Legend of the White Snake
|Legend of the White Snake|
Image from the Summer Palace, Beijing, China, depicting the legend
The Legend of the White Snake, also known as Madame White Snake, is a Chinese legend, which existed in oral tradition long before any written compilation. It has since been presented in a number of major Chinese operas, films and television series.
The earliest attempt to fictionalise the story in printed form appears to be The White Maiden Locked for Eternity in the Leifeng Pagoda (白娘子永鎮雷峰塔) in Feng Menglong's Jingshi Tongyan (警世通言), which was written during the Ming Dynasty.
Lü Dongbin, one of the Eight Immortals, disguises himself as a man selling tangyuan at the Broken Bridge (斷橋) near the West Lake in Hangzhou. A boy called Xu Xian (simplified Chinese: 许仙; traditional Chinese: 許仙; Mandarin Pinyin: Xǔ Xiān; Jyutping: Heoi2 Sin1) buys some tangyuan from Lü Dongbin, not knowing that the tangyuan are actually immortal pills. He does not feel hungry for the next three days after eating the tangyuan and is so puzzled that he goes back to ask the seller. Lü Dongbin laughs and carries Xu Xian to the bridge and flips him upside down, causing Xu to vomit out the pills into the lake.
There is a white snake spirit in the lake, who was practising Taoist magical arts in the hope of becoming an immortal after centuries of training and cultivation. The white snake eats the pills vomited out by Xu Xian and she gains 500 years worth of magic powers. The white snake is grateful to Xu Xian and their fates became intertwined. There is another terrapin (or tortoise) spirit also training inside the lake and he did not manage to consume any of the pills, so he becomes very jealous of the white snake. One day, the white snake sees a beggar on the bridge, who has caught a green snake and wants to dig out the snake's gall and sell it. The white snake transforms into a woman and buys the green snake from the beggar, saving the green snake's life. The green snake is grateful to the white snake and she regards the white snake as an older sister.
18 years later, during the Qingming Festival, the white and green snakes transform themselves into two young women, called Bai Suzhen (simplified Chinese: 白素贞; traditional Chinese: 白素貞; Mandarin Pinyin: Bái Sùzhēn; Jyutping: Baak6 Sou3-zing1) and Xiaoqing (Chinese: 小青; Mandarin Pinyin: Xiǎoqīng; Jyutping: Siu2-cing1) respectively. They travel to Hangzhou and meet Xu Xian at the Broken Bridge, and Xu lends them his umbrella because it is raining. Xu Xian and Bai Suzhen gradually fall in love with each other and are eventually married. They move to Zhenjiang and open a medicine shop there.
In the meantime, the terrapin spirit has accumulated enough powers to take human form, and he transforms into a Buddhist monk called Fahai (Chinese: 法海; Mandarin Pinyin: Fáhǎi; Jyutping: Faat3-hoi2). Fahai is still angry with Bai Suzhen and he plots to break up her relationship with Xu Xian. He approaches Xu Xian and tells Xu to let his wife drink realgar wine (雄黃酒) during the Duanwu Festival. Bai Suzhen unsuspectingly reveals her true form as a large white snake after drinking the wine and Xu Xian dies of shock after seeing that his wife is not human. Bai Suzhen and Xiaoqing travel to Mount Emei, where they brave danger to steal a magical herb that restores Xu Xian to life.
After coming back to life, Xu Xian still maintains his love for Bai Suzhen despite knowing her true identity. Fahai tries to separate them again so he captures Xu Xian and imprisons him in Jinshan Temple (金山寺). Bai Suzhen and Xiaoqing fight with Fahai to rescue Xu Xian, and Bai uses her powers to flood the temple, drowning many innocent people in the process as well. However, Bai Suzhen's powers are limited because she is already pregnant with Xu Xian's child so she fails to save her husband. Xu Xian later manages to escape from Jinshan Temple and he reunites with his wife in Hangzhou, where Bai Suzhen gives birth to their son, Xu Mengjiao (simplified Chinese: 许梦蛟; traditional Chinese: 許夢蛟; Mandarin Pinyin: Xǔ Mèngjiāo; Jyutping: Heoi2 Mung6-gaau1). Fahai soon tracks them down and he defeats Bai Suzhen and imprisons her in Leifeng Pagoda.
20 years later, Xu Mengjiao tops the imperial examination and returns home in glory to visit his parents. At the same time, Xiaoqing, who escaped when Bai Suzhen was captured by Fahai, goes to Jinshan Temple to confront Fahai and succeeds in defeating him. Bai Suzhen is freed from Leifeng Pagoda and reunites with her husband and son, while Fahai flees and hides inside the stomach of a crab. There is a saying that a crab's internal fat is orange because it resembles the colour of Fahai's kasaya.
Modifications and alternate versions
The white snake was simply known as the "White Lady" or "White Maiden" (Chinese: 白娘子; Mandarin Pinyin: Bái Niángzǐ; Jyutping: Baak6 Noeng4-zi2) in the original tale in Feng Menglong's Jingshi Tongyan (警世通言). The name "Bai Suzhen" was created only later.
The original story was a story of good and evil, with the Buddhist monk Fahai setting out to save Xu Xian's soul from the white snake spirit, who was depicted as an evil demon. Over the centuries, however, the legend has evolved from a horror tale to a romance story, with Bai Suzhen and Xu Xian genuinely being in love with each other but their relationship being forbidden by the laws of nature.
Some adaptations of the legend in theatre, film, television and other media have made extensive modifications to the original story, including the following:
- The green snake (Xiaoqing) is portrayed as a treacherous antagonist who betrays the white snake, as opposed to the traditional depiction of her as the white snake's close friend and confidant.
- Fahai is portrayed in a more sympathetic light as opposed to the traditional depiction of him as a vindictive and jealous villain. His background story is also different in some adaptations.
- Bai Suzhen is freed from Leifeng Pagoda because her son's filial piety moved the gods of Heaven.
- A retcon version of the story, which tells that Bai Suzhen and Xu Xian were actually immortals who fell in love with each other and were banished from Heaven because celestial laws forbid their romance. They are reincarnated as a human man and a female white snake spirit respectively and their story begins.
Reference and parallel to Wu Zetian
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (December 2012)|
A quote from the adaptation The White Maiden Locked for Eternity in the Leifeng Pagoda from Feng Menglong's Jingshi Tongyan states: "Judging from the case of Empress Wu, how do we know that this white snake is not a beautiful woman? Who is to say that a white snake can't change into a beautiful woman?" Another passage in Lady White Snake: A Tale From Chinese Opera, retold by Aaron Shepard, states, "An animal may become a human. A human may become a god. Just so, a snake may become a woman."
Chinese folklore and zodiac traditions both acknowledge snakes as seducers and charmers throughout history, and there is a fair share of fear and admiration towards them from the masses. There is a common and likely male-dominated perception that Wu Zetian, the only female emperor in Chinese history, thrust herself into power by having these intrinsic serpent qualities. Therefore, the parallels between the story of Madam White Snake and Wu Zetian are easy to draw.
Operas and stage plays
- The story has been performed numerous times in Peking opera, Cantonese opera and other Chinese operas.
- Stage musical adaptations in Hong Kong include:
- Taiwan's Cloud Gate Dance Theater performed a modern dance interpretation of Madam White Snake in the 1970s.
- In 2010, an opera based on the legend, Madame White Snake, with music by Zhou Long and a libretto by Cerise Lim Jacobs, premiered in a production by Opera Boston. It won the 2011 Pulitzer Prize in Music.
- In 2012, the Oregon Shakespeare Festival in Ashland, Oregon, staged an adaptation by Mary Zimmerman.
- The Legend of the White Serpent (白夫人の妖恋), a 1956 Japanese film made by Toho in collaboration with Hong Kong's Shaw Brothers Studio. It was noted for being the first Toho special effects film to be in colour.
- The Tale of the White Serpent (白蛇傳), the first coloured anime feature film released in Japan in 1958. The U.S. release title was Panda and the Magic Serpent. It was also one of the rare instances where Xiaoqing is represented as a fish demon and not a snake demon. It was also the only known film based on the legend to be dubbed in German (German release title: Erzählung einer weißen Schlange).
- Madam White Snake, a 1962 film produced by Hong Kong's Shaw Brothers Studio. This version is a Huangmei opera directed by Feng Yueh, with music by Wang Fu-ling on a libretto by Li Chun-ching.
- Snake Woman's Marriage (白蛇大鬧天宮), a 1975 Taiwanese film directed by Sun Yang.
- Green Snake (青蛇), a 1993 Hong Kong film directed by Tsui Hark, starring Maggie Cheung, Joey Wong, Vincent Zhao and Wu Hsing-kuo.
- The Sorcerer and the White Snake (白蛇傳說), a 2011 3D film, starring Jet Li, Huang Shengyi, Raymond Lam and Charlene Choi.
- The Legend of Lady White Snake: A Tribute to the Spirit of Alexander McQueen, an upcoming short film starring Daphne Guinness, directed by Indrani Pal-Chaudhuri, with creative direction/styling by GK Reid, and produced by Markus Klinko & Indrani, Daphne Guinness and GK Reid. Inspired by the ancient Chinese legend, the film is set in contemporary New York City. Previews of the film are featured in the Daphne Guinness Exhibition at the Museum of the Fashion Institute from September 16, 2011 through January 6, 2012.
- The Serpentine Romance (奇幻人間世), a 1990 television series produced by Hong Kong's TVB, starring Maggie Chan, Maggie Siu and Hugo Ng.
- New Legend of Madame White Snake / The Legend of White Snake (新白娘子傳奇), a 1992 Taiwanese television series starring Angie Chiu, Cecilia Yip and Maggie Chen. It was aired in the Philippines under the title Lady White Snake in 1997. It also aired in Indonesia in 1994.
- The Legendary White Snake (白蛇後傳之人間有愛), a 1995 Singaporean television series starring Geoffrey Tso, Lin Yisheng, Terence Cao, Lina Ng, Ding Lan, Liu Qiulian and Wang Changli.
- My Date with a Vampire (我和殭屍有個約會), a Hong Kong television series produced by ATV. The series made extensive use of the story, reusing it in the first season (1998) and a modified version in the second season (1999).
- Madam White Snake / Legend of the Snake Spirits (白蛇新傳), a 2001 Taiwanese and Singapore co-produced television series starring Fann Wong, Christopher Lee, Zhang Yuyan and Vincent Jiao.
- Madame White Snake (白蛇傳), a 2005 Chinese television series starring Liu Tao, Pan Yueming, Chen Zihan and Liu Xiaofeng.
- The Legend of White Snake Sequel / Tale of the Oriental Serpent (白蛇後傳), a 2009 sequel to Madame White Snake (2005), starring Fu Miao, Qiu Xinzhi, Shi Zhaoqi, Chi Shuai and Cecilia Liu.
- Love of the Millennium (又見白娘子), an upcoming Chinese television series as a sequel to New Legend of Madame White Snake (1992), starring Zuo Xiaoqing, Queenie Tai, Ren Quan and Shen Xiaohai.
In the West, there have been children's picture book adaptations of the legend, written by Western authors and illustrated by Chinese artists, including:
- Legend of the White Serpent by A. Fullarton Prior, illustrated by Kwan Sang-Mei
- Lady White Snake: A Tale From Chinese Opera, by Aaron Shepard, illustrated by Song Nang Zhang
- The novella The Devil Wives of Li Fong by E. Hoffmann Price is based on the story.
- In 2009, Dantes Dailiang made use of the Chinese lyrics of the Legend of White Snake for his song La muse aux lèvres rouges (红唇之缪斯女神), recorded in his LP Dailiang.
- In 2012 the Swatch company launched a model named The legend of white snake in honor of the Chinese new year, the year of the snake. The watch's hands are white and green snakes.
- Boston Globe: "Curtain rises on ancient Chinese myth," March 1, 2010, accessed March 2, 2010
- "Oregon Shakespeare Festival" website, accessed March 4, 2012
- Eolin, Sara. "Daphne Guinness Exhibit at FIT" September 13, 2011 in Aero Film Blog. http://aerofilm.blogspot.com/2011/09/fashion-week-has-settled-upon-new-york.html
- Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1960,
- Union City, CA: Pan Asian Publications, 2001.
- Mao, Xian (2013). Cowherd and Weaver and other most popular love legends in China. eBook: Kindle Direct Publishing. ISBN 000-00000-0000-0 Check
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Legend of the White Snake.|
- Fashion/art film starring Daphne Guinness, directed by Indrani.
- Legend of White Snake – Stage Performance from Penang, Malaysia
- Stories to Caution the World in Google Books
- Lady White Snake
- Oregon Shakespeare Festival, 2012 production