Mad scenes were often created as a way to offer star singers a chance to show off their abilities, though many of them are also very dramatic. The vocal writing is often exciting and highly demanding, requiring immense skill. Most mad scenes were composed for the soprano voice, but there are examples for the baritone and the tenor.
They are most popularly associated with works of the bel canto period, though examples may also be found in earlier works, such as George Frederick Handel's Orlando and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Idomeneo. Almost all mad scenes were composed for either opere serie or opere semiserie; Gaetano Donizetti was probably the most famous exponent of the form.
The convention of writing mad scenes largely died out after the bel canto era, as composers sought to inject more realism into their operas. More recently, some composers have returned to the form for dramatic effect, most notably Benjamin Britten in the final act of Peter Grimes.
Similar mad scene techniques have also appeared in ballets, such as Giselle.
Famous Examples 
- Orlando ("Ah! stigie larve... Vaghe pupille")
- Artaserse ("Pallido il sole")
- Lucia di Lammermoor ("Il dolce suono... Ardon gl'incensi... Spargi d'amaro pianto")
- Linda di Chamounix ("Linda! Ah che pensato")
- Maria Padilla
- Torquato Tasso
- Anna Bolena ("Piangete voi... Al dolce guidami... Coppia iniqua")
- I puritani ("O rendetemi... Qui la voce sua soave... Vien, diletto, e in ciel la luna")
- Il Pirata ("Cor sorriso d'innocenza... Oh, Sole! ti vela di tenebra fonda")
- La Sonnambula ("Oh! se una volta sola... Ah! non credea mirarti... Ah! non giunge uman pensiero")
- Hamlet ("Partagez-vous mes fleurs")
- Dinorah ("Ombre légère")
- Peter Grimes (Mad scene)
- Macbeth ("Una macchia")
- Ruddigore ("Cheerily carols the lark").
- The Grand Duke ("I have a rival! Frenzy-thrilled, I find you both together!").
- Candide ("Glitter and be gay")
- Anderson, James (1993) The Complete Dictionary of Opera & Operetta, New York
- Ewen, David (1963) Encyclopedia of the Opera, New York