Madison County, Illinois
|Madison County, Illinois|
Location in the state of Illinois
Illinois's location in the U.S.
|Founded||September 14, 1812|
|Largest city||Granite City|
740.56 sq mi (1,918 km²)
715.58 sq mi (1,853 km²)
24.98 sq mi (65 km²), 3.37%
366/sq mi (141.3/km²)
Madison County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. Madison County is part of the Metro-East region of the St. Louis Metro Area. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 269,282, which is an increase of 4.0% from 258,941 in 2000. The county seat is Edwardsville, home to Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. The largest city in the county is Granite City, Illinois. To the north, Alton is known for its abolitionist and American Civil War-era history. It is also the home of Southern Illinois University Dental School.
According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 740.56 square miles (1,918.0 km2), of which 715.58 square miles (1,853.3 km2) (or 96.63%) is land and 24.98 square miles (64.7 km2) (or 3.37%) is water. Madison County is on the Mississippi River, while the other major body of water is Horseshoe Lake.
Major expressways and highways 
Adjacent counties 
- Bond County - east
- Clinton County - southeast
- Jersey County - northwest
- Macoupin County - north
- Montgomery County - northeast
- St. Charles County, Missouri - northwest
- St. Clair County - south
- St. Louis, Missouri - west
- St. Louis County, Missouri - west
|UVa Census Browser 1820-1890
Illinois Counties 1900-1990
Madison County was established on September 14, 1812. It was formed from parts of Randolph and St. Clair counties and named for President James Madison. At the time of its formation, Madison County included all of the modern State of Illinois north of St. Louis, as well as all of Wisconsin, part of Minnesota, and Michigan's Upper Peninsula.
In the late 19th century, Madison County became an industrial region, and in the 20th century was known first for Graniteware, and later for its steel mills, oil refineries, and other heavy industries. The county had a large working population, and the county and surrounding area was a center of strength for the Democratic Party.
Industrial restructuring cost many jobs and reduced the population. The county now is part of semi-rural, sparsely populated east of the St. Louis metropolitan area (nicknamed "Metro East"), as is neighboring St. Clair County.
In 2009, the EPA issued an air pollution report that ranked Madison County as the county with the second-highest cancer risk in the country due to air pollution, second only to Los Angeles County, California.
Madison County between its creation in 1812 and 1815, extending north to Lake Superior and the border with Rupert's Land
As of the 2000 census, there were 258,941 people, 101,953 households, and 70,041 families residing in the county. The population density was 357 people per square mile (138/km²). There were 108,942 housing units at an average density of 150 per square mile (58/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 90.23% White, 7.31% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.60% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.49% from other races, and 1.08% from two or more races. 1.52% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 30.2% were of German, 20.8% English and 10.4% Irish ancestry.
There were 101,953 households out of which 32.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.00% were married couples living together, 11.80% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.30% were non-families. 26.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.00.
In the county the population was spread out with 24.90% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 22.50% from 45 to 64, and 14.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 93.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.90 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $41,541, and the median income for a family was $50,862. Males had a median income of $39,857 versus $25,968 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,509. About 7.20% of families and 9.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.70% of those under age 18 and 7.30% of those age 65 or over.
Political subdivisions 
- East Alton
- Glen Carbon
- New Douglas
- Pontoon Beach
- South Roxana
- St. Jacob
Unincorporated communities 
- Cottage Hills
- Dunlap Lake
- Eagle Park
- Holiday Shores
- Lumaghi Heights
- Rosewood Heights
- State Park Place
Madison County is divided into twenty-four townships:
- Fort Russell
- Granite City
- New Douglas
- Pin Oak
- St. Jacob
- Wood River
Madison County Transit serves the county with 25 bus routes and 85 miles (137 km) of bike trails.
Climate and weather 
|Climate chart (explanation)|
In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Edwardsville have ranged from a low of 19 °F (−7 °C) in January to a high of 90 °F (32 °C) in July, although a record low of −16 °F (−27 °C) was recorded in January 1982 and a record high of 114 °F (46 °C) was recorded in July 2012. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.99 inches (51 mm) in January to 4.24 inches (108 mm) in May.
See also 
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Madison County, Illinois
- A History of Madison County Illinois
- "Madison County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "Census 2010 U.S. Gazetteer Files: Counties". United States Census. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
- Historical Census Browser, University of Virginia, Geospatial and Statistical Data Center, 2004
- Illinois Counties 1900-1990, U.S. Census Bureau
- Adams, James N. (compiler) (1989), in Keller, William E., Illinois Place Names, Springfield: Illinois State Historical Society, p. 593, ISBN 0-912226-24-2
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Monthly Averages for Edwardsville, Illinois". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2011-01-27.
||St. Charles County, Missouri and Jersey County||Macoupin County||Montgomery County|
|City of St. Louis, Missouri and St. Louis County, Missouri||Bond County|
|St. Clair County||Clinton County|