Madonna Studies was a term which has been used to refer to a controversial development of a field in media studies during the 1990s. One writer described the "institutionalization of a major subdivision of American media studies into Madonna studies". The field related to the study of and interpretation of the work of American pop musician Madonna using an interdisciplinary approach incorporating cultural studies and media studies. A notable compendium of essays titled The Madonna Connection was published in 1993. Controversy over this field of study stemmed from discussions over the intellectual worth of pursuing academic inquiry into a pop musician, with some arguing the field was nothing more than pop cultural commentary.