Machado de Assis
|Machado de Assis|
Machado de Assis around age 56, c. 1896.
|Born||Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis
June 21, 1839
Rio de Janeiro, Empire of Brazil
|Died||September 29, 1908
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
|Occupation||Novelist, short story writer, poet, literary critic|
|Literary movement||Romanticism, Realism|
Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis (Portuguese: [ʒwɐˈkĩ mɐˈɾi.ɐ mɐˈʃadu dɨ ɐˈsis]), often known by his surnames as Machado de Assis, Machado, or Bruxo do Cosme Velho (June 21, 1839 – September 29, 1908), was a Brazilian novelist, poet, playwright, short story writer, and advocate of monarchism. Widely regarded as the greatest writer of Brazilian literature, nevertheless he did not gain widespread popularity outside Brazil in his own lifetime. He was multilingual, having taught himself French, English, German and Greek in later life.
Machado's works had a great influence on Brazilian literary schools of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1941, the Brazilian Academy of Letters founded in his honor the Prêmio Machado de Assis (Machado de Assis Prize), the most prestigious literary award in Brazil. José Saramago, Carlos Fuentes, Woody Allen and Susan Sontag are among his admirers.
Birth and adolescence
Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis was born on June 21, 1839 in Rio de Janeiro, then capital of the Empire of Brazil. His parents were Francisco José de Assis, a mulatto wall painter, and Maria Leopoldina da Câmara Machado, an Azorean Portuguese washerwoman. He was born in Livramento country house, owned by Dona Maria José de Mendonça Barroso Pereira, widow of senator Bento Barroso Pereira, who protected his parents and allowed them to live with her. Dona Maria José became Joaquim’s godmother; her brother-in-law, commendatory Joaquim Alberto de Sousa da Silveira, was his godfather, and both were paid homage by giving their names to the baby. Machado had a sister who died young. Joaquim studied in a public school, but was not a good student. While helping to serve masses, he met Father Silveira Sarmento, who became his Latin teacher and also friend.
When Joaquim was ten years old, his mother died, and his father took him along as he moved to São Cristóvão. Francisco de Assis met the mulatta Maria Inês da Silva, and they married in 1854. Joaquim had classes in a school for girls only, thanks to his stepmother who worked there making candies. At night he learned French with an immigrant baker. In his adolescence, he met the mulatto Francisco de Paulo Brito, who owned a bookstore, a newspaper and typography. On January 12, 1855, Francisco de Paula published the poem Ella (“She”) written by Joaquim, then 15 years old, in the newspaper Marmota Fluminense. In the following year, he was hired as typographer’s apprentice in the Imprensa Oficial (the Official Press, charged with the publication of Government measures), where he was encouraged as a writer by Manuel Antônio de Almeida, the newspaper’s director and also a novelist. There he also met Francisco Otaviano, journalist and later liberal senator, and Quintino Bocaiúva, who decades later would become known for his role as a republican orator.
Early career and education
Francisco Otaviano hired Machado to work on the newspaper Correio Mercantil as a proofreader in 1858. He continued to write for the Marmota Fluminense and also for several other newspapers, but he did not earn much and had a humble life. As he did not live with his father anymore, it was common for him to eat only once a day for lack of money.
Around this time, he became a friend of the writer and liberal politician José de Alencar, who taught him English. From English literature, he was influenced by Laurence Sterne, William Shakespeare, Lord Byron and Jonathan Swift. He learned German years later and in his old age, Greek. He was invited by Bocaiúva to work at his newspaper Diário do Rio de Janeiro in 1860. Machado had a passion for theater and wrote several plays for a short time; his friend Bocaiúva concluded: “Your works are meant to be read and not played.” He gained some notability and began to sign his writings as J. M. Machado de Assis, the way he would be known for posterity: Machado de Assis.
His father Francisco de Assis died in 1864. Machado learned of his father's death through acquaintances . He dedicated his compilation of poems called “Crisálidas” to his father: “To the Memory of Francisco José de Assis and Maria Leopoldina Machado de Assis, my Parents.” With the Liberal Party's ascension to power about that time, Machado thought he might receive a patronage position that would help him improve his life. To his surprise, aid came from the Emperor Dom Pedro II, who hired him as director-assistant in the Diário Oficial in 1867, and knighted him as an honor. In 1888 Machado was made an officer of the Order of the Rose.
Marriage and family
In 1868 Machado met the Portuguese Carolina Augusta Xavier de Novais, five years older than he. She was the sister of his colleague Faustino Xavier de Novais, for whom he worked on the magazine O Futuro. Afflicted with a stammer, Machado was extremely shy, short and lean, but he was very intelligent and well learned. He married Carolina on 12 November 1869; although her parents Miguel and Adelaide, and her siblings disapproved because Machado was mulatto and she was of purely European ancestry. They had no children.
Machado managed to rise in his bureaucratic career, first in the Agriculture Department. Three years later, he became the head of a section in it. He published two poetry books: Falenas, in 1870, and Americanas, in 1875. Their weak reception made him explore other literary genres.
He wrote several romantic novels, such as: Ressurreição, A Mão e Luva, Helena and Iaiá Garcia. The books were a success with the public, but literary critics considered them mediocre. Machado suffered repeated attacks of epilepsy, apparently related to hearing of the death of his old friend José de Alencar. He was left melancholic, pessimistic and fixed on death. His next book, marked by “a skeptical and realistic tone”: Memórias Póstumas de Brás Cubas (Posthumous Memoirs of Brás Cubas, also translated as Epitaph of a Small Winner), is widely considered a masterpiece. By the end of the 1880s, Machado had gained wide renown as a writer.
Although he was opposed to slavery, he never spoke against it in public. He avoided discussing politics. He was criticized by the abolitionist José do Patrocínio and by the writer Lima Barreto for staying away from politics, especially the cause of abolition. He was also criticized by them for having married a white woman. Machado was caught by surprise with the monarchy overthrown on November 15, 1889. Machado had no sympathy towards republicanism, as he considered himself a liberal monarchist and venerated Pedro II, whom he perceived as “a humble, honest, well-learned and patriotic man, who knew how to make of a throne a chair [for his simplicity], without diminishing its greatness and respect.” When a commission went to the public office where he worked to remove the picture of the former emperor, the shy Machado defied them: “The picture got in here by an order and it shall leave only by another order.”
The birth of the Brazilian republic made Machado become more critical and an observer of the Brazilian society of his time. From then on, he wrote “not only the greatest novels of his time, but the greatest of all time of Brazilian literature.” Works such as Quincas Borba (Philosopher or Dog?) (1891), Dom Casmurro (1899), Esaú e Jacó (1904) and Memorial de Aires (1908), considered masterpieces, were successes with both critics and the public. In 1893 he published "A Missa do Galo" ("Midnight Mass"), considered his greatest short story.
Machado de Assis, along with fellow monarchists such as Joaquim Nabuco, Manuel de Oliveira Lima, Afonso Celso de Assis and Alfredo d'Escragnolle Taunay, and other writers and intellectuals, founded the Brazilian Academy of Letters. He was its first president from 1897 to 1908, when he died. For many years, he requested that the government grant a proper headquarters to the Academy, which he managed to obtain in 1905. In 1902 he was transferred to the accountancy’s directing board of the Ministry of Industry.
Machado's style is unique, and several literary critics have tried to describe it since 1897. He is considered by many the greatest Brazilian writer of all time, and one of the world's greatest novelists and short story writers. His chronicles do not share the same status. His poems are often misunderstood for the use of crude terms, sometimes associated to the style of Augusto dos Anjos, another Brazilian writer. Machado de Assis was included on American literary critic Harold Bloom's list of the greatest 100 geniuses of literature, alongside writers such as Dante, Shakespeare and Cervantes. Bloom considers him the greatest black writer in Western literature, but his classification of him as black is based on United States's conceptions of race. These are not the same in Brazil.
His works have been studied by critics in various countries of the world, such as Giuseppe Alpi (Italy), Lourdes Andreassi (Portugal), Albert Bagby Jr. (US), Abel Barros Baptista (Portugal), Hennio Morgan Birchal (Brazil), Edoardo Bizzarri (Italy), Jean-Michel Massa (France), Helen Caldwell (US), John Gledson (England), Adrien Delpech (France), Albert Dessau (Germany), Paul B. Dixon (US), Keith Ellis (US), Edith Fowke (Canada), Anatole France (France), Richard Graham (US), Pierre Hourcade (France), David Jackson (US), G. Reginald Daniel (US), Linda Murphy Kelley (US), John C. Kinnear, Alfred Mac Adam (US), Victor Orban (France), Daphne Patai (US), Houwens Post (Italy), Samuel Putnam (US), John Hyde Schmitt, Tony Tanner (England), Jack E. Tomlins (US), Carmelo Virgillo (US), Dieter Woll (Germany) and Susan Sontag (US).
Critics are divided as to the nature of Machado de Assis's writing. Some, such as Abel Barros Baptista, classify Machado as a staunch anti-realist, and argue that his writing attacks Realism, aiming to negate the possibility of representation or the existence of a meaningful objective reality. Realist critics such as John Gledson are more likely to regard Machado's work as a faithful description of Brazilian reality—but one executed with daring innovative technique. In light of Machado’s own statements, Daniel argues that Machado’s novels represent a growing sophistication and daring in maintaining a dialogue between the aesthetic subjectivism of Romanticism (and its offshoots) and the aesthetic objectivism of Realism-Naturalism. Accordingly, Machado’s earlier novels have more in common with a hybrid mid-19th-century current often referred to as “Romantic Realism."  In addition, his later novels have more in common with another late 19th-century hybrid: literary Impressionism. Historians such as Sidney Chalhoub argue that Machado's prose constitutes an exposé of the social, political and economic dysfunction of Second Empire Brazil. Critics agree on how he used innovative techniques to reveal the contradictions of his society. Roberto Schwarz points out that Machado's innovations in prose narrative are used to expose the hypocrisies, contradictions, and dysfunction of 19th-century Brazil. Schwarz, a Marxist, argues that Machado inverts many narrative and intellectual conventions to reveal the pernicious ends to which they are used. Thus we see critics reinterpret Machado according to their own designs or their perception of how best to validate him for their own historical moment. Regardless, his incisive prose shines through, able to communicate with readers from different times and places, conveying his ironic and yet tender sense of what we, as human beings, are.
Machado's literary style has inspired many Brazilian writers. His works have been adapted to television, theater and cinema. In 1975 the Comissão Machado de Assis ("Machado de Assis Commission"), organized by the Brazilian Ministry of Education and Culture, organized and published critical editions of Machado's works, in 15 volumes. His main works have been translated into many languages. Great 20th-century writers such as Salman Rushdie, Cabrera Infante and Carlos Fuentes, as well as the American film director Woody Allen, have expressed their enthusiasm for his fiction. Despite the efforts and patronage of such well-known intellectuals as Susan Sontag, Harold Bloom, and Elizabeth Hardwick, Machado's books—the most famous of which are available in English in multiple translations—have never achieved large sales in the English-speaking world and he continues to be relatively unknown, even in comparison with other Latin American writers.
In his works, Machado appeals directly to the reader, breaking the so-called fourth wall.
List of works
- 1861 – Desencantos: Fantasia Dramática (theater)
- 1862 – Hoje Avental, Amanhã Luva (theater)
- 1863 – Teatro (Theater: O Protocolo, or The Protocol; O Caminho da Porta, or The Way to the Door)
- 1864 – Quase Ministro (theater)
- 1864 – Crisálidas (Chrysalids; poetry)
- 1866 – Os Deuses de Casaca (theater)
- 1870 – Falenas (Phalaenae; poetry)
- 1870 – Contos Fluminenses (Tales from Rio; collection of short stories)
- 1872 – Ressurreição (Resurrection; novel)
- 1873 – Histórias da Meia Noite (Midnight Stories; collection of short stories)
- 1874 – A Mão e a Luva (The Hand and the Glove; novel)
- 1875 – Americanas (poetry)
- 1876 – Helena (Helen; novel)
- 1878 – Iaiá Garcia (Mistress Garcia; novel)
- 1881 – Tu, Só tu, Puro Amor (O Thou, Pure Love; theater)
- 1881 – Memórias Póstumas de Brás Cubas (The Posthumous Memoirs of Bras Cubas, also known in English as Epitaph of a Small Winner; novel)
- 1881 – O Alienista (trans. The Psychiatrist and The Alienist; novella serialized 1881–1882)
- 1882 – Papéis Avulsos (Single Papers; collection of short stories, including "O Alienista")
- 1884 – Histórias sem Data (Undated Stories; collection of short stories)
- 1891 – Quincas Borba (also known in English as Philosopher or Dog?; novel)
- 1896 – Várias Histórias (Several Stories; collection of short stories)
- 1899 – Páginas Recolhidas (Collected Pages; collection of short stories including The Case of the Stick)
- 1899 – Dom Casmurro (Lord Taciturn; novel)
- 1901 – Poesias Completas (Complete poetry, including Ocidentais)
- 1904 – Esaú e Jacó (Esau and Jacob; novel)
- 1906 – Relíquias da Casa Velha (Relics of the Old House; collection of short stories)
- 1908 – Memorial de Aires (Counselor Aires's Memoirs; novel)
- 1910 – Teatro Coligido (Collected Plays, including Não Consultes Médico and Lição de Botânica)
- 1910 – Crítica (Critique; criticism)
- 1914-1937 – A Semana (The Week; collection of articles, 3 vols.)
- 1921 – Outras Relíquias (Another Relics; collection of short stories)
- 1921 – Páginas Escolhidas (Selected Pages; collection of short stories)
- 1932 – Novas Relíquias (New Relics; collection of short stories)
- 1937 – Crônicas (Articles)
- 1937 – Contos Fluminenses (Tales from Rio; second series)
- 1937 – Crítica Literária (Literary Criticism)
- 1937 – Crítica Teatral (Theater Criticism)
- 1937 – Histórias Românticas (Romantic Stories)
- 1939 – Páginas Esquecidas (Forgotten Pages)
- 1944 – Casa Velha (Old House)
- 1956 – Diálogos e Reflexões de um Relojoeiro (Dialogues and Reflections of a Watchmaker)
- 1958 – Crônicas de Lélio (Chronicles of Lelio; collection of articles)
- 1861 – Queda que as Mulheres tem para os Tolos, from the original l'Amour des Femmes pour les Sots, by Victor Hénaux.
- 1865 – Suplício de uma Mulher, from the original Le Supplice d'une Femme, by Émile de Girardin and Alexandre Dumas, fils.
- 1866 – Os Trabalhadores do Mar, from the original Les Travailleurs de la Mer, by Victor Hugo.
- 1870 – Oliver Twist, from the original Oliver Twist, or the The Parish Boy's Progress, by Charles Dickens.
There are several published "Complete Works" of Machado de Assis:
- 1920 – Obras Completas. Rio de Janeiro: Livraria Garnier (20 vols.)
- 1962 – Obras Completas. Rio de Janeiro: W.M. Jackson (31 vols.)
- 1997 – Obras Completas. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Globo (31 vols.)
- 2006 – Obras Completas. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Aguilar (3 vols.)
Works in English translation
- 1921 – Brazilian Tales. Boston: The Four Seas Company (London: Dodo Press, 2007).
- 1952 – Epitaph of a Small Winner. New York: Noonday Press (London: Hogarth Press, 1985; rep. as The Posthumous Memoirs of Brás Cubas: A Novel. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997; Epitaph of a Small Winner. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2008; UK: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2008).
- 1953 – Dom Casmurro: A Novel. New York: Noonday Press (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966; rep. as Dom Casmurro. Lord Taciturn. London: Peter Owen, 1992; Dom Casmurro: A Novel. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).
- 1954 – Philosopher or Dog? New York: Avon Books (rep. as The Heritage of Quincas Borba. New York: W.H. Allen, 1957; New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1992; rep. as Quincas Borba: A Novel. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).
- 1963 – The Psychiatrist, and Other Stories. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- 1965 – Esau and Jacob. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- 1970 – The Hand & the Glove. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
- 1972 – Counselor Ayres' Memorial. Berkeley: University of California Press (rep. as The Wager: Aires' Journal. London: Peter Owen, 1990; rep. as The Wager, 2005).
- 1976 – Yayá Garcia: A Novel. London: Peter Owen (rep. as Iaiá Garcia. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1977).
- 1977 – The Devil's Church and Other Stories. Austin: University of Texas Press (New York: HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, 1987).
- 1984 – Helena: A Novel. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- 2008 – A Chapter of Hats and Other Stories. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
- 2012 – The Alienist. New York: Melville House Publishing.
- 2013 – The Alienist and Other Stories of Nineteenth-century Brazil. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing.
- 2014 – Ex Cathedra: Stories by Machado de Assis. Hanover, Conn.: New London Librarium.
Titles and honours
- Member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters (1896–1908).
- President of the Brazilian Academy of Letters (1897–1908).
- Knight of the Order of the Rose (1867).
- Officer of the Order of the Rose (1888).
- Vainfas, p. 505.
- Candido; Antonio (1970), Vários escritos. São Paulo: Duas Cidades. p. 18.
- Caldwell, Helen (1970), Machado de Assis: The Brazilian Master and his Novels. Berkeley, Los Angeles/London: University of California Press.
- Fernandez, Oscar, "Machado de Assis: The Brazilian Master and His Novels", The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 55, No. 4 (April 1971), pp. 255–256.
- Rocha, João Cezar de Castro (2006). "Introduction". Portuguese Literature and Cultural Studies. 13/14: xxiv. Archived from the original on June 25, 2008.
- Scarano, p. 766.
- Vainfas, p. 504.
- Enciclopédia Barsa, p. 267.
- Scarano, p. 765.
- Scarano, p. 767.
- Scarano, p. 769
- Scarano, p. 770.
- Scarano, p. 780.
- Scarano, p. 773.
- Scarano, pp. 774–774.
- Scarano, p. 774.
- Daniel, pp. 61–152.
- Bueno, p. 310.
- Vainfas, p. 201: "Machado de Assis, porém, soube definí-lo em rápidos traços: um homem lhano, probo, instruído, patriota, que soube fazer do sólio uma poltrona, sem lhe diminuir a grandeza e a consideração."
- Bueno, p. 311.
- Scarano, p. 777.
- Scarano, p. 775.
- Scarano, p. 778.
- Enciclopédia Barsa, p. 267: “vida conjugal perfeita”.
- Romero, Silvio (1897), Machado de Assis: Estudo Comparativo da Literatura Brasileira, Rio de Janeiro: Laemmert.
- Daniel, pp. 10–76.
- Susan Sontag, Foreword. Epitaph of a Small Winner. By J. M. Machado de Assis. Trans. William Grossman. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1990. xi–xxiv.
- Daniel, pp. 190–237.
- Daniel, pp. 153–218.
- Machado's translation originally appeared in serial form in the newspaper Jornal da Tarde, from April 24 to August 23, 1870.
- Bueno, Eduardo (2003). Brasil: Uma História. 1ª ed. São Paulo: Ática. (Portuguese)
- Encilopédia Barsa (1987). Volume 10: "Judô – Mercúrio". Rio de Janeiro: Encyclopædia Britannica do Brasil. (Portuguese)
- Scarano, Júlia Maria Leonor (1969). Grandes Personagens da Nossa História. São Paulo: Abril Cultural. (Portuguese)
- Vainfas, Ronaldo (2002). Dicionário do Brasil Imperial. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva. (Portuguese)
- Abreu, Modesto de (1939). Machado de Assis. Rio de Janeiro: Norte.
- Andrade, Mário (1943). Aspectos da Literatura Brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Americ. Ed.
- Aranha, Graça (1923). Machado de Assis e Joaquim Nabuco: Comentários e Notas à Correspondência. São Paulo: Monteiro Lobato.
- Barreto Filho (1947). Introdução a Machado de Assis. Rio de Janeiro: Agir.
- Bettencourt Machado, José (1962). Machado of Brazil, the Life and Times of Machado de Assis, Brazil's Greatest Novelist. New York: Charles Frank Publications.
- Bosi, Alfredo. (Organizador) Machado de Assis. São Paulo: Editora Atica, 1982.
- Bosi, Alfredo (2000). Machado de Assis: O Enigma do Olhar. São Paulo: Ática.
- Broca, Brito (1957). Machado de Assis e a Política. Rio de Janeiro: Organização Simões Editora.
- Chalhoub, Sidney (2003). Machado de Assis, Historiador. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras.
- Corção, Gustavo (1956). Machado de Assis. Rio de Janeiro: Agir.
- Coutinho, Afrânio (1959). A Filosofia de Machado de Assis e Outros Ensaios. Rio de Janeiro: São José.
- Daniel, G. Reginald (2012). Machado de Assis: Multiracial Identity and the Brazilian Novelist. University Park, PA: Penn State Press.
- Dantas, Júlio (1940). Machado de Assis. Lisboa: Academia das Ciências.
- Dixon, Paul B. (1989). Retired Dreams: Dom Casmurro, Myth and Modernity. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press.
- Faoro, Raimundo (1974). Machado de Assis: Pirâmide e o Trapézio. São Paulo: Cia. Ed. Nacional.
- Fitz, Earl E. (1989). Machado de Assis. Boston: Twayne Publishers.
- Gledson, John (1984). The Deceptive Realism of Machado de Assis. Liverpool: Francis Cairns.
- Gledson, John (1986). Machado de Assis: Ficção e História. Rio de Janeiro: Paz & Terra.
- Goldberg, Isaac (1922). "Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis." In: Brazilian Literature. New York: Alfred A. Knoff, pp. 142–164.
- Gomes, Eugênio (1976). Influências Inglesas em Machado de Assis. Rio de Janeiro: Pallas; Brasília: INL.
- Graham, Richard (ed.). Machado de Assis: Reflections on a Brazilian Master Writer. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1999.
- Lima, Alceu Amoroso (1941). Três Ensaios sobre Machado de Assis. Belo Horizonte: Paulo & Bruhm.
- Magalhães Jr, Raimundo (1981). Vida e Obra de Machado de Assis. Rio de Janeiro/Brasília: Civilização Brasileira/INL.
- Maia Neto, José Raimundo (1984). Machado de Assis, the Brazilian Pyrrhonian. West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press.
- Massa, Jean-Michel (1971). A Juventude de Machado de Assis. Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira.
- Merquior, José Guilherme (1971). "Machado de Assis e a Prosa Impressionista." In: De Anchieta a Euclides; Breve História da Literatura Brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: José Olympio, pp. 150–201.
- Meyer, Augusto (1935). Machado de Assis. Porto Alegre: Globo.
- Meyer, Augusto (1958). Machado de Assis 1935–1958. Rio de Janeiro: Livraria São José.
- Montello, Jesué (1998). Os Inimigos de Machado de Assis. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Nova Fronteira.
- Nunes, Maria Luisa (1983). The Craft of an Absolute Winner: Characterization and Narratology in the Novels of Machado de Assis. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
- Paes, José Paulo. (1985). Gregos e Baianos: Ensaios. São Paulo: Brasiliense.
- Pereira, Astrogildo (1944). Interpretação. Rio de Janeiro: Casa do Estudante do Brasil.
- Miguel-Pereira, Lúcia (1936). Machado de Assis: Estudo Critíco e Biográfico. São Paulo: Cia. Ed. Nacional.
- Schwarz, Roberto (2000). Ao Vencedor as Batatas. São Paulo: Duas Cidades/Editora34.
- Schwarz, Roberto (1997). Duas Meninas. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras.
- Schwarz, Roberto (1990). Um Mestre na Periferia do Capitalismo. São Paulo: Duas Cidades. Trans. as A Master on the Periphery of Capitalism. Trans. and intro. John Gledson. Durham: Duke UP, 2001.
- Taylor, David (2002). "Wry Modernist of Brazil's Past." Américas, Nov.-Dec., issue. Washington, DC.
- Veríssimo, José (1916). História da Literatura Brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Livrarias Aillaud & Bertrand.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Machado de Assis.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Machado de Assis|
- (Portuguese) BRASILIANA USP (University of Sao Paulo) Digitalized first editions of all the books in Pdf.
- (Portuguese) Complete Works of Machado de Assis – Brazilian Ministry of Education
- (Portuguese) MetaLibri Digital Library
- (Portuguese) Machado de Assis
- (Portuguese) Machado de Assis a literary biography.
- (Portuguese) Books of Machado de Assis in Biblioteca Virtual do Estudante de Língua Portuguesa.
- Manuscrito de Machado de Assis – Handwritten pieces
- Espaço Machado de Assis
- João Cezar de Castro Rocha, "Introduction: Machado de Assis, the Location of an Author"
José de Alencar (patron)
Brazilian Academy of Letters – Occupant of the 23rd chair
Lafayette Rodrigues Pereira
|President of the Brazilian Academy of Letters