourne suburb of Thomastown and the Sydney suburb of Rockdale. Many Macedonians from Yugoslavia would also settle in isolated parts of Australia such as Port Hedland. Most of these immigrants were from an agricultural background. Macedonian migration had slowed by the 1980s only to restart in the early 1990s after the breakup of Yugoslavia.
As at the 2006 census 64% of Australian residents born in Macedonia had arrived before 1980.
Macedonians in New South Wales
Many of the first Macedonians came to New South Wales. During the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s many Aegean Macedonians settled in Crabbes Creek, Queanbeyan, Newcastle and Richmond. By the time of the Macedonian-Australian People's League Macedonians could be found all over the state. Branches were opened in Sydney (Vesela Makedonija), Queanbeyan (Alexander the Great), Richmond (Kotori), Crabbes Creek (Sloboda), Katoomba, Port Kembla, Forbes, Braidwood, Beechwood (Wauchope), Lithgow, Captains Flat, Newcastle, Bonnyrigg and Griffith. The first Macedonian hall built in Australia was the Macedonian Cultural Hall in Crabbes Creek. From the 1960s thousands of Macedonians from the Bitola, Prespa, Struga and Ohrid regions of Macedonia would come to New South Wales. Many of these immigrants settled in Wollongong, Sydney and Newcastle. Today the Macedonian Community in New South Wales is the second largest in Australia. By 2001, 30,658 people were speaking the Macedonian language at home with 19,057 of these born in the Republic of Macedonia. In 2006, 34,316 people claimed Macedonian ancestry but community spokesperson claim that in New South Wales there are over 70,000 Macedonians.
Sydney is home to one of the largest concentrations of Macedonians in Australia and in the diaspora. The first Macedonians came to Sydney in the early 1920s before making their way to the coal fields of the Illawarra or Hunter Valley, the heavy industrial centers of Port Kembla and Newcastle, or heading inland to places like Broken Hill and Richmond. The first Macedonian to settle in Rockdale was Risto Belcheff from the village Capari in 1945. By 1946 a branch of the Macedonian-Australian People's League was opened in Sydney, it was known as Vesela Makedonija. The Vesela Makedonija branch founded the Ilinden Soccer Club in the same year. In 1948 the group established a KUD also known as "Vesela Makedonija". From 1948 - 1953 the Macedonian Newspaper "Makedonska Iskra" was published in Sydney. From 1946 to 1960 Macedonian dances were often held in the Zora Hall. In 1957 the first Easter dance took place in the Trades Hall, the Russian Club was also a common hall for dances and celebrations. From 1960 onwards thousands of Macedonians from the Bitola and Prespa regions of Macedonia settled in Sydney, most notably: Rockdale, Arncliffe, Bexley, Bankstown, Yagoona and Banksia. The Macedonians started to meet every Christmas Day in the Royal National Park, this tradition continues today. A second KUD, KUD Ilinden was set up. In 1966 and the only Macedonian Orthodox Cathedral in NSW and the first Macedonian Church in Sydney, Свети Кирил и Методиј/Saints Cyril and Methodius of Rosebery was built. Macedonian churches were also built in the city of Melbourne one popular church in the 1980s was the Macedonian Orthodox Church, Kliment Ohridski which is situated in the north-western regions of Victoria, up at Kinglake. Unfortunately this church suffered a major fire disaster due to the forest fires in Kinglake in 2009/2010.
In 1976 the Macedonian Orthodox Church, Света Петка/Saint Petka of Rockdale was established by Macedonians from the village Capari (Tsapari). In 1976 the Macedonian Ethnic School, 11 October was founded in Yagoona followed by a second in Canley Vale, St Nikola, in the following year. In 1977 the foundation stone was laid for Свети Никола/Saint Nikola of Cabramatta was laid. Soccer clubs such as Bankstown City Lions (Sydney Macedonia), Rockdale City Suns (Rockdale Ilinden), Yagoona Lions Soccer Club and Arncliffe Macedonia Soccer Club were all founded by Macedonians. The Macedonian Literary sociey of "Gligor Prličev" was founded in Sydney in 1978. The Society releases a quarterly journal called Povod. The Society keeps a Macedonian language library. The society organises competitions for literature. And in 1985 the society published a volume of poems called Vidici (Vistas) with poems from 31 Australian Macedonian poets, this was done with the help of the Australia Council. Members of the Society have been invited to the prestigious Struga Poetry Evenings. In 1983 ties with Macedonia were strengthened as Bitola and Rockdale became sister cities.
In 1985 the Macedonian language newspaper "Makedonski Vestnik" was first printed in Rockdale. The First Macedonian Cultural Day was held in Rockdale in 1986. By 1987 two more ethnic schools had opened in Arncliffe and Rockdale. By 1989 nearly 20 additional KUD's were operating in Sydney they were; KUD Tanec, KUD Orče Nikolov, KUD Mirče Acev, KUD Dame Gruev, KUD St Naum, KUD Cyril and Methodius, KUD Kitka, KUD Karpoš, KUD Makedonka, KUD Makedonski Orel, KUD Egejska Makedonija, KUD Makedonija and KUD Gjerdan. The "Australian-Macedonian Mountaineering Association" was established by Dimitar Illievski. After the Breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s many more Macedonians began to immigrate to Sydney. Much of the second generation began to migrate westwards to Fairfield and Liverpool as they gained affluence. It soon emerged that there were three major concentrations of Macedonians in Sydney, the Rockdale-Hurstville Area, Bankstown-Yagoona and Bonnyrigg-Fairfield. Today over 20 Radio programs service the Macedonian community in Sydney. Another church Света Богородица Пречиста/Holy Mother of God or Liverpool has also opened and the Macedonian language is now taught at Macquarie University.
By the 1990s the Macedonian Community had constructed numerous halls the largest is the "Ilinden Centre" in Rockdale. Burek Shops, Kafani and Macedonian Associations have been the most prominent impact that Macedonian immigrants have had on the local community. The "Australian-Macedonian Mountaineering Association" operates from Holsworthy. Many pensioner groups and youth associations have been set up to cater for a diverse demographic. The most notable Macedonian soccer team in Sydney are the Rockdale City Suns otherwise known as Rockdale Ilinden. The total number of Macedonian language speakers reached a peak in 2001 with 19,980 speakers, this fell to 19,033 speakers in 2006. The number of Macedonian born has fallen to 11,630 while the total number of people claiming Macedonian ancestry is 22,068. Community spokespersons claim that over 30,000 Macedonians reside in Sydney.
Richmond was one of the original Macedonian Settlements in Australia. The first Macedonian to come to Richmond was Steve Pandu, from the village Kotori in Lerin, Macedonia (Florina, Greece) in 1927. He was joined by many other Macedonians and by 1938 they had established many farms and market-gardens. Soon more Macedonians came to establish orchard's in the Agnes Banks area. Many family members were brought out from Yugoslavia and Greece. in 1946 a chapter of the Macedonian-Australian People's League opened in Richmond. The Macedonians in Richmond were an integral part in Macedonian-Australian society. By 1950 a large concentration of Aegean Macedonians from the village Kotori was present. After the Macedonian-Australian People's League decentralized the Richmond Macedonian Association was founded in 1961. Later still in 1980, this organization split half, forming the Aegean Macedonian Social and Cultural Society and the Macedonian Cultural and Art Society, Pelister. The Aegean Macedonian Social and Cultural Society went on to raise over $100,000 to build their own cultural centre which was opened on 26 December 1983, the Macedonian Hall, Kotori. Today both groups still operate independently although talks of re-unification have been fruitless. In Richmond two KUDs were set up, KUD Pelister and KUD Kotori. Community spokespersons claim that there are over 700 Macedonians in the Richmond Area.
The 1996 census recorded 267 Macedonian language speakers this fell to 218 in 2006. The total number of people claiming Macedonian ancestry in the Richmond area in 2001 was 291.
The community frequent the local Catholic church or the other Macedonian Churches in Sydney. Many Macedonians have large amounts of real-estate in the Richmond area. Macedonians have played an important part in shaping the history of Richmond.
The first Macedonian to arrive in the Illawarra was Ilčo Stojkov in 1924. He initially arrived to work in the Port Kembla Steelworks. It is estimated only a few hundred Macedonians immigrated to the Illawarra region in the pre-World War Two period. Despite this the first Macedonian cafe was founded in 1943 by Trajan Rakovitis from the village Rakovo/Lerin. in 1946 a branch of the Macedonian-Australian People's League opened in Port Kembla. Most of the Macedonians in Wollongong are post-war migrants from the Socialist Republic of Macedonia. From 1960 onwards thousands of Macedonians were employed in the Port Kembla Steelworks, they primarily settled in the nearby suburbs of Cringila, Warrawong and Coniston.
In 1971 the first Sredselo was introduced to Lake Heights by Lambe Nestoroski, Trajan Ristanovski and Sergija Sekuloski, it soon spread to Cringila. The first Macedonian Orthodox Church, Свети Димитрија Солунски/Saint Dimitrija of Solun of Wollongong was built in 1972. The Macedonians founded many soccer clubs such as, Wollongong United or Wollongong Makedonija, Warrawong United, Lake Heights Junior Soccer Club, Cringila Lions Soccer Club, Coniston Macedonia Soccer Club, Shellharbour Barbarians and Pelister Illawarra Soccer Club. A friendly rivalry exists between Wollongong United whose fans base is primarily from Bitola, Cringila Lions Soccer Club whose fan base is primarily from Struga and Warrawong United whose supporters are primarily from the Mariovo area. A Macedonian Theatre was established in Cringila in the late 1970s, The "Macedonian theatre of the Illawarra" produced many notable performances and was later renamed after its patron, Bill Neskovski. By the 1970s an estimated 85% of Cringila and 55% of Port Kembla, 35% of Coniston and Warrawong were Macedonians.
The second church built was, Свети Климент Охридски/Saint Kliment of Ohrid of Port Kembla, was consecrated in 1989. By 1986 an estimate 4% of the total Illawarra region was Macedonian. During the 1980s many Macedonians migrated to more affluent suburbs in the Illwarra and to Canberra. A branch of the VMRO political party was also founded in Wollongong. Many Macedonian "Cultural and Folkloric Groups" (Macedonian: Културно Уметично друштви/ Kulturno Umetično Društvi) such as; KUD 11 October, KUD Makedonka, KUD Biljana, KUD Nikola Karev, KUD Mlada Makedonka and KUD Makedonski Biseri were founded. By 2001 only 32% of Cringila and 21% of Port Kembla were Macedonians, while 11% of Blackbutt and 7% of Barrack Height were Macedonian. In 2006 there were 8,111 Macedonians in the Illawarra and 7,420 speakers of the Macedonian language. The custom of Sredselo still continues in Cringila today and is the highlight of the Macedonian Social Year. The first Macedonian Orthodox monastery in NSW, Света Петка/Saint Petka, was built in Kembla Grange in 2006. Two Macedonian-language radio stations service the community along with a range of support services, the community has a quarterly journal called "KOMPAS".
Many of the first Macedonians would often go to work at the Newcastle Steelworks. By the early 1930s various "Kafani" had been established. As whole families began to immigrate many social and cultural amenities were established. In 1946 the Newcastle branch of the Macedonian-Australian People's League From the 1960s many Macedonians from the Socialist Republic of Macedonia came to Newcastle. A KUD was established and the Macedonian-Australian People's League helped to engage the Macedonian Novacastrians with the rest of the Macedonian Australian community. Many would attend dances in the Trades Hall, Sydney. The first time the Macedonian language was broadcast in Australia occurred in Newcastle in 1949 as the local branch of the MAPL held a commemorative Ilinden broadcast.
After the decentralization of the Macedonian-Australian People's League the Greek orientated, "Pavlos Melas" society was founded. This in turn was replaced by the "Macedonian Community of Newcastle". In 1970 the community built the Света Богородица/Holy Mother of God Macedonian Orthodox Church in Adamstown. The soccer clubs of Red Star, Newcastle-Macedonia, The Macedonian junior soccer club and Broadmeadow Magic were all founded by Macedonians. Another 3 KUD's, KUD Ilinden, KUD Bitola and KUD "Stiv Naumi" were all founded, the latter which still operates today. A sredselo was established as another church was constructed. In 1986 the first Macedonian Cultural Day was held and the "Goce Delcev" ethnic school was founded. The first non-English language Newspaper in Newcastle was the Macedonian paper "Kopnež" which was launched in 1984 by the "Macedonian Community of Newcastle". After the Breakup of Yugoslavi a number of Macedonians came to the Newcastle region. In the early 1990s a branch of the VMRO party was set up. A Macedonian welfare centre was built on the site of the Macedonian Orthodox Church. Peter Hill estimates that there are 3,600 Macedonians in the Newcastle region. In 1996, 2,095 people spoke the Macedonian language at home compared with the 1,863 in 2006. In 2006 the number of people with Macedonian ancestry in the Newcastle are was 2,424 of whom Aegean Macedonians comprise 20%.
The first Macedonians to arrive in the Queanbeyan area were Aegean Macedonians from the Florina and Kastoria regions. They established market-gardens or became Eucalypt cutters near Braidwood. By 1920 an estimated 250 Macedonian had come to the Queanbeyan area. After the Second World War and the Greek Civil War many Aegean Macedonians came to the Queanbeyan region. In 1946 a chapter of the Macedonian-Australian People's League was founded, it was called Mladi Goce after the name of the commander of the First Aegean Partisan Brigade which operated in Macedonia in 1944/1945. After the collapse of the Macedonian-Australian People's League a split occurred in the community between pro-Greek and pro-Macedonian factions. The Greek-orientated "Society of Kastorians and Florinians" was set up in Queanbeyan. The Greek Orthodox Community in Queanbeyan is dominated by Macedonians. In 1969 the Macedonian Orthodox Church, Свети Илија/Saint Ilija of Queanbeyan was consecrated.
In 1983 the foundation stone for the Macedonian Orthodox Cathedral, Свети Климент Охридски/Saint Kliment of Ohrid in Red Hill was laid. The cathedral was designed by Macedonian Australian, Vlase Nikoleski. As part of Macedonian Cultural Week a performance is traditionally held in Canberra. The Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs estimated that there are 3,000 Macedonians in the Canberra/Queanbeyan region, of whom two-thirds are Aegean Macedonians. Two Cultural and Folkloric Groups, The Wolverines and KUD Egejska Makedonija were founded in Queanbeyan, along with the Macedonian-Queanbeyan soccer Club. The Bitola social club or "Tumbe Cafe" was founded in Canberra. A third church was built in Canberra, Свети Климент Охридски/Saint Kliment of Ohrid in Narrabundah along with a Macedonian Ethnic School. Another Macedonian ethnic school, "Goce Delčev", operates in Queanbeyan. The number of Macedonian speakers in the Queanbeyan/Canberra region fell from 1,761 in 1996 to 1,550 in 2006. The total number of Macedonians in the Queanbeyan/Canberra region was 1,991 in 2006 of these only 927 were born in the Republic of Macedonia.
Macedonians in Victoria
Macedonians have been migrating to Victoria since late 1880s. Many "pečalbari" decided to settle and they travelled the countryside looking for work as itinerant labourers. Others established market gardens or small businesses in both rural and city areas. Many thousands of Aegean Macedonians came to Victoria in the post war period, today the largest group of Aegean Macedonians can be found in Victoria. During the 1960s and 1970s they were joined by thousands of Macedonians from the Socialist Republic of Macedonia. In 1991, Macedonia declared its independence from the Yugoslav federation. Business migrants from Macedonia soon began to arrive in Australia. By 1986 there were 24,090 Macedonian language speakers in Victoria, this reached a peak in 1996 with 32,949 people using the Macedonian language at home. As of 2006 37, 434 people in Victoria had either full or partial Macedonian ancestry.
In 1994 the Victorian state premier Jeff Kennett ordered government departments and agencies to use the term 'Slav Macedonian' to describe such people. This was done as a measure to shore up electoral support from Victoria's large Greek Australian community. A court eventually repealed the decision in 1998 and since then the prefix "slavo-" has been dropped, on the basis of racial discrimination. In 2008, Trajce Atanasovski became the first Macedonian elected mayor in Australian state of Victoria.
A prominent group of Macedonians has existed in the Geelong area since the 1950s. The first Macedonians, primarily from Aegean Macedonia, arrived in the late 1930s to work in the Industries which surrounded the city. This community, composed mainly of single males, did not establish any form of community or cultural amenities. By the Second World War much of this community had left to seek employment in Melbourne. After the Second World War the Geelong branch of the Macedonian-Australian People's League had been founded. By 1955 a large group of Aegean Macedonian refugees had arrived in the city. in 1956 the first Macedonian soccer club had been founded in the area. This group was active in the establishment of the Macedonian Communist in Geelong. Througohout the 1960s and 1970s this group of Macedonians was joined by immigrants from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. A KUD Biser/Pearl was founded in the area and plans to consecrate a Macedonian Orthodox Church were drawn up. In 1965 the Macedonian based soccer club "West Geelong" was founded. Eventually as more and more Macedonians immigrated to the area another KUD was founded and the plans for the Macedonian Orthodox Church were realised. The church "St Jovan the Baptist" was built in the suburb of Batesford. The community was soon involved with the Macedonian Cultural Week program throughout the 1980s. During the 1990s the community was able to establish itself in the area while the "Macedonian Orthodox Centre" and organisations such as the "Macedonian Senior Citizens Club" were founded. In the following years the community helped to support the Federation of Macedonian Cultural Artistic Associations of Victoria. In 1996 there were 1,341 speakers of the Macedonian language in the Geelong area this fell to 1,167 in 2006. The number of people born in the Republic of Macedonia also fell from 839 in 1996 to 752 in 2006. The number of people claiming Macedonian ancestry in 2006 was 1,415. The largest groups of Macedonians in the Geelong area could be found in Bell Post Hill (6.1%), Norlane (3.5%), North Geelong (1.3%), Hamlyn Heights (2.5%) and Lovely Banks (5.3%).
A community of Macedonians has existed in Shepparton since the 1930s. It is considered to be one of the original Macedonian settlements in Australia. Early pioneers from Aegean Macedonia began to come to Shepparton in the 1920s and 1930s. Many of them established Market Gardens. After the Second World War and the Greek Civil War a large number of Aegean Macedonians emigrated to Shepparton. The Macedonians of Shepparton soon became an active force in the Macedonian-Australian People's League and a branch was et up in Shepparton in 1946. Picnics, dances and functions were organised by the local branch. Although some Macedonians came to Shepparton in the 1960s and 1970s from Yugoslavia, the majority of the community were Aegean Macedonians. In the 1970s the St George, Orthodox Church was built although the local congregation was primarily Macedonian. The "Florina Saturday School and Community Centre" was built in 1978 next to the church. The school is still open today and teaches both the Greek and Macedonian language. Shepparton formed sister city arrangements with the two Macedonian cities of Resen and Salonica. In 1986 the first annual "Macedonian Cultural Day" was held. A 1966 figures puts the number of Macedonians in Shepparton at 600. In 1996, 322 people were speaking the Macedonian language at home, by 2006 this number had fallen to 213. In 2006, 254 people claimed Macedonian Ancestry of which 78 were born in the Republic of Macedonia.
The city of Werribee between Melbourne and Geelong was one of the original Macedonian settlements in Australia. The first Macedonians arrived in Werribee in 1924, and had great success growing peas, cauliflowers and tomatoes. Many also took to dairy farming and market-gardening. In 1934 the "Greek Macedonian Community of Weribee South" was founded among the Grecophile Macedonians. By 1940 many more had come to the Weribee area, a Macedonian cafe and restaurant had also been set up. In 1947 a branch of the Macedonian-Australian People's League opened in Weribee. It took an instrumental role in the Hospital Appeals. The branch went on to establish a local KUD and social group. After the Greek Civil War a large influx of Aegean Macedonians came to the Weribee area. They would form the backbone of the Macedonian community in Werribee. In the 1960s many Macedonains from Yugoslavia also came to Australia. By the 1970s a Macedonian hall had been set up and two more KUD's had been founded in the area. The Macedonians are well established in the Weribee area and have made a lasting contribution to the region. By 1991 there were 565 Macedonians speakers in Weribee, this rose to 964 in 2006. The number of people claiming Macedonian ancestry are 1,154.
Western Australia has traditionally had one of the largest Macedonian Australian communities in Australia. Thousands of pre-war immigrants came to the state in search of riches. Here they set up the Macedonian "villages" of Wanneroo and Upper Wanneroo. The Western Australian branches of the Macedonian-Australian People's League were the driving force behind the movement's inception. By this time the migrants had scattered to Manjimup, Geraldton and Kalgoorlie. The immigrants were joined by post war Aegean Macedonians and Yugoslav migrants. Many then headed north to Port Hedland and Broome. After the breakup of Yugoslavia another wave of Macedonians came to Western Australia. By 2001 there 6,184 Macedonian speakers in Western Australia with 8,043 people claiming Macedonian Ancestry. The Macedonians of Western Australia have helped drive the state into the 21st century.
One of Australia's oldest Macedonian communities can be found in Perth. It is said Boris Šmagranov arrived in Perth in 1908, the first Macedonian to do so. A steady wave of Macedonians began to arrive in Perth after the First World War. Many of these were Aegean Macedonians from the Florina, Kastoria and Edessa regions. Many Macedonians left Perth for other areas where Macedonians had settled such as Manjimup, Balcatta, Geraldton and Kalgoorlie. In the early 1920s the "Makedonski Dom" (Macedonian Home) was founded in Perth. This soon became the heart of the Macedonian community in Perth. Attempts to found a branch of the Macedonian Patriotic Organization were unsuccessful. A concentration of Macedonians had been set up in the Wanneroo area and soon it was declared a Macedonian village. The mainstay of the village was Market Gardening and small-scale farming. Through chain migration Perth soon became the largest centre of Macedonian immigration to Australia. The first genuine Macedonian settlement with wives and families in Australia was Wanneroo. By the 1930s there were over 150 Macedonians in the Wanneroo area. Another Macedonian village was soon founded at Upper Wanneroo or 27 Mile. Although the area was a swamp it was soon made suitable for farming.
In 1939 the "Edinstvo" group was founded which would dominated Macedonian social life for the next two decades. The "Edinstvo" group soon began to organise socials, functions and gatherings. The group's motto soon became "Слободна, Независна, Еднокупна Македонија" (Free, Independent and United Macedonia), referring to the irredentist concept of a United Macedonia. The group founded the "Edinstvo Perth Soccer Club" in the early 1940s. Community and youth groups were also founded. The first president of Edinstvo was George Dženev. On 18 September 1941, Naume Sharin was elected president with Mick Veloskey and Pavle Bozhinov as secretaries. During World War II many members of the Edinstvo group were called up to fight for their new mother country. After World War Two attempts by Edinstvo were made to create a unified Macedonian Australian Organisation. The Edinstvo group started radio sessions and eventually the group founded the "Makedonska Iskra" newspaper which went on to national distribution. On 24 and 25 August 1946 the Edinstvo group held an inuagural conference for all the Macedonian organisations in Australian. It was decided that the Macedonian-Australian People's League should be founded. The Edinstvo group was soon incorporated as a branch of the new organisation. The returned members would go on to found the Macedonian Australian Ex-Servicemen's League in 1947. After the creation of the People's Republic of Macedonia many Macedonians left to help rebuild the devastated country, while thousands of Aegean Macedonian refugees came to Australia, of which a large proportion settled in Perth.
During the years of the Macedonian-Australian People's League the Perth group was by far the most influential branch of the organisation. The group helped organize the "Miss Macedonia" competition and other events to raise money for the The Macedonian Hospital Appeals. During the first appeal the West Australian branches managed to raise over ₤5,500 for the Macedonian hospitals. In 1948 the Makedonska Iskra newspaper was moved to Sydney. The "Macedonian Soccer Club" which was disbanded during World War Two was eventually replaced by "Makedonija" in 1947, "Alexander" in 1954 and finally "Olympic" in 1956.
In 1948 the organisation took the initiative to build a Macedonian Hall in Perth. The contibued drive was to come from the "Macedonian Ladies Section" of the group. On 23 May 1948 Mrs Diana Pappas was elected as President of the group. At this meeting it was agreed that a hall was needed for the "Edinstvo" group, "Macedonian Soccer Club" and the "Macedonian Ladies Section". In 1949 the group purchased a hall in Leederville with a deposit of ₤80. However there was friction within the group and the Hall was sold. The profits were put into buying a block of land in Church Street, Perth.
At the General Meeting of "Edinstvo" on 17 October 1954 in the Trades Hall the group passed the following resolutions:
- 1. that a Macedonian centre be erected in Perth for the Macedonian Migrants
- 2. that an amount of ₤10 be donated by each migrant from the age of 16 years without difference of men or women and be paid within a period of one year
- 3. that the Hall and property be registered under the name of the Macedonian-Australian People's League, Branch "Edinstvo", Perth, W.A and that the hall be called the "Macedonian Hall"
- 4. that every Macedonian migrant settled in Western Australia who has paid his or her nominated ₤10 had rights in the hall
By 1957 the group was financially secure and began to erect a hall on Church Street. The Perth community was seriously affected when the Macedonian-Australian People's League resolved to decentralize in 1957. In 1958 the "Stirling Soccer Club" was founded it was renamed to "West Perth Macedonia" in the 1960s. During this period "Edinstvo" was going through a period of structural changes and in 1960 it changed its name to the "Macedonian Community of Western Australia" and plans were made for the future. In 1963 after the collapse of the Tobacco industry in Manjimup many Macedonians migrated to Perth. By this time many Macedonians from the People's Republic of Macedonia began to immigrate to Perth. In 1966 the foundation stone to the "Macedonian Community Centre" was laid and the building was completed in 1968. It include a chapel dedicated to Saint Nicholas. In 1969 a second level was added to the Community Centre.
In 1968 the "Vardar Club" (East Perth) soccer club was founded. In 1969 the "Olympic" soccer team broke with the Macedonian community and established its club-rooms and grounds in Kingsway. Another Macedonian soccer club "Macedonia United" (West Perth) was founded in 1970 under the auspices of the "Macedonian Community of Western Australia", which was the first United Macedonian club in Western Australia. The Community also went on to found a Basketball club and cricket club. In 1969 the first Macedonian Church in Western Australia was founded. The Macedonian Orthodox Church Свети Никола/Saint Nicholas was consecrated on 6 April 1969. In 1969 the "Macedonian Community of Western Australia" founded the "Goce Delčev Macedonian Choir" and the KUD-Goce Delčev. The Vestnik/Newspaper was founded in 1971. It began as Mesečni Novini/Monthly News and then became "Newsletter of the Macedonian Communities in Australia". It printed mainly news from Western Australia in English and Macedonian.
In 1976 "The Macedonian Club" was founded on the site of the Macedonian Community Centre. Ever since its foundation it has been the centre of the Macedonian community in Perth. During 1977 a split within the Saint Nicholas church community led some parishioners to leave the original church and purchase another church just 500 metres from the original "Saint Nicholas" church. This new church was also named the Macedonian Orthodox Church of Свети Никола/Saint Nicholas. This church founded the KUD-Ilinden and other social groups. By 1983 the Vardar Club had acquired premises in North Perth. From here they are able organise socials, dances and picnics. They also founded the KUD-Vardar group along with other social events such as "Miss Macedonia (W.A)". In 1985 the "Macedonian Community of Western Australia" acquired 10 hectares of land in Balcatta. The development known as "Macedonia Park" was to include a nursing home, C grade hospital, a chapel, rectory, halls, bars and a wide range of sporting amenities. On 22 May 1986 the sporting complex was officially opened by West Australian premier, Brian Burke. In 1985 the community had over 2,000 full or social members. Perth now has over 5 Macedonian clubs. Another social club the "Ilinden Club" was also founded the group went on to build a hall in North Perth.
During the early 1990s many Macedonians immigrated to Perth from the newly independent Republic of Macedonia. The "Macedonian United Organisation of Perth and WA Inc." was founded as a uniting organisation within Western Australia, the group has members from the "Macedonian Community of Western Australia", "Vardar Club", both Churches, the Romany Community and the Ilinden Club. The Church street was renamed "Macedonia Place" in recognistion of the great contribution that Macedonians had given to Perth. The "Macedonia Park" in Balcatta was expanded and a number of ethnic schools founded throughout Perth. Radio programs and KUD's were all expanded. By 1976 there were 3471 Macedonian speakers in Perth by 2001 this had risen to 5,772. 7,435 people claimed Macedonian ancestry in the 2006 census although community spokespersons put the number of Macedonians at over 12,000. Today the Macedonian community in Perth is one of the most influential in Australia and the Diaspora.
Wanneroo is one of the original Macedonian settlements in Australia. It was also the first "Macedonian village" in Australia. Approximately 25 kilometres from Perth it was an attractive location for many early Macedonian migrants. Many of these were Aegean Macedonians from the Florina and Kastoria regions. The first Macedonian to come to Wanneroo was Stojan Angelcoff who immigrated to Australia in 1923. He later brought out his wife and many other relatives. Many of the early migrants made a living through Market Gardening and scrub clearing. Soon families and wives were brought out to the settlement and it was referred to as the "Macedonian Village". It would be these wives and families who would later go on to found the social and cultural organisations found in the area. By 1930 there were some 150 Macedonians in Waneroo which was steadily increasing. Another settlement was founded at Upper Waneroo. The area was well suited to growing vegetables in the summer.
By World War Two the Macedonian community of Perth was primarily centred on Wanneroo. It was here that the "Edinstvo" group conducted many of its early functions and picnics. As the Perth metropolitan area was expanded Waneroo was gradually absorbed as a suburb of Perth. The lack of immigrants in the 1960s and 1970s led to the ageing of the community. Although many others came to the Waneroo area in the 1980s and 1990s. Some of the early areas of Macedonian settlement are still dominated by Market-gardening and second and third generation Macedonians. Today it is estimated that the original Macedonian community of Wanneroo numbers over 400 persons.
Manjimup is considered as one of the original Macedonian settlements in Australia. One of the first Macedonians to arrive in Manjimup was Risto Marin in 1924. It was here he established a market garden before returning to Macedonia. Many of the original Macedonian immigrants ended up cutting railway sleepers or scrub-clearing. Eventually permanent immigrants arrived and many market gardens were set up. Many of these immigrants were Aegean Macedonians from Greece, especially after the village of Babčor was destroyed by American Bombers in 1948. Many people from Babčor came to Australia and settled in Manjimup. Macedonians played an instrumental role in the foundation of the Tobacco industry in Manjimup. Other notable Macedonians who had arrived by 1930 included Risto Numev, Lazo Miče, The Milentises and Kole Palasin who would go on to have great influence in the regions local tobacco industry. A Greek entrepreneur, Peter Michelidis would turn the tobacco venture into a major industry of the 1930s, 40s and 1950s. At the height of the tobacco industry there were 1,600 Macedonians in Manjimup and the industry was worth ₤500,000 per annum to the district. Although in 1963 the industry collapsed when government regulations and competition seriously damaged the growers. It was said that many Anglo-Australians gloated at the ruin of the Macedonians, but in fact many Australians were also affected and a local department store closed within months of the tobacco collapse. Many Macedonians left the area to other tobacco growing areas or to Perth.
After the collapse of the Tobacco industry Market-gardening had become the mainstay of Macedonian life in Manjimup. In 1942 the Macedonians in Manjimup created the Sloboda organisation. In 1947 it evolved to become a branch of the Macedonian-Australian People's League. It soon became the centre of the Community. The Sloboda organisation remained even after the dentralisation of the Macedonian-Australian People's League. A film based on the experiences of Stase Manov, a Macedonian in Manjimup, called Stari Kraj (Old Country) was shown on Yugoslavian television. It was a great success. The community which had originally held dances and functions in tobacco sheds began to use the Town Hall. They have always been staunch supporters of the "Macedonian Community of Western Australia", whereas many Macedonians in Perth were against its inception. From 1970 the population of Macedonians had stabilised at 350 from a peak of 1,600. In 1982, 2.5 acres (10,000 m2) were donated to the community in Ipsen Street. It was here that the community built the Macedonian Community Centre which was blessed by Father Petre Nanevski from Perth on 3 August 1983. The hall was officially opened on 3 May 1987 by the then premier of Western Australia, Brian Burke. Many Macedonians from Manjimup would go onto to play for the Macedonian soccer teams in Perth or Geraldton.
A KUD was organised in the hall and functions and weddings were also held in the Macedonian Community Centre. The KUD often performs in statewide multicultural events. The community is still present in Manjimup as the second and third generation Macedonians take control of the community. Many people still speak the Macedonian language and follow Macedonian customs. Many have gone on to manage and own business' where their fathers were not accepted even as labourers. In 1991, 185 people claimed to speak the Macedonian language in the Manjimup area by 2006 this had fallen to 98. Although in 2006 there were 175 people of Macedonian ancestry down from the 200 in 2001. The number of Macedonian born has traditionally been low denoting the presence of Aegean Macedonians in Manjimup. The community was recently visited by the Macedonian Ambassador to Australia, which shows that Macedonians are still present in the Manjimup area The Macedonians have left a lasting imprint on the Manjimup community.
South Australia is home to a small but compact Macedonian community. The first Macedonians immigrants were scrub clearers in Ceduna and grape harvesters in the Riverland region. Permanent immigrants established market gardens in Fulham Gardens, Flinders Park and later in Virginia. Soon a community of Aegean Macedonians had established themselves in South Australia, most notably in Fulham Gardens. Coffee Shops, were established by Macedonians and they soon became the original meeting place for the Macedonian community. In 1947 a chapter of the Macedonian-Australian People's League known as "Alexander the Great" opened in South Australia. In 1947, the group raised over £350 for the Macedonian Hospital Appeal. After the decantralization of the Macedonian-Australian People's League the "Macedonian Orthodox Community of South Australia" was founded in 1957. In 1967, the Macedonian Orthodox Community of South Australia constructed the Macedonian Hall which became the center of Macedonian social activities in Adelaide.
On 28 April 1968, a statue memorial to Macedonian National Hero Goce Delčev, Cyrillic: Гоце Делчев was unveiled. In 1969 the first Macedonian Orthodox Church in South Australia was built on the site of the Macedonian Community property. In 1982 the first Macedonian Orthodox Church in South Australia, Saint Naum of Ohrid, Cyrillic: Свети Наум Охридски was consecrated. The Macedonian Community collected donations from groups such as Yugoslavian Airlines and Stopanska Banka in building the church. The cultural dancing groups Sloboda/Freedom and KUD Makedonka were also established. The Macedonia United Soccer team was also founded by Macedonians in Adelaide. Another church, Света Богородица Пречиста/Holy Mother of God of Woodville South was also acquired more recently. A range of Macedonian radio programs also exist in Adelaide. A 1970 estimate put the number of Macedonians in South Australia at 1,200. While the 1976 census recorded 676 Macedonian speakers in 1976. By 1996 this number had risen to 923 falling to 705 in 2006. In 2006 there were only 400 Macedonian born people living in South Australia while 1,424 people claimed Macedonian Ancestry. In the census of 2011, across South Australia, 727 respondents reported speaking the Macedonian language at home, the highest concentration of this group (14%) was in the 5024 postal area (Fulham Gardens, Fulham and West Beach).
There has traditionally been a small Macedonian community in Queensland. Relatively few immigrants arrived before the Second World War. In the late 1940s the Brisbane Branch of the Macedonian-Australian People's League was founded. After Crabbes Creek was devastated by a cyclone in the 1960s more Macedonians came to Brisbane. There were relatively few immigrants in Queensland until many Macedonians already in Australia decided to immigrate north. Despite this by 1986 there were still only 376 Macedonians in Queensland, although the community was still growing. Plans for a church in the Gold Coast were founded and planning soon began. A soccer club, “Brothers United” was founded by the community in the late 1980s. It was decided that the first ever Macedonian hall built in Crabbes Creek should be sold and the proceeds go towards founding Sveta Bogorodica church. In the 1990s a Macedonian Orthodox church was founded. Света Богородица/Sveta Bogorodica soon became the center of the Macedonian community in Queensland. Soon afterwards a KUD and an Ethnic School were also set up. In late 2002 an appeal to build build a second church began. Construction of the Света Недела/’’Sveta Nedela’’ church soon began. An Australia wide cultural day was held on the Gold Coast during the Christmas of 2006 to help raise funds for the Church. It was a success with Macedonians from all parts of Australia travelling to the event. As of mid-2008 the church is nearing completion. Today Queensland has the fastest growing Macedonian community in Australia. Community spokespersons claim that there are over 4000 Macedonians in Queensland. Although only 927 Macedonians speakers were recorded in the 1996 census and 1,144 in 2006. In 2006 1,829 persons claimed Macedonian Ancestry.
The Aegean Macedonian people have had a long history with Australia. In 19th Century pečalba, working away from home, was a widespread Macedonian custom. The first Aegean Macedonian was Stojan Kenkov who came to Australian in 1914. Pre-World War Two migration occurred in two waves: the first, in 1924, when the USA imposed heavy immigration restrictions and the second, after 1936, when the 4th of August Regime of General Ioannis Metaxas took power in Greece. The third wave occurred after the Greek Civil War when many ethnic Macedonians fled Greece. Charles Price estimates that by 1940 there were 670 Ethnic Macedonians from Florina and 370 from Kastoria resident in Australia. Peter Hill also estimates a figure of 50,000 Aegean Macedonians (including those born in Australia and excluding Slavophone Macedonians who identify as Greeks). 2.5% of adherents to the Macedonian Orthodox Church in Australia were born in Greece while 3,152 speakers of the Macedonian language were born in Greece and 2,919 people born in Greece claimed ethnic Macedonian ancestry or roughly 3.6% of the total population group.
Aegean Macedonians were essential in the establishment of the Macedonian Australia People league (Macedonian: Makedono-Avstraliski Naroden Sâjuz) which dominated ethnic Macedonian life throughout the 1940s and 1950s. They then went on to establish organizations and events such as Macedonian Cultural Week, Preston Makedonija, Makedonska Iskra, Macedonian Community of S.A, Nova Makedonija and many others. There are Aegean Macedonian minorities in Richmond, Melbourne, Manjimup, Shepparton, Wanneroo and Queanbeyan. The Church of St George and the Florina Community Centre and Day Care center was built in Shepparton the Aegean Macedonian hall - Kotori was built by 32 families from the village Kotori in Richmond. Another Church was established by Aegean Macedonians in Queanbeyan and a hall erected in Manjimup. Other Aegean Macedonians organizations include the "Macedonian Aegean Association of Australia" and the "Richmond Aegean Macedonian Cultural and Sporting Association.
Many Macedonians in Australia are involved with Soccer and other sports. Some of the various clubs they have helped to establish are:
- New South Wales
- Wollongong United or Wollongong Makedonija
- Lake Heights Junior Soccer Club
- Cringila Lions Soccer Club
- Coniston Macedonia Soccer Club
- Shell Cove Mariovo Barbarians
- Broadmeadow Magic or Newcastle Macedonia soccer Club
- Newcastle Suns FC
- Macedonia Junior Soccer Club
- Macedonian- Queanbeyan City Soccer Club
- Western Australia
- Stirling Lions or Stirling Makedonia
- West Perth or Macedonia United
- East Perth or The Vardar Club
- South Australia
- Macedonia United Lions Soccer Club
- Defunct teams
- Warrawong Barbarians Soccer club (now Shell Cove)
- Pelister Illawarra Soccer Club (now Shell Cove)
- Shellharbour Suns/Barbarians (kicked out of comp 2006)
Most Macedonians in Australia are followers of the Macedonian Orthodox Church. Although there are many Macedonian Muslims and people who follow other branches of Christianity. In 1996 there were 53,152 followers of the Macedonian Orthodox Church, in 2001 there were 53,244 adherents. in 2006 this number had fallen to 48,084 people. There is a diocese of the Macedonian Orthodox Church for Australia and New Zealand. The Macedonian Orthodox Church is often shortened to MPC.
There are over 40 Macedonian Orthodox Churches in Operation throughout Australia, 3 monasteries and two Cathedrals. Most of them fall under the jurisdiction of the Macedonian Orthodox Church - Diocese for Australia and New Zealand. The monasteries are MPM- Свети Прохор Пчински/Saint Prohor Pcinski of Donnybrook, MPM- Свети Наум Охридски/Saint Naum of Ohrid of Kinglake and MPCO- Света Петка/Saint Petka of Kembla Grange. The Cathedrals are Macedonian Orthodox Cathedral- Свети Климент Охридски/Saint Kliment of Ohrid of Red Hill and Macedonian Orthodox Cathedral- Свети Кирил и Методиј/Saints Cyril and Methodius of Rosebery (autocephalous).
The Macedonian Orthodox Church "St George" was founded in 1959 before full Autocephaly had been declared. The Greek Orthodox Community of Shepparton is primarily Macedonian. In 1975 the "Macedonian Church of St Cyril and Methodius" was founded in Sydney.
Although Most Macedonians are adherents of the Macedonian Orthodox Church many follow a different faith. In Melbourne there are two Macedonian Protestant Churches; the Macedonian Church in East Preston (Uniting Church) and Macedonian Baptist Community of Regent. There is another Macedonian Baptist Church in Sydney. Another Macedonian Methodist Community was established in Melbourne.
List of notable Macedonian Australians
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2009)|
Artists and media
|name||Born - Died||Notable for||Connection with Australia||Connection with Macedonia|
|Toni Matičevski||1977-||Fashion designer||born Australia||Matičevski's parents migrated from Macedonia|
|Bill Neskovski||1964–1989||Playwright||migrated to Australia in 1974||born in Macedonia; wrote in both English and Macedonian|
|name||Born - Died||Notable for||Connection with Australia||Connection with Macedonia|
|Michael Grbevski||1967-||Former Socceroo||Born in Australia||Macedonian ancestry|
|John Markovski||1970-||Former Socceroo||Born in Australia||Parents from Macedonia|
|Sasho Petrovski||1975-||Socceroo||Born in Australia||Macedonian ancestry|
|Ben Kantarovski||1992-||Socceroo||Born in Australia||Macedonian ancestry|
|Robert Stambolziev||1990-||Bristol City, Panathinaikos||Born in Australia||Macedonian ancestry|
|Mile Sterjovski||1979-||Socceroo (member of 2006 World Cup squad)||Born in Australia||Parents from Macedonia|
|Spase Dilevski||1985-||Olympic Socceroo||Born in Australia||Parents from Macedonia|
|Billy Celeski||1985-||Olympic Socceroo||Migrated to Australia||Born in Ohrid, Macedonia|
|David Micevski||1986-||Olympic Socceroo||Born in Australia||Parents from Macedonia|
|Zlatko Nastevski||1957-||1989 NSL Player of the year||Migrated to Australia||Born in Macedonia|
|Sasa Ognenovski||1979-||A-League player||Born in Australia||Parents from Macedonia|
|Spase Dilevski||1985-||Olyroo||Born in Australia||Parents from Macedonia|
|Naum Sekulovski||1982-||A-League player||Born in Australia||Parents from Macedonia|
|Vlado Bozinovski||1964-||Soccer Player||Migrated to Australia||Born in Ohrid, Macedonia|
|Ivan Necevski||1980-||Sydney FC||Born in Australia||Parents from Macedonia|
|Jim Dimce Kuzmanovski||1971-||Soccer Player||Migrated to Australia||Born in Bitola, Macedonia|
|Peter Daicos||1961-||Australian rules footballer||Born in Australia||Parents from Greek Macedonia|
|Žarko Odžakov||Former Soceroo|
|Nick Malceski||1984-||Australian rules footballer||Born in Australia||Parents from Macedonia|
|Goran Lozanovski||1984-||Soccer Player||Born in Australia||Parents from Macedonia|
|Steven Božinovski||Bonnyrigg White Eagles|
|Len Pascoe||1950-||Cricketer||Born in Australia||Parents from Macedonia|
|Cassandra Dimovski||1993-||W-League player||Born in Australia||Grandparents from Macedonia|
|name||Born - Died||Notable for||Connection with Australia||Connection with Macedonia|
|Chris Joannou||1979-||Guitarist from the band, Silverchair||Born in Australia||Parents from Macedonia|
|Volk Makedonski||MC from the act, Curse Ov Dialect|
|name||Born - Died||Notable for||Connection with Australia||Connection with Macedonia|
|Zoran Vidinovski||1984-||Big Brother 2007 Housemate||Born in Australia||Parents from Macedonia|
|name||Born - Died||Notable for||Connection with Australia||Connection with Macedonia|
|Lucas Kostadinoski||1966||Federal Candidate 27,800 votes||Born in Ohrid,Maedonia||Parents from Ohrid, Macedonia|
- Republic of Macedonia
- United Macedonian Diaspora
- Macedonian-Australian People's League
- Macedonian Diaspora
- Stirling Lions
- Preston Lions FC
- Altona Magic
- Bankstown City Lions
- Broadmeadow Magic FC
- Rockdale City Suns
- The Australian Bureau of Statistics: www.abs.gov.au
- Hill, Peter (1989). The Macedonians in Australia. Hesperian Press.
- "20680-Country of Birth of Person (full classification list) by Sex - Australia" (Microsoft Excel download). 2006 Census. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2008-06-02. Total count of persons: 19,855,288.
- Расте бројот на Македонци во Австралија
- Number estimated in 2012 by the United Macedonian Diaspora
- "20680-Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex - Australia" (Microsoft Excel download). 2006 Census. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2008-06-02. Total responses: 25,451,383 for total count of persons: 19,855,288.
- "20680-Language Spoken at Home by Sex - Australia". 2006 Census Tables. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2007-06-27. Retrieved 2008-07-16.
- "The People of Australia: Statistics from the 2001 Census" (pdf of 84 pages). Australian Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs. 2003. Archived from the original on 2008-06-25. Retrieved 2008-07-16.
- "2914.0.55.002 2006 Census Ethnic Media Package" (Excel download). Census Dictionary, 2006 (cat.no 2901.0). Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2007-06-27. Retrieved 2008-07-14.
- ABS CENSUS; Melbourne, 2001
- ABS CENSUS; Wollongong, 2001
- ABS CENSUS; Newcastle, 2001
- ABS census, Cringila; 2001
- Hill (1989) p. 10
- Thomas, Martin (2005). "Migration Heritage Centre: A Multicultural Landscape: National Parks and the Macedonian Experience: 4. Macedonian migration to Australia". A Multicultural Landscape: National Parks and the Macedonian Experience. National Parks and Wildlife Service (New South Wales). Retrieved 2008-07-16.
- The Australian people: an encyclopedia of the nation, its people, and their origins, James Jupp, Cambridge University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-521-80789-1, p. 573.
- Hill (1989) p. 59
- Aliens of the Tweed and Brunswick
- Hill (1989)
- Hill (1989) p. 102
- Macedonian Studies at Macquarie University
- Jupp, James (2001). The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and Their Origins. Cambridge University Press. p. 572. ISBN 0-521-80789-1.
- Hill (1989) p. 76
- "2001 Census Tables : Hawkesbury (C) (Statistical Local Area)" (requires Excel download). Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2006-08-04. Retrieved 2008-07-16.
- Jupp, James (2001). The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and Their Origins. Cambridge University Press. p. 574. ISBN 0-521-80789-1.
- Macedonians in the Illawarra, www.abs.gov.au
- Macedonian Welfare Association Inc.
- Hill (1989) p. 58
- 2006 Census QuickStats : Newcastle (Urban Centre/Locality)
- Hill (1989) p. 120
- 2006 Census Community Profile Series : Victoria
- THE "RESIGN, JEFF!" REVIEW 1994
- Molitto, Sylvia (1998-04-21). "Australian Macedonians a Unifying Title". Sydney Morning Herald.
- Macedonian Information Agency
- Post war soccer in Geelong
- 2006 Census QuickStats : Geelong (Urban Centre/Locality)
- 2006 Census QuickStats : Bell Post Hill (State Suburb)
- Hill (1989) p.40
- Hill (1989) p. 108
- Hill(1989) p. 105
- Kolar-Panov, Dona (1997). Video, War and the Diasporic Imagination. Routledge. p. 67. ISBN 0-415-14880-4.
- ABS CENSUS; Community Profile, Manjimup 2006
- Lucky eight a great celebration : southwest.thewest.com.au
- Price, Charles (1963). Southern Europeans in Australia. Melbourne.
- Kris, Betty. A study of the Macedonian community in Adelaide, South Australia. MS University of Adelaide (1970)
- 2006 Census Data : View by Topic
- ABS CENSUS; Community profile, South Australia 2006
- Community Profile: Queensland
- Hill(1989) p. 18
- Hill (1989) p. 123
- 2001 Census QuickStats : Manjimup
- Hill (1989) pp. 91,86,48
- Pollitecon Publications
- Wells, Rachel (19 March 2002). "Dark horse wins in fashion stakes". Fashion (The Age). Retrieved 2008-06-06.
- Hill (1989) p. 132
- Transfermarkt profile
- Hill (1989) p. 131
- http://www.g o o g l e.com.au/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=lucas%20kostadinoski&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CCoQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FElectoral_results_for_the_Division_of_Scullin&ei=WwVNUra5F9HEkAWf44CYDQ&usg=AFQjCNFbX0BNPCGdfgWpnZ0Xzodmy0DBpg&sig2=ZfFg-LBe1Tz7PPharWRDEA&bvm=bv.53537100,d.dGI
- United Macedonian Diaspora Australia
- Macedonian Human Rights Committee - Australia
- Macedonian Embassy in Australia
- Macedonian Orthodox Church - Australia and New Zealand
- Australian Macedonian Business Directory
- SBS- Macedonian language program
- Macedonian Nighlife and Culture Club
- Ties With Tradition - Macedonian apron designs
- A Multicultural Landscape: National Parks and the Macedonian Experience
- Macedonian Community Council of Victoria
- Macedonian Australian Welfare Association of Sydney Inc.
- Australian Macedonian Weekly, the Macedonian Newspaper for Macedonian Australians
- Macedonian Dance Group in Queanbeyan, KUD Razigrana Makedonka
- Federation of Macedonian Cultural Artistic Associations of Victoria
- Port Kembla Macedonian Welfare Association Inc.
- Macedonian Community of Adelaide and South Australia
- The Macedonians of Crabbes Creek
- Macedonian - West Australian Business and Economic Forum
- Makedonska Iskra Newspaper
- Stirling Lions Soccer Club
- Wollongong United Soccer Club