Mackinac Island, Michigan
|Mackinac Island, Michigan|
|City of Mackinac Island|
Downtown Mackinac Island along M-185
Location of Mackinac Island, Michigan
|• Total||18.84 sq mi (48.80 km2)|
|• Land||4.35 sq mi (11.27 km2)|
|• Water||14.49 sq mi (37.53 km2) 76.91%|
|Elevation||594 ft (181 m)|
|• Estimate (2012)||493|
|• Density||113.1/sq mi (43.7/km2)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|Area code(s)||906 Exchange: 847|
|GNIS feature ID||1620659|
Mackinac Island (// MAK-in-aw) is a city in Mackinac County in the U.S. state of Michigan. In the 2010 census, the city had a permanent population of 492, although there are thousands more seasonal workers and tourists during the summer months. From 1818–1882, the city was the county seat of the former Michilimackinac County, which was later organized into Mackinac County with St. Ignace as the county seat. The city includes all of Mackinac Island and the unpopulated Round Island, which is federally owned and part of Hiawatha National Forest. The city also includes all of Mackinac Island State Park, which includes 80% of Mackinac Island and is governed by the Mackinac Island State Park Commission. The city is served by the Mackinac Island Public School.
A unique local ordinance prohibits the use of any motor vehicles on the island. The most common means of travel are foot, bicycle, or horseback. Certain enumerated exceptions include emergency vehicles, electric wheelchairs for those with disabilities, snowmobiles in winter, and golf carts for on-course use only. Mackinac Island is home to the famed Grand Hotel, where the 1980 movie Somewhere in Time was filmed. That film presents a rare exception in which motorized vehicles were allowed on the island.
Mackinac Island is also famous for the many fudge shops on the island. The island has a very large industry making fudge in a traditional manner, creating them on cold marble slabs. The many varieties are a tourist draw and common gift throughout Michigan.
In an early written history of Mackinac Island (1887) by an official interpreter for the U.S. government and an Ottawa chief's son, Andrew Blackbird describes how a small independent tribe called "Mi-shi-ne-macki naw-go," that occupied Mackinac Island, had become confederated with the Ottawa from Ottawa Island (now Manitoulin Island) situated north of Lake Huron. One winter the Mi-shi-ne-macki naw-go on Mackinac Island were almost entirely annihilated by the Senecas of New York, of the Iroquois nation. Only two escaped by hiding in one of the natural caves at the island. To commemorate this confederate tribe, the Ottawas and Chippewas named what is now Mackinac Island, "Mi-shi-ne-macki-nong."  In 1895 Fort Mackinac's John R. Bailey, M. D. published his history entitled "Mackinac formerly Michilimackinac," describing some of the first recorded presence on Mackinac of French traders with a large party of Huron and Ottawas heading to Three Rivers in 1654, and an adventurer making a canoe voyage in 1665.
Mackinac Island is the destination of both the annual Chicago to Mackinac Sailboat Race, run by the Chicago Yacht Club, and the annual Port Huron to Mackinac Boat Race, sponsored by the Bayview Yacht Club of Detroit, Michigan.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.84 square miles (48.80 km2), of which 4.35 square miles (11.27 km2) is land and 14.49 square miles (37.53 km2) is water. Interestingly, the City of Mackinac Island not only exists on the island of the same name, but also takes in the entirety of nearby Round Island, situated in the Straits of Mackinac immediately to the south. Round Island is currently uninhabited and is owned by the U.S. Forest Service in its entirety, and is managed as part of the Hiawatha National Forest.
The Michigan Legislature created the City of Mackinac Island in 1899 via L.A. 437 of 1899 as a "special charter city." At that time, all of nearby Round Island was included in the corporate limits, although for reasons not currently clear. While all of Mackinac Island, the landform, is located within the corporate limits of the City of Mackinac Island, 82 percent of the island's landmass is owned by the State of Michigan and managed by the Mackinac Island State Park Commission (MISPC), so that the City itself has direct jurisdiction over only 18 percent of the island, the remainder being under direct control of the Commission. The City and the Commission do, however, work together on the many issues affecting both the City and the State Park, such as the longtime ban on most motorized vehicles on the island.
As of the census of 2010, there were 492 people, 240 households, and 128 families residing in the city. The population density was 113.1 inhabitants per square mile (43.7 /km2). There were 1,002 housing units at an average density of 230.3 per square mile (88.9 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 73.8% White, 1.2% African American, 18.1% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 0.2% from other races, and 5.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.2% of the population.
There were 240 households of which 22.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.2% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.7% had a male householder with no wife present, and 46.7% were non-families. 37.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.05 and the average family size was 2.69.
The median age in the city was 42.5 years. 17.7% of residents were under the age of 18; 7.6% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 27.4% were from 25 to 44; 33.9% were from 45 to 64; and 13.4% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 52.8% male and 47.2% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 523 people, 252 households, and 143 families residing in the city. The population density was 119.8 people per square mile (46.2/km²). There were 565 housing units at an average density of 129.4 per square mile (49.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 75.72% White, 18.36% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.19% from other races, and 5.35% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.57% of the population.
There were 252 households out of which 23.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.4% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.9% were non-families. 36.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.08 and the average family size was 2.69.
In the city the population was spread out with 18.0% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 34.4% from 25 to 44, 28.9% from 45 to 64, and 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 109.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $36,964, and the median income for a family was $50,536. Males had a median income of $39,219 versus $25,313 for females. The per capita income for the city was $27,965. About 1.4% of families and 3.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.1% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over.
In addition to the permanent residences, there is dormitory-style housing throughout the city for the seasonal employees of the tourist industry, generally provided by the local businesses.
The island is served by the Mackinac Island Public School.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-06-03.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Blackbird (Mack-e-te-be-nessy), Andrew J. (1887). History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan: Earliest Possible Known History of Mackinac Island. Ypsilanti, Michigan: Ypsilanti Auxiliary of the Woman's National Indian Association. pp. 19–20.
- Bailey, John R (1887 (1914)). Mackinac formerly Michilimackinac. Mackinac Island, Michigan: Neosho. p. 248.
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- Mackinac Island Tourism Bureau
- Mackinac Island Lilac Festival
- Fudge Facts
- Tocqueville in Mackinac Island - Segment from C-SPAN's Alexis de Tocqueville Tour