|Release date||January 24, 1984 (29 years ago) |
|Introductory price||US$ 2,495|
|Discontinued||October 1, 1985|
|Operating system||1.0, 1.1, 2.0, 2.1, 3.0, 3.2|
|CPU||Motorola 68000 @ 7.8336 MHz (6 MHz effectively)|
|Memory||128 kB (built-in)|
|Dimensions||Beige plastic (Pantone 453)|
The Macintosh 128K, released as the "Apple Macintosh", is the original Apple Macintosh personal computer. Its beige case contained a 9 in (23 cm) monitor and came with a keyboard and mouse. A handle in the top of the case made it easier for the computer to be lifted and carried. It had a selling price of US$2,495. The Macintosh was introduced by the now famous $900,000 television commercial by Ridley Scott, "1984", that most notably aired on CBS during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on January 22, 1984. The sales of the Macintosh were strong from its initial release and reached 70,000 units on May 3, 1984. After its successor, the Macintosh 512K, was introduced, it was rebadged as the Macintosh 128K.
The Macintosh was designed to achieve adequate graphics performance, which had previously required hardware costing over US$10,000, at a price accessible to the middle class. This narrow goal resulted in an efficient design which traded off expandability but met or exceeded the baseline performance of its competitors.
Processor and memory 
The centerpiece of the machine was a Motorola 68000 microprocessor connected to a 128 kB DRAM by a 16-bit data bus. Lack of RAM proved to be a fatal constraint to much multimedia software, and it could not be upgraded. A 64 kB ROM chip boosted the effective memory to 192 kB, but this is offset by the display's 22 kB framebuffer, which is shared with the DMA video controller.
The 68000 and video controller take turns accessing DRAM every four CPU cycles during display of the frame buffer, while the 68000 has unrestricted access to DRAM during vertical and horizontal blanking intervals. Such an arrangement reduces the overall performance of the CPU as much as 35% for most codes as the display logic often blocks the CPU's access to RAM. This made the machine appear to run more slowly than several of its competitors, despite the nominally high clock rate.
The built-in display was a one-bit black-and-white, 9 in (23 cm) CRT with a resolution of 512×342 pixels, establishing the desktop publishing standard of 72 PPI. Expansion and networking were achieved using two non-standard RS-422 DE-9 serial ports named "printer" and "modem"; they did not support hardware handshaking. An external floppy disk drive could be added using a proprietary connector (19 pin D-sub). The keyboard and mouse used simple proprietary protocols, allowing some third-party upgrades. The keyboard had no arrow keys, numeric keypad or function keys. This was an intentional decision by Apple, as these keys were common on older platforms and it was thought that the addition of these keys would encourage software developers to simply port their existing applications to the Mac, rather than design new ones around the GUI paradigm. Later, Apple would make a numeric keypad available for the 128k Mac and the keyboard sold with the still later Macintosh Plus model would include the keypad as well as arrow keys. As with the Apple Lisa before it, the mouse had only a single button. Standard headphones could also be connected to a monaural jack. Apple also offered their 300 and 1200 bit/s modems originally released for the Apple II line. Initially, the only printer available was the Apple ImageWriter which was designed to produce 144dpi WYSIWYG output from the Mac's 72dpi screen. Eventually, the LaserWriter and other printers were capable of being connected using AppleTalk, Apple's built-in networking system.
The Macintosh contained a 400 kB, single-sided 3.5-inch floppy disk drive and dedicated no space to other internal mechanical storage. The Mac OS was disk-based from the beginning, as RAM had to be conserved, but this "Startup Disk" could still be temporarily ejected. (Ejecting the root filesystem remained an unusual feature of the Classic Mac OS until System 7.) One floppy disk was sufficient to store the System Software, an application, and the data files created with the application. Indeed, the 400 kB drive capacity was larger than the PC XT's 360 kB 5.25-inch drive. However, more sophisticated work environments of the time required separate disks for documents and the system installation. The Macintosh External Disk Drive (mechanically identical to the internal one, piggybacking on the same controller) was a popular add-on at US$ 495. Third-party hard drives were considerably more expensive and connected to the slower serial port (as specified by Apple), though a few manufacturers chose to use the faster non-standard floppy port. The 128K can only use the original Macintosh File System for storage.
The unit did not include a fan, but instead relied on convection cooling, which made it quiet while in operation. Steve Jobs insisted that the Macintosh ship without a fan – a marketing (not engineering) decision[according to whom?] that persisted until the introduction of the Macintosh SE in 1987. This was allegedly a source of many common, costly component failures in the first four Macintosh models.
The Macintosh shipped with the very first System and Finder application, known to the public as "System 1.0" (actually version 0.97 in the original release, followed by 1.1). The original Macintosh saw three upgrades to both before it was discontinued. Apple recommends System 2.0 and Finder 4.2, with System 3.2 and Finder 5.3 as the maximum. System 4.0 officially dropped support for the Macintosh 128K as evidenced by its distribution on 800K floppy disks, which the 128K could not use.
The applications MacPaint and MacWrite were bundled with the Mac. Other programs available included MacProject, MacTerminal and Microsoft's Word. Programming languages available at the time included MacBASIC, MacPascal, and the Macintosh 68000 Development System. The Macintosh also came with a manual and a unique guided tour cassette tape which worked together with the guided tour diskette as a tutorial for both the Macintosh itself and the bundled applications, since almost no one had ever used a mouse before, much less manipulated a graphical user interface.
It was released in 1984 as simply the Apple Macintosh. Following the release of the Macintosh 512K which expanded the memory from 128 kB to 512 kB, the original Macintosh was re-branded Macintosh 128K and nicknamed the 'thin Mac', and the new 512K model the 'fat Mac'. While functionally the same, as closed systems, the Macintosh and Macintosh 128K were technically two different computers, with the re-badged 128K containing a completely redesigned logicboard to easily accommodate both 128 K and 512 K RAM configurations during manufacture. Though the RAM was still permanently soldered to the logicboard, the new design allowed for easier, though unsanctioned, third-party upgrades to 512 K than the previous model had. In addition, most of the newer models contained the 1984 revision B of the ROM to accommodate changes in the 400 K floppy disk drive.
The increased RAM was vitally important for the Macintosh as it finally allowed for more powerful software applications such as the popular program Microsoft Multiplan. However, Apple continued to market the 128K for over a year as an entry-level computer, to the mid-level 512K and high end Lisa (and claiming it could be easily expanded should the user ever need more RAM).
The Macintosh 128K was not upgradable: there was no provision for adding internal storage, more RAM capacity or an upgrade card. Improving on the hard-wired RAM thus required a motherboard replacement (which was priced similarly to a new computer), or a third-party chip replacement upgrade, which was not only expensive but would void Apple's warranty. The difficulty of fitting software into its free memory, coupled with the new interface and event driven programming model, discouraged software vendors from supporting it, leaving the 128K with a relatively small software library. Whereas the Macintosh Plus, and to a lesser extent the Macintosh 512K, are compatible with much later software, the 128K is limited to specially crafted programs. A stock Mac 128K with the original 64K ROM cannot use Apple's external 800K drive with HFS, nor Apple's HD20 hard drive. A Mac 128K that has been upgraded with the newer 128K ROM (A Macintosh 128Ke) can use internal and external 800K drives with HFS, as well as the HD20. Both can print on an AppleShare network, but neither can do file sharing because of their limited RAM.
OEM upgrades 
Apple did provide an expensive "official" upgrade path for the Macintosh 128K, which included a motherboard replacement effectively making it a Macintosh 512K, for the price of US$ 995. Additionally, Apple offered an 800 K floppy disk drive kit, including updated 128K ROMs. Finally, a Mac 128K could be upgraded to a Macintosh Plus by swapping the logicboard as well as the case back (to accommodate the slightly different port configuration) and optionally adding the Macintosh Plus extended keyboard. Any of the kits could be purchased alone or together at any time, to upgrade the Macintosh 128K piecemeal or all-at-once. All upgrades were required to be performed by professional Apple technicians.
The original Macintosh was unusual in that it included the signatures of the Macintosh Division as of early 1982 molded on the inside of the case. The names were Peggy Aleixo, Colette Askeland, Bill Atkinson, Steve Balog, Bob Belleville, Mike Boich, Bill Bull, Matt Carter, Berry Cash, Debbie Coleman, George Crow, Donn Denman, Christopher Espinosa, Bill Fernandez, Martin Haeberli, Andy Hertzfeld, Joanna Hoffman, Rod Holt, Bruce Horn, Hap Horn, Brian Howard, Steve Jobs, Larry Kenyon, Patti King, Daniel Kottke, Angeline Lo, Ivan Mach, Gerald Manock, Mary Ellen McCammon, Vicki Milledge, Mike Murray, Ron Nicholson Jr, Terry Oyama, Benjamin Pang, Jef Raskin, Brian Robertson, Dave Roots, Patricia Sharp, Burrell Smith, Bryan Stearns, Lynn Takahashi, Randy Wigginton, Linda Wilkin, Steve Wozniak, Pamela Wyman, Laszlo Zidek, and two others.
Timeline of compact Macintosh models
See also 
- Mini vMac Macintosh Plus emulator
- Technical information on the Mac 128K
- 1984 (television commercial)
- Linzmayer, Owen W. (2004). Apple Confidential 2.0. No Starch Press. p. 113. ISBN 1-59327-010-0.
- "The Macintosh Product Introduction Plan".
- Macintosh 128K: Technical Specifications
- System Software: Configs for Mac 128K, XL, 512, & 512KE (7/94)
- History of computer design: Apple Macintosh
- Polsson, Ken (2009-07-29). "Chronology of Apple Computer Personal Computers". Retrieved 2009-08-27. See May 3, 1984.
- Chronology of IBM Personal Computers
- More Mac Bits
- Programs for the MAC
- Apple policy on software developers
- 400K Drive Problem/Cure: Fails to Read/Write or MacTest
- Re: Mac Gripes
- Apple Shafts America; or, The Computer For the Rich of Us
- Cost of Macintosh 512K Upgrade
- Macintosh Plus: Description (Discontinued) The Macintosh Plus Logic Board Kit
- Full Macintosh 128K specifications, Apple Computer
- Macintosh 128K profile, Low End Mac.
- Mac 128K Information page at Mac512.com
- Original Review of the Macintosh by Lawrence J. Magid (January 29, 1984)
- Mac Essentials, Lost 1984 Videos
- The Vintage Mac Museum: Mac 128k Slideshows
- Apple Macintosh before System 7 Macintosh 128K Hardware
- Tips For the 128K Support For 128K Diehard Users
- The M0001 Registry Owners of Vintage Macintosh
- Inside the Macintosh 128K
| group2 = Peripherals
| list2 =
| group1 = Displays | list1 =
- Monitor III
- Monitor II
- AppleColor Composite IIe
- AppleColor High-Resolution RGB
- Macintosh Color
- AudioVision 14
- Multiple Scan 14
- ColorSync 750
| group2 = External drives| list2 =
| group3 = Input devices | list3 =
| group4 = Networking | list4 =
| group5 = Printers | list5 =
- Scribe Printer
- Dot Matrix Printer
- Letter Quality Printer
- 410 Color Plotter
- Color LaserWriter
| group7 = Newton | list7 =
| group8 = Other | list8 =
| below = Apple hardware since 1998 }}