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Coordinates: 26°57′05″N 85°02′52″E / 26.9515°N 85.0479°E / 26.9515; 85.0479

Madhesh , (Hindi: मधेश) used popularly in Nepal is interchangeably used for its Terai region. Madhesh means abode of Northern Bihari, officially known as Madhesi.[1]

"Madhesh" as an region within Nepal is sub-divided as "भित्री मधेश" or "Inner Madhesh" and "बाहिरी मधेश" or "Outer Madhesh".[2] The words and their connotations are highly contested by the proponents of the identity and their opponents creating a major ethnic divide in Nepal.


The word 'Madhesh' is said to be derived from 'Madhya Desh' meaning 'country in the middle'.[citation needed] Madhes never existed in history.[citation needed] It was later derived to give ethnic recognition to the people who have now settled in terai of Nepal.[citation needed] During the British rule in Indan Subcontinent Prithivi Narayan Shah and later Bahadur Shah annexed baise rajya, chaubishe rajya and other areas into Nepal.[citation needed] During the course terai region was formed in Nepal.[citation needed]

Into the 1960s the Nepali outer Terai was heavily forested and Malaria infested and mainly inhabited by Tharu.[citation needed] For many years the jungles acted as a buffer between Nepal and what would later go on to become India.[citation needed] Janakpur and Kapilvastu of Nepal had its own history older and famous than any other regions in South Asia.[citation needed] There was heavy influx of people from India especially Bihar into the Terai region of Nepal.[citation needed] Later on, they outnumbered the ethnic communities of Nepal.[citation needed] Slowly by taking citizenship of Nepal and staying in Nepal for many years communities from India claimed themselves as madhesi and ethnic people.[citation needed] Today, about half the Nepalese population lives in the Terai(madhesh).[citation needed]

There is still landlord system prevalent in these areas of Nepal.[citation needed] Yadavs and other elite community of madhes and biharis hold huge chunk of land in terai where actual ethnic community tharu, dhimal, rajbanshi and other poor madhesis are being opressed.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Abode of Madhesi people of Nepal
  2. ^ The cyclopædia of Nepal and of Eastern and Southern Asia: By Edward Balfour

For More information on Madhesh and Madheshis, see latest book (2nd edition)-Nepalko Madheshi Samaj. Oriental Publication. Kathmandu.

External links[edit]