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Macrodontia (or megadontia or megalodontia) is a type of localized gigantism in which teeth are larger than normal for the particular type(s) of teeth involved. The three types of macrodontia are true generalized macrodontia, relative generalized macrodontia, and macrodontia of a single tooth. True generalized macrodontia is rare. Macrodontia of a single tooth is more common. Some kind of macrodontia in the permanent dentition occurs in 1.1% of the total population. It should not be confused with taurodontism (bull teeth), fusion (double tooth) or the jaws being relatively small, giving the appearance of macrodontia.
Males tend to have larger teeth than females, and tooth size also varies according race. Abnormal tooth size is defined by some as when the dimensions are more than 2 standard deviations from the average. Macrodontia is when the teeth are abnormally large, and microdontia when they are abnormally small.
Macrodontia of a single tooth is attributed to a disturbance of morphodifferentiation. Generalized macrodontia is usually attributed to some hormonal imbalance (e.g., pituirary gigantism). It can also be associated with facial hemihyperplasia.
Teeth affected by macrodontia are either stripped or extracted. When extracted, they are replaced with an implant or bridge.
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