Madhesh Autonomous State (MAS) of Nepal, (Nepali: मधेस स्वायत्त प्रदेश) is a proposed Province in United States of Nepal interchangeably used for its Terai region. Madhesi are the native and indigenous Nepali people of Terai region of Nepal, speaking mainly Maithili (official language of Madhesh) including Bhojpuri, Awadhi, Nepali or other related Nepalese languages. The estimated population of Madheshis is 12 million. Madheshis include many indigenous tribes such as Maithils, Tharus, Rajbanshis and Santhals.
Madhesh has been a glorious centre of the Southern Nepalese Civilisation. Historically, this land has been a part of Mithila, Limbuwan, Kashi and Kosala kingdoms. Later the Shakya, Lichchavi (kingdom), Malla(Nepal) and Vajji republics flourished on this land. This land has been the birthplace of Nepali Princess Sita of Mithila, the consort of Lord Rama, and Buddha. In ancient times, this land was ruled by great kings and emperors from Bimbisar, Ajatsatru, Ashoka, and Samudragupta to King Jayabardhan Salhesh of Janakpurdham (capital at Mahisauth, Siraha, Madhesh, Nepal). During 11-14th century, the Karnat dynasty reigned Madhesh, establishing its capital at Simraungarh of Bara, Madhesh, Nepal Thereafter, during 16-18th century, the Makwanpur's Sen dynasty ruled Madhesh.
1 Vivaswan Kumar, “Whole Tarai Belongs To Madhesh: Historical Facts,” American Chronicle, March 30, 2009. 2 Vidya Bir Singh Kansakar, "Nepal-India Open Border: Prospects, Problems and Challenges," Institute of Foreign Affairs, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2001. 3 Hari Bansh Jha, Nepal’s Border Relations with India and China, Eurasia Border Review, Vol.4, No.1, Spring 2013. 4 Ibid. 5 Kansakar (2001), op. cit. 6 C. U. Aitchison, A Collection Of Treaties, Engagements And Sanads Relating To India And Neighboring Countries, Vol. 2, Bengal Printing Company Ltd., 1863. 7 Kumar (2009), op. cit. For More information on Madhesh and Madheshis, see latest book (1st Edition)-Madhesh Ko Itihaas By Dr C K Raut.
- Hachhethu, Krishna (2007). "Madheshi Nationalism and Restructuring the Nepali State". seminar "Constitutionalism and Diversity in Nepal", organizd by Centre for Nepal and Asia Studies, Trubhuvan University. Kathmandu, Nepal. Retrieved November 23, 2012.