||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (April 2013)|
||This article has an unclear citation style. (May 2013)|
|Native to||Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, Macedonian diaspora|
|Native speakers||2–2.5 million (1986–1998)|
|Writing system||Cyrillic (Macedonian alphabet)
|Official language in||Republic of Macedonia|
|Recognised minority language in|| Albania
|Regulated by||Macedonian Language Institute "Krste Misirkov" at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje|
|ISO 639-2||mac (B)
|Linguasphere||53-AAA-ha (part of 53-AAA-h)|
Macedonian (македонски јазик, makedonski jazik, pronounced [maˈkɛdɔnski ˈjazik] ( listen)) is a South Slavic language, spoken as a first language by some two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia. It is the official language of the Republic of Macedonia and an official minority language in parts of Albania, Romania and Serbia.
Standard Macedonian was implemented as the official language of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia in 1945 and has since developed a thriving literary tradition. Most of the codification was formalized during the same period.
The Macedonian language belongs to the eastern group of the South Slavic branch of Slavic languages in the Indo-European language family, together with Bulgarian. The modern Macedonian language is unrelated to the Ancient Macedonian language. Macedonian's closest relative is Bulgarian, with which it has a high degree of mutual intelligibility. Macedonian is also regarded by some linguists as a variety or a dialect of Bulgarian. The next closest relative is Serbo-Croatian (and its standard variants Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian). Language contact between Macedonian and Serbo-Croatian reached its height during Yugoslav times, when most Macedonians learned Serbo-Croatian as a compulsory language of education.
All South Slavic languages, including Macedonian, form a dialect continuum. Macedonian, along with Bulgarian and the transitional southern Serbian varieties (Torlakian) also forms a part of the Balkan Sprachbund, a group of languages which share typological, grammatical and lexical features based on geographical convergence, rather than genetic proximity. Its other principal members are Romanian, Greek and Albanian, all of which belong to different genetic branches of the Indo-European family of languages (Romanian is a Romance language, while Greek and Albanian each comprise their own separate branches). Macedonian and Bulgarian are sharply divergent from the remaining South Slavic languages, Serbo-Croatian and Slovene, and indeed all other Slavic languages, in that they don't use noun cases (except for the vocative, and apart from some traces of once productive inflections still found scattered throughout the languages). They are also the only Slavic languages with any definite articles, but only Macedonian has got three: unspecified, proximate and distal article.
Prior to the codification of the standard language (Standard Macedonian), Macedonian dialects were described by linguists as being either dialects of Bulgarian or Serbian. Similarly, Torlakian was also widely regarded as Bulgarian. The boundaries between the South Slavic languages had yet to be "conceptualized in modern terms", and codifiers of Serbian even found it necessary to argue that Bulgarian was not a Serbian dialect as late as 1822.
On the other hand, many Macedonian intellectuals maintained that their language "was neither a dialect of Serbian nor of Bulgarian, but a language in its own right". Some other linguists, such as Antoine Meillet, also considered Macedonian dialects as comprising an independent language group distinct from both Bulgarian and Serbian. Some linguists still consider Macedonian and Bulgarian to be dialects of a single language, but this view is politically controversial.
While it is often claimed that Standard Macedonian was codified on the base of those dialects (i.e. the Prilep-Bitola dialect) which were most unlike Bulgarian, this interpretation stems from the works of Krste Misirkov who suggested that Standard Macedonian should abstract on those dialects "most distinct from the standards of the other Slavonic languages". Likewise, this view does not take into account the fact that a Macedonian koiné language was already in existence. The codifiers ultimately chose the same dialects, but did so because they were "most widespread and most likely to be adopted by speakers of other dialects".
Language contact between Macedonian and Serbo-Croatian reached its height during Yugoslav times, so much so that the colloquial speech of the city of Skopje has been described as a "creolized form of Serbian" (cf. also Surzhyk in Ukraine, Trasianka in Belarus).
Essentially, modern questions of classification are largely shaped by political and social factors, whilst structurally, Macedonian, Bulgarian and southeastern forms of Serbian (Torlakian) form a dialectical continuum, which developed as a legacy of the linguistic developments during the apogee of the Preslav and Ohrid literary schools.
Geographical distribution 
The population of the Republic of Macedonia was 2,022,547 in 2002, with 1,644,815 speaking Macedonian as the native language. Outside of the Republic, there are Macedonians living in other parts of the geographical area of Macedonia. There are ethnic Macedonian minorities in neighbouring Albania, in Bulgaria, in Greece, and in Serbia. According to the official Albanian census of 1989, 4,697 ethnic Macedonians reside in Albania.
A large number of Macedonians live outside the traditional Balkan Macedonian region, with Australia, Canada and the United States having the largest emigrant communities. According to a 1964 estimate, approximately 580,000 Macedonians live outside of the Macedonian Republic, nearly 30% of the total population. The Macedonian language has the status of official language only in the Republic of Macedonia, and is a recognised minority and official language in parts of Albania (Municipality of Pustec), Romania, and Serbia (Municipalities of Jabuka and Plandište). There are provisions for learning the Macedonian language in Romania as Macedonians are an officially recognised minority group. The language is taught in some universities in Australia, Canada, Croatia, Italy, Russia, Serbia, the United States, and the United Kingdom among other countries.
Macedonian language in Greece 
The varieties spoken by the Slavophone minority in parts of northern Greece, especially those in the Greek provinces of West and Central Macedonia, are today usually classified as part of the Macedonian language, with those in East Macedonia being transitional towards Bulgarian. Bulgarian linguistics traditionally regards them all as part of the Bulgarian diasystem together with the rest of Macedonian. However, the codification of standard Macedonian has been in effect only in the Republic of Macedonia, and the Slavonic dialects spoken in Greece are thus practically "roofless", with their speakers having little access to standard or written Macedonian.
Most of the language speakers in Greece do not identify ethnically as "Macedonians", but as ethnic Greeks (Slavophone Greeks) or dopii (locals). Therefore, the simple term "Macedonian" as a name for the Slavic language is often avoided in the Greek context, and vehemently rejected by most Greeks, for whom Macedonian has very different connotations. Instead, the language is often called simply "Slavic" or "Slavomacedonian", with "Macedonian Slavic" often being used in English. Speakers themselves variously refer to their language as makedonski, makedoniski ("Macedonian"), slaviká (Greek: σλαβικά, "Slavic"), dópia or entópia (Greek: εντόπια, "local/indigenous [language]"), balgàrtzki in some parts of the region of Kostur, bògartski ("Bulgarian") in some parts of Dolna Prespa  along with naši ("our own") and stariski ("old"). In Kostur, however, the name "Macedonian" is used as well by the local people.
The exact number of speakers in Greece is difficult to ascertain, with estimates ranging between 20,000 and 250,000. Jacques Bacid estimates in his 1983 book that "over 200,000 Macedonian speakers remained in Greece". Other sources put the numbers of speakers at 180,000[unreliable source?], 220,000 and 250,000, while Yugoslav sources vary, some putting the estimated number of "Macedonians in Greek Macedonia" at 150,000–200,000 and others at 300,000. The Encyclopædia Britannica[dead link] and the Reader's Digest World Guide both put the figure of ethnic Macedonians in Greece at 1.8% or c.200,000 people, with the native language roughly corresponding with the figures. The UCLA also states that there are 200,000 Macedonian speakers in Greece. A 2008 article in the Greek newspaper Eleftherotipia put the estimate at 20,000.
The largest group of speakers are concentrated in the Florina, Kastoria, Edessa, Giannitsa, Ptolemaida and Naousa regions. During the Greek Civil War, the codified Macedonian language was taught in 87 schools with 10,000 students in areas of northern Greece under the control of Communist-led forces, until their defeat by the National Army in 1949. In recent years, there have been attempts to have the language recognised as a minority language.
Relationship to Bulgarian 
Between the Macedonian and Bulgarian languages there exist special and complicated historical and linguistic relationships. Macedonian researchers claim Macedonian is spoken in southwestern Bulgaria, while Bulgarians argue Macedonian is a variety of Bulgarian.
With the rise of nationalism under the Ottoman empire its specific social system, and especially the so called Rum millet, began to degrade with the continuous identification of the religious creed with ethnicity. The national awakening of each ethnic group inside it was too complex and most of the groups interacted with each other. With the emergence of the Bulgarian national revival during the first half of the 19th. century, the Bulgarian and Macedonian Slavs, who were under the supremacy of the Greek Orthodox clergy, wanted to create their own Church and schools in a common modern "Macedono-Bulgarian" literary standard, called simply Bulgarian. Their originating national elites used mainly ethno-linguistic principles to differentiation between "Slavic-Bulgarian" and "Greek" groups. At that time, every ethnographic subgroup in the Macedonian-Bulgarian linguistic area wrote in his own local dialect and a "base dialect" for the new standard was not an issue. However, during the 1870s this began to be contentious and it sparked fierce debate in the Bulgarian periodicals. After the establishment of a distinct Bulgarian state in 1878, Macedonia remained outside its borders, in the frame of the Ottoman Empire. As a consequence, the idea of a common compromise standard was rejected by the Bulgarian codificators during 1880-s, when eastern Bulgarian dialects were chosen as a basis for the standard Bulgarian. Despite standard Bulgarian was thought in the local schools in Macedonia till 1913, the fact of political separation became crucial for the development of a separate Macedonian language. With the following rise of the Macedonian nationalism, the need for separate Macedonian standard language appeared firstly in the early 20th. century. In the Interwar period, the territory of today's Republic of Macedonia became part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Bulgarian was banned for use and the local vernicular fell under a heavy influence by the official Serbo-Croatian language. During the world wars Bulgaria's short annexations over Macedonia saw two attempts to bring the Macedonian dialects back towards Bulgarian. This political situation stimulated the necessity of a separate Macedonian language and led gradually to its codification after the Second World War. It followed the establishment of SR Macedonia, as part of Communist Yugoslavia and finalized the progressive split in the common Macedonian-Bulgarian diasystem. Although, there was no clear separating line between these two languages on level of dialect then, the Macedonian standard was based on its western most dialects. Afterwards, Macedonian became the official language in the new republic, Serbo-Croatian was adopted as a second official language and Bulgarian was proscribed. More, in 1946-1948 the newly standardized Macedonian language was introduced as a second language even in Southwestern Bulgaria. Subsequently, the sharp and continuous deterioration of the political relationships between the two countries, the influence of both standard languages during the time, but also the strong Serbo-Croatian linguistic influence in Yugoslav era, led to a horizontal cross-border dialectal divergence. Although, some researchers describe yet Macedonian-Bulgarian dialect continuum as pluricentric area, the prevailing academic consensus is that Macedonian and Bulgarian are two autonomous languages within the eastern subbranch of the South Slavic linguistic area. Today, Macedonian language is still an ausbau-language, that is intentionally diverged, particularly from Bulgarian.
The total number of Macedonian speakers is highly disputed. Although the precise number of speakers is unknown, figures of between 1.6 million (from Ethnologue) and 2–2.5 million have been cited; see Topolinjska (1998) and Friedman (1985). The general academic consensus is that there are approximately 2 million speakers of the Macedonian language, accepting that "it is difficult to determine the total number of speakers of Macedonian due to the official policies of the neighbouring Balkan states and the fluid nature of emigration" Friedman (1985:?). According to the 2002 censuses and figures, the number of speakers of Macedonian is:
|Census Data||Lower Range||Higher Range|
|Albania||4,697||30,000 - 150,000|
|Greece||35,000 ||250,000 |
|Rest of the Balkans||15,807||25,000|
|Canada||18,440 ||18,440 ||150,000|
|United States of America||45,000||200,000|
|Rest of World||101,600||110,000|
|Dialect divisions of Macedonian|
Kumanovo / Kratovo
Mala Reka / Galičnik
Drimkol / Golo Brdo
Vevčani / Radοžda
Upper Prespa / Ohrid
Mariovo / Tikveš
Štip / Strumica
Maleševo / Pirin
Solun / Voden
Ser / Drama
Based on a large group of features, Macedonian dialects can be divided into Eastern and Western groups (the boundary runs approximately from Skopje and Skopska Crna Gora along the rivers Vardar and Crna). In addition, a more detailed classification can be based on the modern reflexes of the Proto-Slavic reduced vowels (yers), vocalic sonorants, and the back nasal *ǫ. That classification distinguishes between the following 5 groups:
- Ohrid-Prespa Group
- Debar Group
- Polog Group
- Kostur-Korča Group
- Northern Group
- Eastern Group
Macedonian possesses five vowels, one semivowel, three liquid consonants, three nasal stops, three pairs of fricatives, two pairs of affricates, a non-paired voiceless fricative, nine pairs of voiced and unvoiced consonants and four pairs of stops.
In addition, the schwa [ə] appears in certain literary words in which it is always stressed. In orthography it is expressed by an apostrophe, like in к'на ['kəna] (henna). A more common usage of the schwa, however, is found in certain dialects or loanwords.
Macedonian exhibits final obstruent devoicing and syllabic /r/
Other than recent loanwords, word stress in Macedonian is antepenultimate, meaning it falls on the third from last syllable in words with three or more syllables, and on the first or only syllable in other words. By comparison, in standard Bulgarian, the stress can fall anywhere within a word.
Macedonian grammar is markedly analytic in comparison with other Slavic languages, having lost the common Slavic case system. The Macedonian language shows some special and, in some cases, unique characteristics due to its central position in the Balkans. Literary Macedonian is the only South Slavic literary language that has three forms of the definite article, based on the degree of proximity to the speaker, and a perfect tense formed by means of an auxiliary verb "to have", followed by a past participle in the neuter, also known as verbal adjective.
Macedonian nouns (именки, imenki) belong to one of three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter) and are inflected for number (singular and plural), and marginally for case. The gender opposition is not distinctively marked in the plural. The Macedonian nominal system distinguishes two numbers (singular and plural), three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter), case and definiteness. Definiteness is expressed by three definite articles pertaining to the position of the object (unspecified, proximate and distal) which are suffixed to the noun.
|The definite articles|
|Unspecified||−ot (−от)||−ta (−та)||−to (−то)||−te (−те)||−te (−те)||−ta (−та)|
|Proximate||−ov (−ов)||−va (−ва)||−vo (−во)||−ve (−ве)||−ve (−ве)||−va (−ва)|
|Distal||−on (−он)||−na (−на)||−no (−но)||−ne (−не)||−ne (−не)||−na (−на)|
Macedonian has a complex system of verbs. Generally speaking Macedonian verbs have the following characteristics, or categories as they are called in the Macedonistics: tense, mood, person, type, transitiveness, voice, gender and number.
According to the categorization, all Macedonian verbs are divided into three major groups: a-group, e-group and i-group. Furthermore, the e-subgroup is divided into three more subgroups: a-, e- and i-subgroups. This division is done according to the ending (or the last vowel) of the verb in the simple present, singular, third person. Regarding the form, the verb forms can be either simple or complex.
The Macedonian simple verb forms are:
The Macedonian complex verb forms are:
Prepositions (предлози, predlozi) are part of the closed word class that are used to express the relationship between the words in a sentence. Since Macedonian lost the case system, the prepositions are very important for creation and expression of various grammatical categories. The most important Macedonian preposition is 'na' ('of', 'on', 'to'). Regarding the form, the prepositions can either be simple or complex. Based on the meaning the preposition express, they can be divided into prepositions of time, place, manner and quantity.
As a result of the close relatedness with Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian shares a considerable amount of its lexicon with these languages. Other languages which have been in positions of power, such as Ottoman Turkish and increasingly English also provide a significant proportion of the loan words. Prestige languages, such as Old Church Slavonic, which occupies a relationship to modern Macedonian comparable to the relationship of medieval Latin to modern Romance languages, and Russian also provided a source for lexical borrowings.
During the standardization process, there was deliberate care taken to try and purify the lexicon of the language. Serbisms and Bulgarisms, which had become common due to the influence of these languages in the region were rejected in favor of words from native dialects and archaisms. One example was the word for "event", настан [ˈnastan], which was found in certain examples of folk poetry collected by the Miladinov Brothers in the 19th century, while the Macedonian writer Krste Misirkov had previously used the word собитие [sɔˈbitiɛ]. This is not to say that there are no Serbisms, Bulgarisms or even Russianisms in the language, but rather that they were discouraged on a principle of "seeking native material first".
The language of the writers at the turn of 19th century abounded with Russian and, more specifically, Old Church Slavonic lexical and morphological elements which in the contemporary norm are substituted with more current models. Thus, the now slightly archaized forms with suffixes –ние and –тел, adjectives with the suffixes –телен and others, are now constructed following patterns more typical of Macedonian morphology. For example, дејствие corresponds to дејство, лицемерие → лицемерство, развитие → развиток, определение → определба, движение → движење, продолжител → продолжувач, победител → победник, убедителен → убедлив, etc. Many of these words are now synonymous or have taken on a slightly different nuance in meaning.
New words were coined according to internal logic and others calqued from related languages (especially Serbo-Croatian) to replace those taken from Russian, which include известие → извештај, количество → количина, согласие → слога, etc. This change was aimed at bringing written Macedonian closer to spoken language, effectively distancing it from the Bulgarian language which has kept its numerous Russian loans, and represents a successful puristic attempt at abolishing a lexicogenic tradition once common in written literature.
Writing system 
The modern Macedonian alphabet was developed by linguists in the period after the Second World War, who based their alphabet on the phonetic alphabet of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, though a similar writing system was used by Krste Misirkov in the early 20th century. The Macedonian language had previously been written using the Early Cyrillic alphabet, or later using the Cyrillic script with local adaptations from either the Serbian or Bulgarian alphabets.
The following table provides the upper and lower case forms of the Macedonian alphabet, along with the IPA value for each letter:
Macedonian orthography is consistent and phonemic in practice, an approximation of the principle of one grapheme per phoneme. A principle represented by Adelung's saying, "write as you speak and read as it is written" („пишувај како што зборуваш и читај како што е напишано“). However, as is common to language, there are occasional inconsistencies or exceptions.
|South Slavic languages
|Western South Slavic|
|Eastern South Slavic|
|a Includes Banat Bulgarian alphabet.|
The region of Macedonia and the Republic of Macedonia are located on the Balkan peninsula. The Slavs first came to the Balkan Peninsula in the sixth and seventh centuries AD. In the ninth century, the Byzantine Greek monks Saints Cyril and Methodius developed the first writing system for the Slavonic languages. At this time, the Slavic dialects were so close as to make it practical to develop the written language on the dialect of a single region. There is dispute as to the precise region, but it is likely that they were developed in the region around Thessalonika. The Ohrid Literary School was established in Ohrid in 886 by Saint Clement of Ohrid on orders of Boris I of Bulgaria. In the fourteenth century, the Ottoman Turks invaded and conquered most of the Balkans, incorporating Macedonia into the Ottoman Empire. While the written language, now called Old Church Slavonic, remained static as a result of Turkish domination, the spoken dialects moved further apart.
The earliest lexicographic evidence of the Macedonian dialects, described as Bulgarian, can be found in a lexicon from the 16th century written in the Greek alphabet. The concept of the various Macedonian dialects as a part of the Bulgarian language can be seen also from early vernacular texts from Macedonia such as the four-language dictionary of Daniel Mоscopolites, the works of Kiril Peichinovich and Yoakim Karchovski, and some vernacular gospels written in the Greek alphabet. These written works influenced by or completely written in the local Slavic vernacular appeared in Macedonia in the 18th and beginning of the 19th century and their authors referred to their language as Bulgarian.
In 1845 the Russian scholar Viktor Grigorovich travelled in the Balkans in order to study the south Slavic dialects of Macedonia. His work articulated for the first time a distinct pair of two groups of Bulgarian dialects: Eastern and Western (spoken in today Western Bulgaria and Republic of Macedonia). According to his findings, a part of the Western Bulgarian variety, spoken in Macedonia, was characterized by traces of Old Slavic nasal vowels. During the increase of national consciousness in the Balkans, standards for the languages of Slovene, Serbo-Croatian and Bulgarian were created. As Turkish influence in Macedonia waned, schools were opened up that taught the Bulgarian standard language in areas with significant Bulgarian population.
However, the Russian linguist of Bulgarian origin, Petar Draganov (1857 - 1928), after his visit of Macedonia, strongly opposed this 'Bulgarian origin of the Macedonian dialects', and he claimed that Macedonia is a separate ethno-geographic unit of the Balkans and the Macedonian dialects form separate language. Similar ideas were proposed in Krste Misirkov's works. Misirkov was born in a village near Pella in Greek Macedonia. Although literature had been written in the Slavic dialects of Macedonia before, arguably the most important book published in relation to the Macedonian language was Misirkov's On Macedonian Matters, published in 1903. In that book, he argued for the creation of a standard literary Macedonian language from the central dialects of Macedonia which would use a phonemic orthography.
After the first two Balkan wars, the region of Macedonia was split among Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia (later Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Yugoslavia). Serbia occupied the area that is currently the Republic of Macedonia incorporating it into the Kingdom as "Southern Serbia". During this time, Yugoslav Macedonia became known as Vardar Banovina (Vardar province) and the language of public life, education and the church was Serbo-Croatian. In the other two parts of Macedonia, the respective national languages, Greek and Bulgarian, were made official. In Bulgarian (Pirin) Macedonia, the local dialects continued to be described as dialects of Bulgarian.
During the second World War, most of Yugoslav Macedonia was occupied by the Bulgarian army, who was allied with the Axis. The standard Bulgarian language was reintroduced in schools and liturgies. The Bulgarians were initially welcomed as liberators from Serbian domination until connections were made between the imposition of the Bulgarian language and unpopular Serbian assimilation policies. Even the Macedonian communist were then pro-Bulgarian oriented, but later the Bulgarians were seen as conquerors by communist movement. However, there were pro-Bulgarian groups, which advocated independence as second Bulgarian state, and others, who supported the union with Bulgaria.
The eventual outcome was that almost all of Vardar Banovina (i.e. the areas which geographically became known as Vardar Macedonia) was incorporated into the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as a constituent Socialist Republic with the Macedonian language holding official status within both the Federation and Republic. The Macedonian language was proclaimed the official language of the Republic of Macedonia at the First Session of the Assembly for the National Liberation of Macedonia, held on August 2, 1944. The first official Macedonian grammar was developed by Krume Kepeski. One of the most important contributors in the standardisation of the Macedonian literary language was Blaže Koneski. The first document written in the literary standard Macedonian language is the first issue of the Nova Makedonija newspaper in 1944. Makedonska Iskra (Macedonian Spark) was the first Macedonian newspaper to be published in Australia, from 1946 to 1957. A monthly with national distribution, it commenced in Perth and later moved to Melbourne and Sydney.
Common expressions 
- Здраво (Zdravo) — 'Hello'
- Добро утро (Dobro utro) — 'Good morning'
- Добар ден (Dobar den) — 'Good afternoon'
- Добровечер (Dobrovečer) — 'Good evening'
- Добра ноќ (Dobra nokj) — 'Good night'
- До видување (Do viduvanje) — 'Good bye'
- Кој сте Вие? (Koj ste Vie?) [formal, see T–V distinction] — 'Who are you?'
- Какo сте? (Kako ste?) — 'How are you?'
- Да (Da) — 'Yes'
- Не (Ne) — 'No'
- Можеби (Možebi) — 'Maybe'
- Што правите? (Što pravite?) — 'What are you doing?'
- Добро сум (Dobro sum) — 'I'm fine'
- Сè најдобро (Sè najdobro) — 'All the best'
- Поздрав (Pozdrav) — 'Regards'
- Благодарам (Blagodaram) — 'Thank you'
- Молам (Molam) — 'Please' or 'You're welcome'
- Извинете (Izvinete) — 'Sorry'
- Те сакам (Te sakam) — 'I love you'
- Колку е часот? (Kolku e časot) — 'What's the time?'
- Колку чини ова? (Kolku čini ova?) — 'How much does this cost?'
- Дали зборувате…? (Dali zboruvate…?) — 'Do you speak…?'
- …англиски (angliski) — 'English'
- …македонски (makedonski) — 'Macedonian'
- …германски (germanski) — 'German'
- …руски (ruski) — 'Russian'
- …грчки (grčki) — 'Greek'
- …турски (turski) — 'Turkish'
- …бугарски (bugarski) — 'Bulgarian'
- …италијански (italijanski) — 'Italian'
- …француски (francuski) — 'French'
- …шпански (španski) — 'Spanish'
- …кинески (kineski) — 'Chinese'
- …арапски (arapski) — 'Arabic'
- Ќе се видиме наскоро (Kjе se vidime naskoro) — 'We'll see each other soon'
- Ќе се видиме утре (Kjе se vidime utre) — 'We'll see each other tomorrow'
Political views on the language 
As with the issue of Macedonian ethnicity, the politicians, linguists and common people from Macedonia and neighbouring countries have opposing views about the existence and distinctiveness of the Macedonian language.
In the ninth century AD, saints Cyril and Methodius introduced Old Church Slavonic, the first Slavic language of literacy. Written with their newly invented Glagolitic script, this language was based largely on the dialect of Slavs spoken in Thessaloniki; this dialect is closest to present-day Macedonian and Bulgarian.
Although described as being dialects of Bulgarian or Serbian prior to the establishment of the standard , the current academic consensus (outside of Bulgaria) is that Macedonian is an autonomous language within the South Slavic dialect continuum.
Bulgarian view 
In most sources in and out of Bulgaria before the Second World War, the southern Slavonic dialect continuum covering the area of today's Republic of Macedonia and Northern Greece was referred to as a group of Bulgarian dialects. The local variants of the name of the language were also balgàrtzki, bùgarski or bugàrski; i.e. Bulgarian. Although Bulgaria was the first country to recognize the independence of the Republic of Macedonia, most of its academics, as well as the general public, regard the language spoken there as a form of Bulgarian. However, after years of diplomatic impasse caused by an academic dispute, in 1999 the government in Sofia solved the problem of the Macedonian language by using the euphemistic formula: "the official language of the country (Republic of Macedonia) in accordance with its constitution".
Greek view 
Greeks object to the use of the "Macedonian" name in reference to the modern Slavic language, calling it "Slavomacedonian" (Greek: σλαβομακεδονική γλώσσα), a term coined by some members of the Slavic-speaking community of northern Greece itself.
See also 
- Ausbausprache - Abstandsprache - Dachsprache
- Balkan language area
- Macedonian alphabet
- Macedonian Sign Language
- Macedonian language naming dispute
- Political views on the Macedonian language
- Romanisation of Macedonian
- Slavic dialects of Greece
- Macedonian language on Britannica
- Ethnologue report for Macedonian
- Although the precise number of speakers is unknown, figures of between 2.1 million (from Ethnologue) and 2.5 million (Topolinjska (1998)) have been cited. The general academic consensus is that there are approximately 2 million speakers of the Macedonian language, accepting that "it is difficult to determine the total number of speakers of Macedonian due to the official policies of the neighbouring Balkan states and the fluid nature of emigration." Friedman (1985:?).
- European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
- Macedonian language, official in Dužine and Jabuka
- "МИА - Македонска Информативна Агенцијa - НА ДЕНЕШЕН ДЕН". Mia.com.mk. Retrieved 2010-08-15.
- Studies in contact linguistics, G. Gilbert, Glenn G. Gilbert, Janet M. Fuller, Linda L. Thornburg, Peter Lang, 2006, ISBN 0-8204-7934-9, ISBN 978-0-8204-7934-7,p. 213.
- Friedman, V. (1998) "The implementation of standard Macedonian: problems and results" in International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Vol. 131, pp. 31-57
- Mirjana N. Dedaić, Mirjana Misković-Luković. South Slavic discourse particles (John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2010), p. 13
- Victor Roudometof. Collective memory, national identity, and ethnic conflict: Greece, Bulgaria, and the Macedonian question (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002), p. 41
- Language profile Macedonian, UCLA International Institute
- Levinson & O'Leary (1992:239)
- Baker, Colin. Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. p. 415. "Macedonian is similar to Bulgarian and is sometimes been [sic] regarded as a variety of that language. [...] Macedonian is spoken by about 200,000 people in Bulgaria, where it is viewed as a dialect of Bulgaria, and also in the province of Macedonia in northern Greece where the language is called Slavika. However, in the Republic of Macedonia, a separate Macedonian literary language has been in existence since 1944, and most scholars now accept Macedonian as a separate language. The Macedonian standard language is based on a difference group of dialects from the Bulgarian [...]."
- R.E.Asher, J.M.Y.Simpson (editors), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, (1994), vol.1, p.429: "From a strictly linguistic point of view Macedonian can be called a Bulgarian dialect, as structurally it is most similar to Bulgarian. Indeed, Bulgarian scholars reject Macedonian as an individual language, but since it now has the status of a literary language, most other scholars accept its independent existence."
- Languages and Linguistics of Europe: A Comprehensive Guide, Bernd Kortmann, Johan van der Auwera, p. 420
- Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction Blackwell textbooks in linguistics, Author Benjamin W. Fortson, Publisher John Wiley and Sons, 2009, ISBN 1-4051-8896-0, p. 431.
- Mazon, Andre. Contes Slaves de la Macédoine Sud-Occidentale: Etude linguistique; textes et traduction; Notes de Folklore, Paris 1923, p. 4.
- Селищев, Афанасий. Избранные труды, Москва 1968.
- K. Sandfeld, Balkanfilologien (København, 1926, MCMXXVI).
- James Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups, p.438 (Greenwood Press, 2000)
- BernardComrie. The Slavonic Languages, p.251 (Routledge, 1993).
- Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, Elsevier, 2008, ISBN 0-08-087774-5, p.120.
- Joseph, Brian D. et al. When Languages Collide: Perspectives on Language Conflict, Competition and Coexistence; Ohio State University Press (2002), p.261
- Max K. Adler. Marxist Linguistic Theory and Communist Practice: A Sociolinguistic Study; Buske Verlag (1980), p.215
- Antoine Meillet (French, linguist, 1928): Their dialects, differing among themselves, are not truly Serbian nor truly Bulgarian, especially if one is thinking of written Bulgarian, which is based on dialects quite far removed from the Macedonian dialects. In reality these dialects do not properly belong to either the one or the other of the two groups under dispute.
1. Todor Dimitrovski, Blaže Koneski, Trajko Stamatoski. About the Macedonian language; "Krste Misirkov" Institute of the Macedonian Language, 1978; p.31.
2. Kulturen Život. Macedonian review, Volume 10; Kulturen Zhivot., 1980; p.105
- Linguasphere 53-AAA-h
- Who are the Macedonians?, Hugh Poulton, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2000, ISBN 1-85065-534-0,p. 116.
- When languages collide: perspectives on language conflict, language competition, and language coexistence, Brian D. Joseph, Ohio State University Press, 2003, p. 281, ISBN 0-8142-0913-0.
- Sociolinguistic variation and change, Peter Trudgill, Edinburgh University Press, 2002, ISBN 0748615156, p. 120.
- Dedaić, Mirjana N. et al. South Slavic Discourse Particles; John Benjamins Publishing (2010) p.13
- Bernard Comrie. The Slavonic Languages; Taylor & Francis (2002), p.251
- John Shea. Macedonia and Greece: The Struggle to Define a New Balkan Nation; McFarland (2008), p.208
- The languages and linguistics of Europe: A comprehensive guide, Hans Henrich, Bernd Kortmann, Johan van der Auwera, Walter de Gruyter, 2011, ISBN 3110220261, p. 420.
- Florin Curta. Souhteastern Europe in the Middle Ages; 500-1250. ; Cambridge. Pg 216
- Encyclopedia Britannica - Macedonian language
- Usage des langues minoritaires dans les départements de Florina et d’Aridea (Macédoine)
- International Election Observation Mission Parliamentary Election, Republic of Albania – 3 July 2005
- National minorities : a group of experts visits Albania (29/04/2002)
- Macedonian by Victor Friedman © SEELRC 2001
- Map showing the distribution of the Macedonian language in the Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups (1980)
- Popis na Naselenie, Domaćinstva i Stanovi vo Republika Makedonija, 2002 - Vkupno naselenie na Republika Makedonija spored majčin jazik.
- Artan & Gurraj (2001:219)
- Topolinjska (1998:?)
- Schmieger, R. 1998. "The situation of the Macedonian language in Greece: sociolinguistic analysis", International Journal of the Sociology of Language 131, 125–55.; Friedman (2001).
- Institute of Bulgarian Language (1978), Единството на българския език в миналото и днес (in Bulgarian), Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, p. 4, OCLC 6430481; Стойков (Stoykov), Стойко (2002) , Българска диалектология (Bulgarian dialectology) (in Bulgarian), София: Акад. изд. "Проф. Марин Дринов", ISBN 954-430-846-6, OCLC 53429452
- Шклифов, Благой. Проблеми на българската диалектна и историческа фонетика с оглед на македонските говори, София 1995, с. 14.; Шклифов, Благой. Речник на костурския говор, Българска диалектология, София 1977, с. кн. VІІІ, с. 201–205,
- Trudgill P. (2000), "Greece and European Turkey: From Religious to Linguistic Identity". In: Stephen Barbour and Cathie Carmichael (eds.), Language and Nationalism in Europe, Oxford : Oxford University Press, p.259.
- Lois Whitman (1994): Denying ethnic identity: The Macedonians of Greece Helsinki Human Rights Watch. p.39 Link
- Greek Helsinki Monitor - Report about Compliance with the Principles of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
- Шклифов, Благой and Екатерина Шклифова, Български диалектни текстове от Егейска Македония, София 2003, с. 28-36, 172 - Shkifov, Blagoy and Ekaterina Shklifova. Bulgarian dialect texts from Aegean Macedonia, Sofia 2003, p. 28-36)
- Lois Whitman (1994): Denying ethnic identity: The Macedonians of Greece Helsinki Human Rights Watch. p.37 
- The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World, Loring M. Danforth, p. 62
- Michel Candelier, ed. ; Ana-Isabel Andrade ... (2004), Janua Linguarum — The Gateway to Language, Council of Europe, ISBN 92-871-5312-4, See Page 90, (Full Document)
- Poulton, Hugh (1997), Macedonia and Greece: The Struggle to Define a New Balkan Nation, McFarland, p. 193, ISBN 0-7864-0228-8
- Jacques Bacid, Ph.D. Macedonia Through the Ages. Columbia University, 1983.
- GeoNative - Macedonia
- L. M. Danforth, The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World 1995, Princeton University Press
- Hill, P. (1999) "Macedonians in Greece and Albania: A Comparative study of recent developments". Nationalities Papers Volume 27, 1 March 1999, page 44(14)
- Poulton, H.(2000), "Who are the Macedonians?",C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, page 167,
As often occurs with Yugoslav sources, there appears to be confusion about the number of Macedonians in Greek Macedonia at present: some Yugoslav sources put the latter figure at 300,000, while more sober estimates put the number at 150,000 - 200,000
- UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile
- UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile
- Eletherotipia article
- Simpson, Neil (1994), Macedonia Its Disputed History, Victoria: Aristoc Press, pp. 101, 102 & 91, ISBN 0-646-20462-9
- "Report of the independent expert on minority issues, Gay McDougall Mission to Greece 8–16 September 2008". Greek Helsinki Monitor. 2009-02-18.
- Europe and the Historical Legacies in the Balkans, Raymond Detrez, Barbara Segaert, Peter Lang, 2008, ISBN 9052013748, pp. 36-38.
- Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia Historical Dictionaries of Europe, Dimitar Bechev, Scarecrow Press, 2009, ISBN 0810862956,p. 134.
- From Rum Millet to Greek and Bulgarian Nations: Religious and National Debates in the Borderlands of the Ottoman Empire, 1870–1913. Theodora Dragostinova, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
- Ц. Билярски, Из българския възрожденски печат от 70-те години на XIX в. за македонския въпрос, сп. „Македонски преглед“, г. XXIII, София, 2009, кн. 4, с. 103-120.
- Pluricentric languages: differing norms in different nations, Michael G. Clyne, Walter de Gruyter, 1992, SBN 3110128551, p. 440.
- The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics, Ivo Banač, Cornell University Press, 1988, ISBN 0801494931, p. 317.
- Papers from the Sixth International Conference on Historical Linguistics, v. 34, ISSN 0304-0763, Jacek Fisiak, John Benjamins Publishing, 1985, ISBN 9027235287, pp. 13-14.
- The Macedonian conflict: ethnic nationalism in a transnational world, Loring M. Danforth, Princeton University Press, 1995, ISBN 0691043566, p. 67.
- Conflict and Chaos in Eastern Europe, Dennis P. Hupchick, Palgrave Macmillan, 1995, ISBN 0312121164,p. 143.
- "Language, discourse and borders in the Yugoslav successor states - Current issues in language and society monographs, Birgitta Busch, Helen Kelly-Holmes, Multilingual Matters, 2004, ISBN 1853597325, pp. 24-25."
- Performing Democracy: Bulgarian Music and Musicians in Transition, Donna A. Buchanan, University of Chicago Press, 2006, ISBN 0226078272, pp. 260-261.
- The Languages and Linguistics of Europe: A Comprehensive Guide, Bernd Kortmann, Johan van der Auwera, Walter de Gruyter, 2011, ISBN 3110220261, p. 515.
- Sociolinguistics: an international handbook of the science of languague and society, Ulrich Ammon, Walter de Gruyter, 2005, ISBN 3110171481, p. 154.
- Trudgill, Peter (1992), "Ausbau sociolinguistics and the perception of language status in contemporary Europe", International Journal of Applied Linguistics 2 (2): 167–177
- The Slavic Languages, Roland Sussex, Paul Cubberley, Cambridge University Press, 2006, ISBN 1139457284, p. 71.
- 2002 Census - Mother tongue (p. 197)
- 2002 Census - Total population (p. 22)
- 1989 Census - ethnic Macedonians (p. 219)
- Albania : 4.2.2 Language issues and policies : Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe
- 2011 Census - Mother tongue
- "Bulgarian 2011 census". www.nsi.bg. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
- 2002 Census - Mother tongue (p. 16)
- "Population by Ethnicity, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census". Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
- 2005 census
- 2003 Census
- 2006 Census - Language spoken most often at home
- Estimate from the MFA
- 2001 Census - People who spoke a language other than english at home
- property=file.xls 2006 figures
- Estimate from the Macedonian MFA
- Italian government statistics
- American FactFinder
- 2000 Swiss government statistics - Population by National Languages
- 2010 Swiss government statistics - Population by Nationality
- 2001 census
- 2001 census
- 2001 census
- Population Estimate from the MFA
- OECD Statistics
- 2002 census
- 2006 census
- 2008 census
- 2003 census
- Statistics New Zealand:Language spoken (total responses) for the 1996-2006 censuses (Table 16)
- 2002 census
- After Z. Topolińska and B. Vidoeski (1984), Polski-macedonski gramatyka konfrontatiwna, z.1, PAN.
- Comrie & Corbett (2002:247)
- Стойков (Stoykov), Стойко (2002) , Българска диалектология (Bulgarian dialectology) (in Bulgarian), София: Акад. изд. "Проф. Марин Дринов", ISBN 954-430-846-6, OCLC 53429452
- Lunt (1952:1)
- Friedman, V. (2001) Macedonian (SEELRC), p. 40.
- Бојковска, Стојка; Лилјана Минова - Ѓуркова, Димитар Пандев, Живко Цветковски (декември 2008). Саветка Димитрова, ed. Општа граматика на македонскиот јазик. Скопје: АД Просветно Дело. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/978-9989-0-0662-7|978-9989-0-0662-7 [[Category:Articles with invalid ISBNs]]]] Check
- Кепески, К. (1946), Македонска граматика, Скопје, Државно книгоиздавателство на Македонија.
- In his most famous work "On the Macedonian Matters" (available online), Misirkov uses the word собитие (a Russian loan taken from Bulgarian) where настан is used today.
- Friedman (1998:?)
- Т. Димитровски. Литературната лексика на македонскиот писмен јазик во XIX в. и нашиот однос кон неа: Реферати на македонските слависти за VI Меѓународен славистички конгрес во Прага, Скопје, 1968 (T. Dimitrovski. The literary vocabulary of the Macedonian written language in the 19th century and our attitude to it. Abstracts of Macedonian slavists for the 6th International Slavistic Congress in Prague. Skopje, 1968)
- Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–05, s.v. "Cyril and Methodius, Saints"; Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica Incorporated, Warren E. Preece – 1972, p.846, s.v., "Cyril and Methodius, Saints" and "Eastern Orthodoxy, Missions ancient and modern"; Encyclopedia of World Cultures, David H. Levinson, 1991, p.239, s.v., "Social Science"; Eric M. Meyers, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, p.151, 1997; Lunt, Slavic Review, June, 1964, p. 216; Roman Jakobson, Crucial problems of Cyrillo-Methodian Studies; Leonid Ivan Strakhovsky, A Handbook of Slavic Studies, p.98; V.Bogdanovich , History of the ancient Serbian literature, Belgrade, 1980, p.119
- The Columbia Encyclopaedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–05, O.Ed. Saints Cyril and Methodius "Cyril and Methodius, Saints) 869 and 884, respectively, “Greek missionaries, brothers, called Apostles to the Slavs and fathers of Slavonic literature."
- Encyclopædia Britannica, Major alphabets of the world, Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets, 2008, O.Ed. "The two early Slavic alphabets, the Cyrillic and the Glagolitic, were invented by St. Cyril, or Constantine (c. 827–869), and St. Methodius (c. 825–884). These men were Greeks from Thessaloniki who became apostles to the southern Slavs, whom they converted to Christianity."
- Hastings, Adrian (1997). The construction of nationhood: ethnicity, religion, and nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 126. ISBN 0-521-62544-0. ". the activity of the brothers Constantine (later renamed Cyril) and Methodius, aristocratic Greek priests who were sent from Constantinople."
- Fletcher, R. A. (1999). The barbarian conversion: from paganism to Christianity. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press. p. 327. ISBN 0-520-21859-0.
- Cizevskij, Dmitrij; Zenkovsky, Serge A.; Porter, Richard E. Comparative History of Slavic Literatures. Vanderbilt University Press. pp. vi. ISBN 0-8265-1371-9. ""Two Greek brothers from Salonika, Constantine who later became a monk and took the name Cyril and Methodius."
- The illustrated guide to the Bible. New York: Oxford University Press. 1998. p. 14. ISBN 0-19-521462-5. "In Eastern Europe, the first translations of the Bible into the Slavoruic languages were made by the Greek missionaries Cyril and Methodius in the 860s"
- Smalley, William Allen (1991). Translation as mission: Bible translation in the modern missionary movement. Macon, Ga.: Mercer. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-86554-389-8. "The most important instance where translation and the beginning church did coincide closely was in Slavonic under the brothers Cyril, Methodius, with the Bible completed by A.D. 880 This was a missionary translation but unusual again (from a modern point of view) because not a translation into the dialect spoken where the missionaries were The brothers were Greeks who had been brought up in Macedonia."
- Littera et Lingua, ISSN 1312-6172, Пролет 2010, Лилия Илиева, Нови данни за българската поезия през ХVІ и ХVІІ век.
- 'Un Lexique Macedonien Du XVIe Siecle', Giannelli, Ciro. Avec la collaboration de Andre Vaillant, 1958
- Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, Elsevier, 2008, ISBN 0-08-087774-5, pp. 120; 663.
- F. A. K. Yasamee "NATIONALITY IN THE BALKANS: THE CASE OF THE MACEDONIANS" in Balkans: A Mirror of the New World Order, Istanbul: EREN, 1995; pp. 121–132.
- Seriot (1997:177)
- and the Macedonians: a history By Andrew Rossos
- The A to Z of Bulgaria, Raymond Detrez, Scarecrow Press, Incorporated, 2010, ISBN 0810872021, p. 485.
- Yugoslavism: Histories of a Failed Idea, 1918-1992, Dejan Djokíc, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2003, ISBN 1850656630, p. 119.
- War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945: Occupation and Collaboration, Jozo Tomasevich, Stanford University Press, ISBN 0804779244p. 167.
- The Struggle for Greece, 1941-1949, Christopher M. Woodhouse, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2002, ISBN 1850654875,p. 67.
- Dostál (1965:69)
- Bernard Comrie. The Slavonic Languages, p.251 (Routledge, 1993).
- Trudgill (1992:?)
- Шклифов, Благой and Екатерина Шклифова, Български деалектни текстове от Егейска Македония, София 2003, с. 28–33 (Shklifov, Blagoy and Ekaterina Shklifova. Bulgarian dialect texts from Aegean Macedonia Sofia 2003, p. 28–36)
- 1999/02/22 23:50 Bulgaria Recognises Macedonian Language
- Although acceptable in the past, current use of this name in reference to both the ethnic group and the language can be considered pejorative and offensive by ethnic Macedonians. In the past, the Macedonian Slavs in Greece seemed relieved to be acknowledged as "Slavomacedonians". Pavlos Koufis, a native of Greek Macedonia, pioneer of ethnic Macedonian schools in the region and local historian, says in Laografika Florinas kai Kastorias (Folklore of Florina and Kastoria), Athens 1996:
"[During its Panhellenic Meeting in September 1942, the KKE mentioned that it recognises the equality of the ethnic minorities in Greece] the KKE recognised that the Slavophone population was ethnic minority of Slavomacedonians]. This was a term, which the inhabitants of the region accepted with relief. [Because] Slavomacedonians = Slavs+Macedonians. The first section of the term determined their origin and classified them in the great family of the Slav peoples."
The Greek Helsinki Monitor reports:
"... the term Slavomacedonian was introduced and was accepted by the community itself, which at the time had a much more widespread non-Greek Macedonian ethnic consciousness. Unfortunately, according to members of the community, this term was later used by the Greek authorities in a pejorative, discriminatory way; hence the reluctance if not hostility of modern-day Macedonians of Greece (i.e. people with a Macedonian national identity) to accept it."
- Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville (2002), "The Macedonian language", The Slavonic Languages, New York: Routledge Publications
- Dostál, Antonín (1965), "The Origins of the Slavonic Liturgy", Dumbarton Oaks Papers (Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University) 19: 67–87, doi:10.2307/1291226, JSTOR 1291226
- Hill, P. (1999), "Macedonians in Greece and Albania: A comparative study of recent developments", Nationalities Papers 27 (1): 17, doi:10.1080/009059999109163
- Friedman, Victor (2001), "Macedonian", in Garry, Jane; Rubino, Carl, Facts about the World's Languages: An Encyclopedia of the Worlds Major Languages, Past and Present, New York: Holt, pp. 435–439
- Friedman, Victor (1998), "The implementation of standard Macedonian: problems and results", International Journal of the Sociology of Language (131): 31–57
- Hoxha, Artan; Gurraj, Alma (2001), "Local self-government and decentralization: case of Albania. History, reformes [[[sic]]] and challenges." (PDF), Local Self Government and Decentralization in South-East Europe:Proceedings of the Workshop held in Zagreb, 6th April 2001, pp. 194–224 Wikilink embedded in URL title (help)
- Levinson, David; O'Leary, Timothy (1992), Encyclopedia of World Cultures, G.K. Hall, p. 239, ISBN 0-8161-1808-6
- Lunt, Horace G. (1952), Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language, Skopje
- Mahon, Milena (1998), "The Macedonian question in Bulgaria", Nations and Nationalism 4 (3): 389–407, doi:10.1111/j.1354-5078.1998.00389.x
- Poulton, Hugh (2000), Who Are the Macedonians?, United Kingdom: C. Hurst & Co. Ltd., ISBN 0-253-34598-7
- Seriot, Patrick (1997), "Faut-il que les langues aient un nom? Le cas du macédonien", in Tabouret-Keller, Andrée, Le nom des langues. L'enjeu de la nomination des langues 1, Louvain: Peeters, pp. 167–190
- Topolinjska, Z. (1998), "In place of a foreword: facts about the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian language", International Journal of the Sociology of Language (131): 1–11
- Trudgill, Peter (1992), "Ausbau sociolinguistics and the perception of language status in contemporary Europe", International Journal of Applied Linguistics 2 (2): 167–177, doi:10.1111/j.1473-4192.1992.tb00031.x
Further reading 
- Kramer, Christina (2003), Macedonian: A Course for Beginning and Intermediate Students. (2nd ed.), University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 978-0-299-18804-7
- Documents, Contes et Chansons Slaves de l'Albanie du Sud, Andre Mazon - 1936.
- L'Evangeliaire de Kulakia Un parler Slave du Bas-Vardar, Andre Mazon et Andre Vaillant - 1938.
- Dwie gwary macedońskie(Suhe i Wysoka w Soluńskiem) – Teksty, Mieczysław Małecki - in Polish, 1936.
|Macedonian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Macedonian|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Macedonian language|
- Dictionary of three languages - Gjorgija Pulevski, 1875.
- Zur Sprachlichen Beurtellung der Macedonischen slaven,Leonhard Masing - in German, 1890.
- Zur Laut- und Akzentlehre der Macedonischen dialekte,Leonhard Masing - in German, 1891.
- MACEDONISCHEN STUDIEN, Vatroslav Oblak - in German, 1896.
- Un Lexique Macedonien du XVI siecle (French)
- Dwie gwary macedońskie(Suhe i Wysoka w Soluńskiem) – Teksty , Mieczysław Małecki - in Polish, 1934.
- Macedonian grammar, Krume Kepeski – 1946, in Macedonian
- Macedonian orthography and dictionary, Blaže Koneski and Krum Tošev – 1950, in Macedonian
- Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language, Horace Lunt – 1952
- The first phonological conference for Macedonian with short history, Victor Friedman.
Macedonian language 
- Macedonian Grammar
- A grammar of Macedonian by Victor Friedman
- Macedonian - English Dictionary
- Macedonian Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh list appendix)
- Macedonian Language E-Learning Center - learn Macedonian language online
- Digital Database of the Macedonian Words
- Macedonian - English, Greek, Albanian, German, French, Italian translator