Madras Legislative Assembly election, 1951

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Madras State Legislative Assembly election, 1951-52
India
1946 ←
2–25 January 1952
→ 1957

All 375 seats in the Legislature of Madras State
  First party Second party
  C Rajagopalachari Feb 17 2011.JPG South Asian Communist Banner.svg
Leader C. Rajagopalachari M. Kalyanasundaram
Party INC CPI
Leader's seat Nominated N/A
Seats won 152 62

Chief Minister before election

P.S. Kumaraswamy Raja
INC

non-elected Chief Minister

C. Rajagopalachari
INC

Indian administrative divisions, as of 1951

The first legislative assembly Election to the Madras state on the basis of universal adult suffrage was held in March 1952. This was the first election held in Madras state after the Indian Independence. This election was officially known as 1951 Madras State Election, even though through delays, actual voting didn't take place until early 1952.

No single party obtained a simple majority to form an independent Government. C. Rajagopalachari (Rajaji) of the Indian National Congress became the Chief Minister after a series of re-alignments among various political parties and Independents. The Telugu speaking regions of Madras State split to form the Andhra state in 1953, leading to the consolidation of the non-Brahmin Congress faction under the leadership of K. Kamaraj. Faced with internal dissent and heavy opposition to his Hereditary education policy, Rajaji resigned in 1954. In the ensuing leadership struggle, Kamaraj defeated Rajaji's chosen successor C. Subramaniam and became the Chief Minister on 31 March 1954. This event marked the end of Brahmin domination in Tamil Nadu Congress Party.

Background[edit]

Factionalism in Congress[edit]

In the years after the 1946 election, factionalism was common place in the Congress party in Madras. During 1946-51, three different Congress chief ministers headed the Madras government. T. Prakasam was the Chief Minister of Madras presidency immediately after the 1946 election. As a Telugu speaker, he was often at odds with the Madras Provincial Congress Committee president K. Kamaraj. Kamaraj forced the resignation of Prakasam within a year. In 1947, Omandur Ramaswamy Reddiar, Kamaraj's nominee, became the Chief Minister. When Reddiar showed signs of independence, Kamaraj engineered his removal by a vote of no confidence in Congress Legislature Party on 31 March 1949. P. S. Kumaraswamy Raja, the next Chief Minister who formed the Government on 6 April 1949 was believed to be a stooge of Kamaraj. He retained the chiefministership till the 1952 election when he lost his seat in Srivilliputhur constituency.[1][2] The main factions within the Madras Congress Party during this period were: 1) the Andhra (Prakasam) faction, 2) the Rajaji faction 3) Kamaraj faction (Tamil non-Brahmin members) and 4)the Bezawada Gopala Reddy and Kala Venkata Rao faction supported by the All India Congress Committee president Pattabhi Sitaramayya[3]

The Prakasam faction later split from the Congress to form the Hyderabad State Praja Party. The party merged with the Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party in June 1951.

Communists in electoral process[edit]

In 1951, the Communist Party of India (CPI) which had been waging an armed struggle during 1948-51, gave up the attempt to wrest power through force and joined the political mainstream. At the 1951 congress of the party, "People's Democracy" was replaced by "National Democracy" as the main slogan of the party and the decision was made to contest the elections. One of the armed movements supported by the CPI was the Telangana Rebellion in the princely state of Hyderabad. Though the rebellion was crushed by 1951, the communists retained widespread support in the neighboring Andhra region. This was due to their policy of linguistic nationalism (the demand for a separate state of Telugu speaking people) and their support base amongst the Kamma caste which was opposed to the Reddy supported Congress. Till then, all the previous elections had been conducted on a limited franchise based on property ownership qualifications. The election of 1951 was the first one to be based on a universal franchise. The Communists had the support of most of the first time voters - landless peasants and agricultural labourers.[4][5][6][7][8] They also had a strong presence in the agrarian district of Tanjore in Tamil Nadu where they were supported by the Dravidar Kazhagam.[9]

Split in the Dravidian Movement[edit]

The Dravidar Kazhagam (DK), the main opposition party to the Congress in the Tamil speaking areas of the state split in 1949. C. N. Annadurai, once a protege of the DK leader Periyar E. V. Ramasamy, quit the DK and founded a new party - Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). Both the DK and the DMK were secessionist advocates for Dravidistan- a separate state for Dravidians.[10][11] Some of the old guard of the Justice party, which had been renamed as Dravidar Kazhagam in 1944, refused to accept Periyar's leadership. Led by P. T. Rajan, they insisted they were still the real Justice party and contested the 1952 elections under the "Scales" symbol.

Constituencies[edit]

According to the Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies (Madras) Order, 1951, made by the President under sections 6 and 9 of the Representation of the People Act, 1950, the Madras Legislative Assembly consisted of 375 seats to be filled by election, distributed in 309 constituencies and 62 two-member constituencies in each of which a seat had been reserved for Scheduled Castes and four two-member constituencies in each of which a seat had been reserved for Scheduled Tribes. Three seats were uncontested. The elections were conducted for the remaining 372 seats.[12]

The two member constituencies were established in accordance to Article 332 of the Indian Constitution. The voting method and the plurality electoral formula were defined in The Representation of People Act, 1950.[13] Out of the total 309 constituencies in the undivided Madras State, 66 were two member constituencies, 62 of which had one seat reserved for Scheduled Caste candidates and 4 for Scheduled Tribe candidates.[14] These constituencies were larger in size and had greater number of voters (more than 1,00,000)[15] when compared to general constituencies. Two separate list of candidates, a general list and a reserved list, contested in those constituencies. Each voter had to cast two votes - one for each list.

The two winners were chosen as follows:

  • Reserved Member - Candidate with the most number of votes among the reserved (SC/ST) list candidates
  • General Member - Candidate with the most number of votes among the rest of the candidates excluding the Reserved Member (including both reserved and general lists).

This system led to anomalies. In some cases like the Coimbatore - II constituency in the 1957 election, both elected members belonged to the reserved list - the candidate with second highest number of votes in reserved list secured more votes than the highest vote getter in the general list. Multiple members were elected only in the 1952 and 1957 elections as double member representation was abolished in 1961 by the enactment of Two-Member Constituencies Abolition Act (1961).[16]

Parties[edit]

The main opponents for the Congress in Madras were the CPI, Prakasam's Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party (KMPP) and the Krishikar Lok Party led by N. G. Ranga (a breakaway group of from KMPP's predecessor - the Hyderabad State Praja Party). The Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) did not contest the 1952 election. Instead it supported the candidates of the Vanniyar caste based parties - the Commonweal Party and the Tamil Nadu Toilers Party - and five independents in Chengelpet, Salem, North and South Arcot districts. The candidates they backed had to sign a pledge to support DMK's agenda in the legislative assembly.[10][17] The Dravidar Kazhagam also did not participate directly in the election. However, it supported the Communists in an effort to defeat the Indian National Congress which it claimed was a Brahmin dominated party. It also supported a number of other parties and Independents in the election.[9][18] The Justice party, led by P. T. Rajan contested in nine seats.

Election[edit]

Polling was held in nine phases (2, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 16, 21 and 25 January) in January 1952.[19] In all, 2,507 persons filed their nominations-2,472 men and 35 women. Of these, the nominations were rejected in respect of 79 candidates-78 men and one woman. Seven hundred and fifty-one candidates withdrew their nominations in time-741 men and 10 women.[12]

Results[edit]

Political Party Seats
Contested
Seats
Won
Votes Votes % [20]
Indian National Congress 367 152 6988701 34.88
Socialist Party 163 13 1299282 6.48
Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party 148 35 1803377 9.00
Communist Party of India 131 62 2640337 13.18
Krishikar Lok Party 63 15 629893 3.14
Scheduled Caste Federation 37 2 339680 1.70
Tamil Nadu Toilers Party 34 19 852330 4.25
Commonweal Party 13 6 218288 1.09
Madras State Muslim League Party 13 5 186546 0.93
Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha 10 0 25489 0.13
Justice Party 9 1 82231 0.41
Forward Bloc (Marxist Group) 6 3 138203 0.69
All India Republican Party 6 0 48233 0.24
Forward Bloc (Ruikar) 5 0 15433 0.08
Bharatiya Jana Sangh 2 0 8216 0.04
Akhil Bharatiya Ram Rajya Parishad 2 0 1773 0.01
All India Agriculturists' Union 1 0 1643 0.01
Independent 667 62 4758768 23.75
Total 1667 375 20038423

Government formation[edit]

Election of C. Rajagopalachari[edit]

The composite Madras State then included parts of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Karnataka with a total of 375 assembly members. The Indian National Congress was reduced to a minority with 152 members in an assembly of 375. It won 4 seats from the 29 in Malabar, 43 of the 143 in the Andhra areas, 96 of the 190 Tamil constituencies and 9 of the 11 seats from Kannada speaking areas. Kumaraswami Raja, the incumbent Chief Minister lost the election along with five members of his cabinet (Bezawada Gopala Reddy, Kala Venkata Rao, K. Chandramouli, K. Madhava Menon and M. Bhaktavatsalam).[21][22]

A large number of CPI members were elected from Andhra region of Madras state which had for some years demanded a separate state for Telugu speaking areas. In February 1952, the non congress members convened under T. Prakasam, leader of the KMPP, at Madras to form the United Democratic Front (UDF) and issued a "Common Minimum Program". They claimed to control 166 seats (CPI and CPI backed independents - 70, KMPP - 36, Tamil Nadu Toilers Party - 19, Commonweal party - 6, FBL (MG) - 3, SCF - 1, JUSP -1 and Independents - 30). Prakasam wrote to the Governor Sri Prakasa staking his claim to form the Government as the leader of the single largest formation. The Congress did not want the Communists taking power or to impose Governor's rule in the state. It brought Rajaji out of retirement to form the Government as a consensus candidate.[21][23][24][25] Kamaraj, President of the Madras Provincial Congress Committee was of the opinion that the UDF should be allowed to form the Government as he had predicted the weak coalition might eventually fall apart. However other leaders such as T. T. Krishnamachari and Ramnath Goenka wanted Rajaji to be nominated to form the Government.[26]

Rajaji was invited by Sri Prakasa to form the Government on 1 April 1952 and was sworn in on 10 April 1952. He refused to run for a by-election and the Governor nominated him for the assembly's upper house (Legislative Council). It was considered to be a "constitutional impropriety" as the nomination of a member to the Council could be done only at the recommendation of the cabinet. But in this case, the Governor acted unilaterally when no cabinet had been formed yet.[2][22][27] On 6 May, the incumbent Speaker of the assembly, J. Shivashanmugam Pillai of the Congress was reelected as the Speaker defeating independent MLA Swayamprakasam by 206 votes to 162.[28] On 3 July, Rajaji was able to win a vote of confidence with the support of 200 members with 151 opposing the confidence motion.[29][30][31] This was the first time such a "confidence motion" was moved in any legislature in India.[32] He was able to secure the majority by engineering a series of defections from the UDF and with the help of other parties:

  • The support of the 6 members of Commonweal Party, (one of the two parties representing the cause of Vanniars) was obtained by giving a cabinet position to its leader - M. A. Manickavelu Naicker. 19 members of the other Vanniyar party - Tamil Nadu Toilers Party led by S. S. Ramasami Padayachi also supported the vote of confidence but did not join the cabinet. (They later joined the Kamaraj cabinet in 1954).[33][34][10]
  • Many independents joined Congress and became Congress Legislators. The strength of the Congress Legislative Party (CLP) which was 152 on 1 April 1952, increased to 165 by 3 May and to 167 by 30 September.[35]
  • Rajaji split the Krishikar Lok Party and KLP legislators P. Thimma Reddy, Neeladri Rao Reddy and Kumisetti Venkatanarayana Dora joined the Congress.[36][37]
  • The 5 members of the Madras State Muslim League provided their support to congress to prevent the communists from gaining power.[38]

Election of K. Kamaraj[edit]

Andhra State was formed from the Telugu-speaking regions of Madras State after a widespread agitation in 1953. The Madras assembly was reduced from 375 to 230, 140 members going to Andhra and 5 to Mysore. This strengthened the positions of non-Brahmin Congress forces under the leadership of K. Kamaraj. He ousted Rajaji on 31 March 1954 and was elected the leader of Congress Legislative Party. Kamaraj consolidated his position by offering ministerial position to leaders of Tamil Nadu Toilers Party and Commonweal Party. This event marked the end of Brahmin domination in Tamil Nadu Congress.[39]

Impact[edit]

Kamaraj resigned his presidency of the Provincial Congress Committee owning responsibility for the election loss and was soon replaced by P. Subbarayan.[26] Rajaji's nomination to the Legislative Council was challenged in the Madras High Court by P. Ramamurthi, the CPI MLA from Madurai North Constituency. Chief Justice Rajamannar and Justice Venkatarama Ayyar, who heard the public interest writ petition declined to intervene by opining that "the court could not decide political rights or enforce public interest or constitutional conventions".[40][41][41] This precedent set by Governor Prakasa became the first among a long list of constitutional improprieties committed by governors to help the party in power in the central government. The Sarkaria Commission established in 1983 to examine the balance of power between state and central governments remarked on the precedent that the "Governor's task is to see that a government is formed and not to try to form a government which will pursue the policies he approves".[27]

Cabinet[edit]

Rajagopalachari's Cabinet[edit]

Minister Portfolio[42]
C. Rajagopalachari Chief Minister, Public and Police
A. B. Shetty Health
C. Subramaniam Finance, Food and Elections
K. Venkataswamy Naidu Religious Endowments and Registration
N. Ranga Reddi Public Works
M. V. Krishna Rao Education, Harijan Uplift and Information
V. C. Palanisami Gounder Prohibition
U. Krishna Rao Industries, Labour, Motor Transport, Railways, Posts, Telegraphs and Civil Avaiation
R. Nagana Gowda Agriculture, Forests, veterinary, Animal Husbandry, Fisheries and Cinchona
N. Sankara Reddi Local Administration
M. A. Manickavelu Naicker Land Revenue
K. P. Kuttikrishnan Nair Courts, Prisons and Legal Department
Raja Sri Shanmuga Rajeswara Sethupathi House Rent Control
S. B. B. Pattabirama Rao Rural Welfare, Commercial Taxes and Scheduled areas
D. Sanjeevayya Cooperation and Housing
Changes
  • Ministers belonging to Bellary and Andhra constituencies (Naganna Gowda, Sankara Reddi, Pattabirama Rao, Sanjeevayya and Ranga Reddi) stepped down on 30 September 1953, a day before Andhra State split to form a separate state.[43] The portfolios of Agriculture, Forests, Fisheries, Cinchona, Rural Welfare, Community Projects and National Extension Schemes were handed over to M. Bhaktavatsalam on 9 October 1953. Jothi Venkatachalam was made minister for Prohibition and Women's Welfare. K. Rajaram Naidu became the Minister for Local Administration. C. Subramaniam was given the additional portfolios of education, information and publicity. V. C. Palaniswamy Gounder was put in charge of Veterinary, Animal Husbandry and Harijan welfare.[44]

Kamaraj's Cabinet[edit]

Members of cabinet who served between 13 April 1954 - 13 April 1957 under the Chief Ministership of Kamraj are

Minister Portfolio
K. Kamaraj Chief Minister; Minister of Public and Police in the Home Department
A. B. Shetty Minister in charge of medical and public health, cooperation, housing and ex-servicemen
M. Bhaktavatsalam Minister in charge of Agriculture, Forests, Fisheries, Cinchona, Rural Welfare, Community Projects, National Extension Scheme, Women’s Welfare, Industries and Labour and Animal Husbandry and Veterinary
C. Subramaniam Minister in charge of Finance, Food, Education, Elections and Information and Publicity and Law (Courts and Prisons)
M. A. Manickavelu Naicker Minister in charge of Land Revenue and Commercial Taxes and Rural Development.
Raja Sri Shanmuga Rajeswara Sethupathi Minister in charge of Public Works, Accommodation Control, Engineering Colleges, Stationery and Printing including Establishment questions of the Stationery Department and the Government Press
B. Parameswaran Minister in charge of Transport, Harijan Uplift, Hindu Religious Endowments, Registration and Prohibition
S. S. Ramasami Padayachi Minister in charge of Local Administration
Changes
  • Following the States Reorganisation Act of 1956, A. B. Shetty quit the Ministry on 1 March 1956 and his portfolio was shared between other ministers in the cabinet.

List of elected members[edit]

Tamil Nadu[edit]

Election results from constituencies which would later become part of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Karnataka are listed here.

* Non-elected Chief Minister of Madras State
Assembly Constituency Winner Party Runner Party
Nominated C. Rajagopalachari INC
Adirampattinam S. Venkatarama Iyer INC K. Muthiah CPI
Aduthurai Narayanaswami Naidu INC Samiappa Mudaliar JUSP
Alangulam Chinnathambi INC Thangarathnasamy Nadar IND
Ambasamudram P. Chockalingam IND Lakshmisankara Iyer INC
Arakkonam Bhakthavathsalu Naidu IND Vedachalam INC
Arantangi Mahamad Salihu Maraicair INC Ramaswamy Thevar IND
Arcot S. Panchaksharam Chettiar INC Nagarathinam CWP
Aravakurichi N. Rathina Gounder IND T. M. Nallaswamy INC
Ariyalur Palaniandi IND Razar INC
Arni V. K. Kannan CWP W. S. Srinivasa Rao INC
Aruppukottai Jayarama Reddiar INC M. D. Ramaswami IND
Authoor Soundaram Ramachandran INC V. S. S. Mani Chettiar IND
Attur P. Subramaniam IND P. Sellamuthu Padayachi INC
Chengalpattu K. Vinayakam KMPP V. L. Raja INC
Bhavani B. K. Nallaswami INC N. Palaniswamy Gounder TTP
Bhuvanagiri V. Krishnaswamy Padayachi INC S. Tiruvenkata Nainar TTP
Chengam Ramaswami Gounder CWP Muthukrishna Chettiar INC
Cheranmahadevi S. Chellapandi INC S. Dasaratharam SP
Cheyyar Dharmalinga Nayakar CWP P. Ramachandran INC
Chidambaram 1) Swami Sahajananda
2) Vagheesan Pillai
INC
INC
3) Swamikannu
4) Sivasubramanian
TTP
TTP
Choolai Sebastian Cyril Constantine Anthony Pillai SP D. K. Kannappar INC
Coimbatore C. Subramaniam INC C. P. Kandaswamy CPI
Cuddalore 1) Rathinam
2) Sivachidambara Ramaswami Padayachi
TTP
TTP
3) Srinivasa Padayachi
4) Ganesan
INC
INC
Cumbum P. T. Rajan JUSP S. K. Ahmed Meeran INC
Dharapuram Senapathi Gounder IND Nataraja Gounder INC
Dharmapuri P. R. Rajagopla Gounder IND R. S. Veerappa Chettiar IND
Dindigul Munisamy Pillai INC A. Balasubramaniam CPI
Edappadi S. Arthanareeswara Gounder INC S. Marimuthu Gounder TTP
Edirkottai R. Krishnasamy Naidu INC Muthuramanujam IND
Erode Raju CPI Deivasigamani Gounder INC
Gingee Aranganathan TTP K. Ramakrishnaswamy Pillai INC
Gopichettipalayam P. S. Nalla Gounder INC P. K. Nalla Gounder IND
Gudiyatham 1) A. J. Arunachala Mudaliar
3) Rathnaswamy
INC 2) P. S. Rajagopala Naidu
4) Kannabiran
IND
CPI
Harbour Krishna Rao INC Ibrahim Sahib IND
Harur 1) A. Duraiswami Gounder
2) Nanjappan
IND
INC
3) Sambasiva Reddy
4) Mariappan
INC
SCF
Hosur M. Muni Reddy IND K. Appavu Pillai INC
Jayankondan 1) Ayyavu
2) K. R. Viswanathan
TTP
TTP
3) Muthukumaraswamy Mudaliar
4) Raghupathi
INC
INC
Kadambur Venugopala Krishnaswamy INC Subbiah Naicker IND
Kalasapakkam Nataraja Mudaliar IND Periasami Gounder INC
Kallakurichi 1) Elaya Pillai
2) Anandan
IND
INC
3) Govindan
4) Parthasarathy
TTP
INC
Kancheepuram Deivasigamani KMPP P. S. Srinivasan INC
Kangayam A. K. Subbaraya Gounder INC Not contested Not contested
Karaikudi Chockalingam Chettiar INC Mahalingam Chettiar IND
Karur 1) M. Manickasundaram
3) T. V. Sannasi
IND
INC
2) S. Muthusamy Gounder
4) Vadivel Moopan
INC
IND
Kodumudi Nallasivan SP Makutapathy Gounder INC
Koilpalaya V. K. Palaniswamy Gounder INC Ramaswamy Naidu SP
Kovilpatti Ramasamy INC Shanmugham IND
Krishnagiri D. Krishnamoorthy Gounder IND S. Nagaraia Maniar INC
Kumbakonam Varadan INC Somu Rao CPI
Lalgudi Raja Chidambaram IND Varadarajan INC
Manamadurai Krishnaswami Ayyangar INC Abdul Gafoor CPI
Madukkarai R. Kuppuswami INC Chinnadurai SP
Madurai North P. Ramamoorthy CPI T. Chidambara Bharathi INC
Madurai South T. K. Rama INC A. Dharmaraj Santhosam IND
Madurantakam 1) B. Parameswaran
2) V. Venkatasubba Reddi
INC
INC
3) K. Muthulinga Reddiar
4) Kothandarama Reddiar
REP
SP
Manachanallur Rajagopal INC Arunachalam IND
Manapparai Antony Peter INC Kulandaivel IND
Mannargudi 1) M. Kandaswami
3) Subbiah
CPI
CPI
2) Ramachandra Naidu
4) Thiagu Voikarar
INC
INC
Mayuram 1) K. R. Sambandan
2) A. Veloo
IND
IND
K. Pitchai
N. Rangaswami Reddiar
INC
INC
Mecheri S. Subramania Gounder INC M. Kandasamy Kandan IND
Melmalayur V. Gopala Gounder TTP K. Gopala Gounder INC
Melur 1) S. Chinnakaruppa Thevar
2) P. Sivaprakasam
INC
INC
3) B. Ponnuchami Ambalam
4) K. Veerana Veduvan
FBL(MG)
CPI
Mettupalayam Kempi Gounder IND Azad Abdul Salam INC
Mudukulathur 1) Mottaya Kudumban
2) U. Muthuramalingam Thevar
FBL(MG)
FBL(MG)
3) Sankaran
4) Shanmuga Sundaram
INC
Musiri Thangavelu IND M. P. Krishnaswami INC
Mylapore C. R. Ramaswamy INC Krishnamurthi IND
Nagapattinam 1) Sivaraj
2) Vadivelu
CPI
CPI
3) Duraisamy
4) Shanmugasundaram Pillai
INC
INC
Namakkal 1) K. V. Ramaswamy
2) M. P. Periaswami
CPI
INC
3) T. Sivagnanam Pillai
4) S. Chinnayan
INC
IND
Nambiyur 1) P. G. Karuthiruman
2) P. G. Manickam
INC
INC
3) C. K. Subramaniam Gounder
4) K. A. Palaniappan
IND
SCF
Nanguneri M. G. Sankar Reddiar INC Madaswamy IND
Nannilam 1) Muthukumaraswami
2) Thyagaraja Pillai
INC
INC
3) Anthony Muthu
4) Kalyanasundaram Pillai
CPI
CPI
Nidamangalam Venkatesa Sholagar CPI Sambasiva Ayyar INC
Nilakottai 1) Ayyanar
2) Muthu Thevar
INC
INC
3) Ponniah Konar
4) Govindan
IND
SP
Nilgiris 1) Ari Gowder
2) K. H. Bomman
IND
INC
3) R. Raman Nair
4) C. P. Krishnaiah
INC
IND
Oddanchatram Subramanya Lakshmipathy Naicker IND K. Karuthappa Gounder INC
Omalur P. Rathinaswami Pillai IND K. Nanjappa Chettiar INC
Panruti S. Radhakrishnan TTP P. A. Ranganatha Padayachi INC
Palani M. P. Mangala Gounder IND P. S. K. Lakshmipathi Raju INC
Palavoor T. Ganapathy INC N. Duraipandi KMPP
Papanasam Swayamprakasam IND Abdul Majid Sahib INC
Paramakudi Govindan INC Natarajan CPI
Paramathy R. Rangaswami Gounder IND P. V. Kuppayandi Pillai INC
Pattukottai Nadimuthu Pillai INC Marimuthu SP
Pennagaram S. Kandaswami Gounder TTP M. N. Raja Chettiar IND
Perambalur 1) Paramasivam
3) Palanimuthu
IND
TTP
2) Thangavelu
4) Pariannan
TTP
IND
Perambur S. Pakkirisami Pillai SP M. Santhosam INC
Periyakulam 1) V. Muthu
2) Mookayya Thevar
INC
FBL(MG)
3) N. R. Thyagarajan
4) Ponnuchami
INC
SP
Pollachi 1) N. Mahalingam
2) P. K. Thirumurthy
INC
INC
3) Marudachalam
4) Palanisami
CPI
CPI
Polur Manickavelu Naicker CWP Annamalai Chetty INC
Ponneri 1) O. Chengam Pillai
2) Gajapathi Reddiar
KMPP
KMPP
3) M. Bhaktavatsalam
4) C. Lakshmana Pillai
INC
INC
Pudukkottai Balakrishnan TTP Natesan Ambalakkarar INC
Ramanathapuram Shanmugha Rajeswara Sethupathy INC Rajamanickam CPI
Ranipet Kadir Sheriff INC Munuswami Gounder CWP
Rasipuram T. M. Kaliannan INC K. Ramaswamy IND
Saidapet 1) T. P. Elumalai
2) N. Ramakrishna Iyer
INC
INC
3) R. Kannan
4) M. S. Gnanaprakasam
REP
KMPP
Salem Rural C. Lakshma Kandan INC A. Subramaniam TTP
Salem Town Varadarajulu Naidu INC Mohan Kumaramangalam CPI
Saliyamangalam Samia Koorayar IND Krishnaswami Vanayar INC
Sankaranarayanar Kovil 1) Ramasundara Karunalaya Pandyan
3) Urkavalan
IND
INC
2) K. Sattanatha Karayalar
4) O. Sappani
INC
IND
Sathankulam Kosalram IND Meganathan IND
Sattur S. Ramaswami Naidu INC Rajarathnam IND
Sedapatti Thinakaraswami Thevar INC Kamana Thevar SP
Sholinghur M. Subramanya Naicker CWP V. M. Ramaswamy Mudaliar INC
Sirkazhi C. Muthia Pillai INC K. Swamithurai Annagar CPI
Sivaganga R. V. Swaminathan INC Velayutham Chettiar KMPP
Sriperumbudur T. Shanmugam IND Seshachari INC
Srirangam Chitrambalam CPI Srinivasan INC
Srivilliputhur 1) D. K. Raja
3) A. Vaikuntam
IND
INC
2) P. S. Kumaraswami Raja
4) K. Arumugha Perumal
INC
IND
Talavasal A. Sambasivam INC M. Gopala Chetty IND
Tenkasi Subramaniam Pillai INC Sevagupandia Thevar IND
Thanjavur 1) M. Marimuthu
2) S. Ramalingam
INC
CPI
3) R. Swaminatha Mercondar
4) R. Shanmugan
INC
IND
Thirumangalam K. Rajaram INC T. Manickavasakam KMPP
Thondamuthur Palaniswami Gounder INC Perumal SP
Thousand lights 1) Venkataswami Naidu
2) Sivashanmugam Pillai
INC
IND
3) Indirani Balasubramaniam
4) Marthandam Pillai
JUSP
SP
Thuraiyur P. Rangaswami Reddiar IND A. V. Rangaswami INC
Tindivanam 1) M. Jagannathan
2) Venugopala Gounder
TTP
TTP
3) Balasundaram
4) Venkatakrishna Reddiar
INC
INC
Tiruchendur 1) Adityan
2) V. Arumugam
KMPP
INC
3) Subramanya Adithan
4) Pitchu
INC
SP
Tiruchengode 1) S. Arumugham
2) T. S. Arthanari
IND
CPI
3) Radhabai Subbarayan
4) V. K. Ramaswamy
INC
INC
Tiruchirapalli North M. Kalayanasundaram CPI G. Ramaswami INC
Tiruchirapalli South Ramasamy INC Vaiyapuri Sholayar IND
Tirukkoyilur 1) T. D. Muthukumaraswamy Naidu
2) A. Muthuswami
TTP
TTP
3) Kulasekara Dass
4) M. Rajagopal
INC
INC
Tirumayam 1) Palaniyappan
3) Chinnayyaa
INC
TTP
2) Avudayappan Ambalakkarar
4) Sambasiva Moopan
KMPP
INC
Tirunelveli 1) Arumugan
2) S. N. Somayajulu
INC
INC
3) P. S. Subramania Pillai
4) Shanmugam
IND
CPI
Tiruppur Arumugam
Rangaswami Naidu
INC Mathivanam
Ramaswami
CPI
Tirupattur (41) E. L. Raghava Mudali IND R. C. Samanna Gounder INC
Tiruppattur 194 Muthiah Chettiar IND Veerabhadran CPI
Tirupporur M. R. Ramachandran INC S. Murugesa Mudaliar REP
Thiruvadanai Chelladurai IND Arumugam Servai INC
Tiruvallur 1) M. Dharmalingam
2) V. Govindaswamy Naidu
KMPP
KMPP
3) N. Eagambara Mudaliar
4) V. S. Arunachalam
INC
INC
Thiruvannamalai 1) Ramachandra Reddiar
2) Thangavelu
INC
INC
3) Vadivelu Gounder
4) T. V. Devaraja Mudaliar
CWP
IND
Triplicane A. M. sambanandam INC M. S. Abdul Majeed IND
Tuticorin J. L. P. Roche Victoria INC K. V. P. Swamy IND
Uddanappalli P. N. Munuswamy INC A. N. Nallappa Reddy KMPP
Udumalpet Mounaguruswami Naidu INC Thangavelu CPI
Ulundurpet M. Kandaswamy Padayachi INC Natesa Gounder TTP
Uthamapalayam A. S. Subbaraj INC Muthaiah SP
Uthiramerur Ramaswami Mudaliar INC Duraisami Naicker KMPP
Uthukuli Palaniswami IND Kandasami Gounder INC
Vadamadurai Chinnaswamy Naidu INC Srinivasan SP
Valappady P. Kandasamy Gounder IND B. A. Rajarathnam INC
Vandavasi 1) Somasundara Gounder
3) Dasarathnam
CWP
SCF
2) Ramanuja Reddiar
4) Velayuthapani
INC
INC
Vaniyambadi A. K. Hanumantharaya Gounder IND M. Erusan CWP
Vedasandur V. Madanagopal CPI M. R. Krishnaswamy Reddiar INC
Vellore 1) A. K. Masilamani Cheety
3) H. M. Jagnanathan
INC
INC
2) R. Radhakrishnan
4) K. R. Sundaram
CWP
CPI
Vikravandi Govindaswamy Nayagar TTP Bashyam Reddiar INC
Vilathikulam P. Selvaraj INC Sankaralingam IND
Villupuram Nagarajan TTP S. D. Chinnas INC
Virudhunagar V. V. Ramaswamy IND Sankarapandia Nadar INC
Vridachalam 1) Paramasivam
3) Kathimuthu
TTP
TTP
2) Narayanaswamy Pillai
4) Vedamanickam
INC
INC
Wasermanpet Jeevanandam CPI Radhakrishnan Pillai INC

Andhra Pradesh[edit]

Constituency Winner Party Runner-up Party
Salur Kumisetti Venkatanarayana Dora KLP Alur Yorukumaiudu INC
Cheepurupalli Pothula Gunnayya and Thaddi Chinna Atchanaidu INC and IND Mudundi Satyanarayanaraju IND
Boghili Kolli Venkata Kuruni Naidu SP Kothagiri Seetharamaswami INC
Parvathipuram Vyricherla Durgaprasad Veerabhadra Deo Bahadur INC Cheekati Parasuram Naiudu KLP
Srikakulam Killi Appala Naidu
Kavali Narayana
KLP
KLP
Kottapalli Narasayya
Thammineni Paparao
INC
INC
Honjaram Peesuputi Pundareekakshacharyulu KLP Chelikami Sreeranganayakulu IND
Palakonda Palavasa Sangam Naiudu INC Moosala Rajaratnam Naiudu KLP
Narasannapeta H. Satyanarayana Dora INC Kasira Basava Raju KMPP
Pathapatnam 1) Lukulapu Lakshmanadas
4) Mandangi Pentananaidu
INC
IND
2) Darapu Govindarajulu
3) Challa Narasimham
CPI
IND
Tekkali Rokkam Lakshmi Narasimham Dora IND Bandi Kurmanna INC
Sompeta Gonthu Latchanna KLP Pothuru Swamy Babu INC
Ichapuram Neeladri Rao Reddy KLP Harihara Patnaik IND
Vizianagaram 1) Pusapati Vijayarama Gajapati Raju
2) Gantlana Suryanarayana
SP
SP
3) Gudivada Appalasamy
4) Chinna Suryanarayana
IND
INC
Bheemunipatnam Kaligotla Suryanarayana IND J. V. K. Vallabha Rao CPI
Alamanda K. V. Padmanabha Raju SP G. B. Appa Rao INC
Srungavarapukota C. V. Somayajulu SP T. Venkataramanayya INC
Chodavaram Kandarpa Venkataramesam KLP Bhupathiraju Satyanarayana Raju INC
Madugole Bhojinki Gangayya Naidu KLP Ilapakurthy Satyanarayana INC
Vishakapatnam Tenneti Viswanatham KMPP S. Appala Nayudu IND
Paravada Mullapadi Veerabhadram CPI Gothimukkla Jagannatha Raju IND
Anakapalle Koduganti Govinda Rao CPI Villuri Venkataramana KLP
Yellamanchili Pappala Bapunaiudu KLP Missule Suryanarayanamoorthy INC
Payakaraopeta Raja Sagi Suryanarayana Raju IND Sunkari Appala Naiudu INC
Golugonda 1) Killada Ramamurthy
2) Kankipatti Veerana Padal
KLP
KLP
Puthala Latdha Patrudu INC
Bhadrachalam 1) Karam Bapanna Dora
2) Y. Venkata Krishna Rao
KMPP
KMPP
1) Varsavyi Venkata Thirupathi Raju
2) Sivasam Bojji Dora
Tuni Raju Vatsereya Venkata Krishna Raju Bahadur INC Yenumula Venkanna Dora KMPP
Pithapuram R. V. Jagga Rao CPI R. Atachayya Rao INC
Peddapuram Thota Ramaswami INC D. V. Subha Rao IND
Burugupudi N. Venkatarama Rao KLP Marina Narasanna INC
Rajamundry Chitturi Prabhakara Chowdary CPI K. L. Narasimha Rao INC
Kakinada 1) Chittajallu Venkata Krishna Rao
2) Kanteti Mohana Rao
CPI
CPI
3) K. Dayananda Raja
4) Pamu Ramanamurthy
INC
INC
Ramachandrapuram Kakarlapudi Rajagopalanarasaraju KMPP Mallipudi Pallanraju INC
Anaparti Padala Satyanarayana Reddi INC P. Venkata Rao CPI
Pamarru S. B. P. Pattabhi Rama Rao INC P. Panasaramanna CPI
Amalapuram 1) Nadimpalli Ramabhadra Raju
2) Bojja Appalaswami
KMPP
SCF
3) Kala Venkata Rao
4) Pandu Lakshmanaswami
INC
INC
Razole Alluri Venkataramaraju and Ganji Nagaswara Rao CPI Akula Buliswami KMPP
Chintalapudi Motaparithi Kunerao CPI Kamadana Venkatarama Surya Prakasa Rao INC
Eluru Garapaty Satyanarayana CPI Mulpuri Rengayya INC
Tadepalligudem C. S. Varaparasadamurthiraju INC Kilambi Venkata Krishna Vataram KMPP
Alampuram Pasala Suryachandra Rao KMPP Thumalapalli Satyanarayanamurthy INC
Und Dantuluri Narayana Raju INC Gottamukkala Venkata Raju CPI
Bhimavaram Bhupathiraju Subbaraju KMPP Nimmda Sangaiah INC
Narsapur 1) Padela Symasundara Rao
2) Bhupathiraju Lakshminarasaraju
CPI
CPI
3) Gottumakkala Venkanna
4) Dasari Perumallu
KMPP
INC
Tanuku Chitturu Indrayya KMPP Chitturi Subba Rao INC
Penugonda Dwarampudi Basivireddy KMPP Nadimipilli Tirupathiraju INC
Kovvur 1) Pinnamaneeni Sreeramachandra Rao
3) Mallapudi Rajeswara Rao
CPI
KMPP
2) Alluri Bapineedu
4) Kalaputi Adeyya
INC
IND
Jaggayapeta Pillalamarvi Venkateswarlu CPI Bandi Timpatayya INC
Vijayavada Tammina Potharaju CPI Maru Pilla Chetti INC
Kanvhikacherla Vasireddi Rama Rao CPI Kakani Venkatratnam INC
Tiruvur Peta Rama Rao CPI Peta Bappaiah INC
Kankipadu Myneni Lakshmanaswamy CPI Edupuganti Bala Veeraghavayya KLP
Nuzvid Raja Meka Rangayya Appa Rao Bahadur INC P. V. Raghavayya IND
Gudivada 1) Gungi Rama Rao
2) Katragadia Rajagopala Rao
CPI
CPI
3) A. Gopalakrishnayya
4) Mangalagiri Ramdasu
IND
INC
Kaikalur Adusnmolli Venkatasubramanyam INC Atluri Purnachalapathi Rao CPI
Divi 1) Chandra Ramalingaiah
2) Guntur Bapanayya
CPI
CPI
3) Sreemanthu Raja Yarlagadda Sivaram Prasad Bahadur
4) Gattipati Brahmayya
IND
INC
Bandar G. Anjeneyulu CPI R. Achyawnamaiah INC
Vinukonda Pulupula Venkatasivaiah CPI Paladugu Nagaiah Chowdhary IND
Palnad Kola Subba Reddy CPI Kasu Brahmananda Reddy INC
Bellamkonda Mandava Bapaiah Chowdary IND Bojja Adinarayana Rao INC
Narasaraopet N. Nallapati Venkataramiah KMPP Kasu Vengal Reddi INC
Chilakaluripet Karnam Ranga Rao CPI Balineni Nagaiah INC
Sattenpallo V. Gopalakrishniah IND Jetti Ankamma IND
Mangalagiri Darsi Lakshmiah CPI Imgilapati Govinda Rao KLP
Guntur Nadimpalli Venkatalakshmi Narasimha Rao KMPP Yangalasetry Tirupattayya CPI
Prathipadu Tamma Kotamma Reddi INC Managva Seshayya CPI
Duggirala A. Rami Reddi INC K. Kotaiah CPI
Tenali Alapati Venkataramiah INC Rivissatyanarayana KLP
Amarthalur Gorikupudi Joseph CPI Velunolu Seetharamiah INC
Repalle M. Hanumantha Rao CPI Kalluri Chandramouli INC
Bapatla Vemmulapalli Srikrishna INC Nankena Venkataraju CPI
Ponnur Kolla Venkaiah CPI Coginam Lakshminarayana KLP
Chirala Pragada Kotaiah KMPP Uthukuri Upendra Gupta IND
Ongole 1) Kasukurthi Malakondiah
2) Madala Narayannaswami
CPI
CPI
3) Dhara Gopalasastri
4) Bachina Subha Rao
IND
KLP
Gudur Pellati Gopalakrishna Reddy INC Katamareddy Raja Rami Reddy IND
Venkatagiri Padileti Venkatasami Reddi INC Katikinani Kalyan Rao KLP
Rapur D. Dasaratharamiah Naidu INC Ganga Ramanaiah CPI
Nellore 1) Khandavalli Krishna Rao
2)Swarna Vemayya
IND
IND
3) Anna Chenchu Subha Reddi
4) Ponnaburu Veera Raghava Reddi
INC
IND
Kovur Basavareddi Sankarayya CPI B. Seshu Reddi INC
Atmakur Ganga China Kondayya IND Gangavarapu Thirupathi Naidu INC
Kavali B. Ramakrishna Reddy KMPP R. Dasaratharami Reddi INC
Udayagiri Kovi Ramayya Chowdary KMPP Bezawada Gopala Reddy INC
Kanigiri Gujjala Yellamanda Reddi CPI Devi Reddi Lakhmireddi INC
Kandukur 10 Nalamothu Chenchurama Naidu
2) Kamatham Shanmugham
INC
INC
3) Chukka Kottilingam
4) Guntapalli Venkatasubbiah
IND
IND
Darsi Sanekomma Kasireddi CPI Ravipathi Mohanada KLP
Markapur N. Venkatayya KLP Yekkali Ramaiah IND
Cumbum Pidathala Ranga Reddy INC Adapala Ramaswamy IND
Nandyal Maller Subba Reddy IND G. Rami Reddy INC
Koikuntla N. Venkatasubba Reddy SP B. V. Subba Reddy INC
Dhone Venkatasetty Kotrike IND Venkatasubbiah Nivarthi INC
Nandikottur C. Pulla Reddi CPI Subba Reddy INC
Kurnool 1) D. Sanjeevayya
N. Sankara Reddi
INC
INC
3) K. Venkata Reddi
4) S. Sankarayya
IND
IND
Rajampet Panjam Narasimha Reddy CPI Bandam Ratnasabapathi Setti SP
Rayachoti Y. Adinarayana Reddi KMPP Gurjala Reddayya Naidu SP
Cuddapah K. Koti Reddi INC P. Seshiah Chetty IND
Badvel Vedamani Chidanandam IND Bommu Ramareddi INC
Proddatur Kundala Balanarayana Reddy INC Panem Yonamani Reddy KMPP
Kamalupuram Narreddi Sivarami Reddi CPI Ramalinga Reddi INC
Jammalamodugu Kunda Ramiah KMPP Tatireddi Pullareddy INC
Penukonda Lakshminarayana Reddy IND Chitambara Reddy INC
Hindupur Sivasankara Reddy INC Sreenivasa Reddy KMPP
Madakasira Siddanna Gowd IND Venkatasivamma INC
Kadiri K. V. Vema Reddi INC Y. Papireddi IND
Dharmavaram Srinivasalu Kasetty KMPP Venkatareddy, Gonuguntla INC
Kalyandrug 1) Narayanappa Sanda
4) Santhappa
INC
INC
2) B. Yeniswamy
3) B. Ranappa Setty
CPI
IND
Tadpatri C. Subbarayudu KMPP J. C. Nagi Reddi INC
Anantapur T. Nagi Reddy CPI N. Sanjeeva Reddy INC
Adoni 1) H. Ramalinga Reddy
2) T. Mallayya
IND
INC
3) T. G. Thimmayya Setty
4) Veerappa Reddy
INC
IND
Rayadurg G. Nagabushanam INC K. Chinna Basappa Chowdary IND
Chattu T. N. Vankatasubba Reddy INC Alluru Narsinga Rao IND
Madanapalle Dodda Seetharamiah CPI Gudreddigari Srinivasareddy IND
Punganur B. Krishnamoorthy Rao INC Varanasi Raghunatha Reddi IND
Pileru P. Thimma Reddi KLP N. Bhaskara Reddy INC
Palamaner Ramabrahaman INC Soma Ram Reddi KLP
Chittoor 1) Chinama Reddi
4) Sreegaram
IND
KLP
2) N. P. Chengalraya Naidu
3) P. Rajagopala Naidu
INC
KLP
Tiruttani 1) Kidambi Varadachari
2) M. Dorai Kannu
INC
INC
3) E. Subramaniah Mudali
4) G. Doraiswami Naidu
IND
IND
Puttur Kumaraswami Rajah Bahadur KMPP R.B. Ramakrishna Raju INC
Kalahasti A. Balarami Reddi INC T. Venkatasubba Rao KLP
Chandragiri A. Adikesavalu Naiudu INC V. Raja Reddi IND

Karnataka[edit]

Constituency Winner Party Runner Party
Coondapur Manjayya Shetty INC Srinivasa Shetty SP
Brahmavar S. S. Kolkabail KMPP Jagjeevandoss Shetty INC
Udipi T. Anantha Pai INC K. Rama Rao KMPP
Karkal A. B. Shetty INC M. Dharmasamarajaya KMPP
Puttur 1) K. Venkataramanna Gowda
2) K. Iswara
INC
INC
3) K. Karanth
4) M. Naikker Ramanna
KMPP
KMPP
Mulky N. N. Suvarna INC Sanjeevanath SP
Mangalore L. C. Pais INC A. Shantha Ram Pai CPI
Panamangalore B. V. Baliga INC D. K. H. Alwa IND
Siruguppa S. Parameswarappa INC S. Ranganna Gowd IND
Kollegal S. C. Virupakshiah INC C. R. Subramani Iyer IND
Bellary M. Gangappa IND A. Sumangalamma INC
Hospet R. Nagana Gowda INC Mahabaleswarappa IND
Kudligi Kotrabasavana Goud IND T. M. Panchakshariah INC
Harpanahalli Sirasappa. Ijari INC K. B. R. Kotra Goud IND

Kerala[edit]

Constituency Winner Party Runner Party
Kasargod M . S . Mogral INC B. K. sridharan KMPP
Hosdrug Narayanan Nambiar KMPP Kunnikannan Nambiar INC
Nattika Gopalakrishnan CPI Raman INC
Ponnani 1)N. Gopala Menon
2) E. T. Kunhan
INC
CPI
3) K. C. Sankaran
4) A. C. Raman
INC
KMPP
Tirur K. Uppi Saheb MLP K. Ahmad Kutty INC
Trithala K. B. Menon SP P. K. Moideen Kutty INC
Perintalmanna Kunhimahamad Shafee Kallingal MLP P . Ahmad Kutty Sadhu CPI
Mannarghat K. C. Gopalanunni IND Kurikal Ahmed IND
Pattambi V . Sankara Narayana Menon KMPP A . Ramachandra Nedungadi INC
Ottappalam M . Narayana Kurup KMPP C . P . Madhavan Nair INC
Palghat K. ramakrishnan IND P. Vasu Menon INC
Alathur 1) K. Krishnan
2) O. Koran
CPI
KMPP
3) Y. R. Ramanatha Iyer
4) E. Eacharan
IND
INC
Mallapuram 1) Miniyadam Chadayan
2) Mohammad Haje Seethi
MLP
MLP
3) Karupadata Ibrahim
4) Kallayan Kunhambu
INC
INC
Kottakkal Chakkeeri Ahmad Kutty MLP Kunjunni Nedumgadi, Ezhuthassan Kalathil INC
Kozhikode K. P. Kutty Krishnan Nair INC E. M. S. Namboodiripad CPI
Chevayur A. Appu INC Ayyadhan Balagopalan KMPP
Wynaad 1) Manyangode Padmanabha Gounder
2) Chomadi Velukkan
SP
SP
3) Kozhipurath Madhava Menon
4) Veliyan Nocharamooyal
INC
INC
Quilandy Chemmaratha Kunhriramakurup KMPP Anantapuram Patinhare Madam Vasudevan Nair INC
Perambra Kunhiram Kidavu Polloyil KMPP Kalandankutty, Puthiyottil INC
Badagara Moidu Keloth SP Ayatathil Chattu INC
Nadapuram E . K . Sankara Varma Raja INC K . Thacharakandy CPI
Tellichery C. H. M. Kanaran CPI K. P. M. Raghavan Nair INC
Kuthuparamba krishna Iyer IND Harindranabham, Kalliyat Thazhathuveethil SP
Mattanur Madhavan Nambiar, Kallorath CPI Subbarao INC
Cannanore Kariath Sreedharan KMPP Pamban Madhavan INC
Thaliparamba T. C. Narayanan Nambiar CPI V. V. damodaran Nayanar INC
Payyanur K. P. Gopalan CPI Vivekananda Devappa Sernoy INC

See also[edit]

Footnotes and References[edit]

  1. ^ Forrester, Duncan B. (1970). "Kamaraj: A Study in Percolation of Style". Modern Asian Studies, (Cambridge University Press) 4 (1): 43–61. JSTOR 311752. 
  2. ^ a b I. N. Tewary (1999). Political system: a micro perspective. New Delhi: Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. p. 13. 
  3. ^ Kumar, Prasanna A. (1978). Dr. B. Pattabhi Sitaramayya: a political study. Andhra University Press. p. 96. ISBN 81-7099-619-8, ISBN 978-81-7099-619-4. 
  4. ^ Namboodiripad, E.M.S. (1994). The Communist Party in Kerala: six decades of struggle and advance. National Book Centre. p. 273. 
  5. ^ Welch, Claude Emerson (1980). Anatomy of rebellion. SUNY Press. p. 253. ISBN 0873954416, ISBN 978-0-87395-441-9. 
  6. ^ Kude, Uttam Laxmanrao (1986). Impact of Communism on the working class and peasantry: a case study of Maharashtra. Daya Books. pp. 173–177. ISBN 8170350271, ISBN 978-81-7035-027-9. 
  7. ^ Sundarayya, P (2006). Telangana People's Struggle and Its Lessons. Foundation Books. pp. 102–143. ISBN 8175963166, ISBN 978-81-7596-316-0. 
  8. ^ Foreign News: Shocking Truth, Time Magazine 10 February 1947
  9. ^ a b Gough, Kathleen (2008). Rural Society in Southeast India. Cambridge University Press. pp. 141–146. ISBN 0-521-04019-1, ISBN 978-0-521-04019-8. 
  10. ^ a b c The Decline and Fall of Tamil Seccessionism in India Part 3 by DBS Jeyaraj, The Daily Mirror 10 October 2009
  11. ^ Celebrating a half century, The Hindu 26 September 1998
  12. ^ a b 1952 Election
  13. ^ The Representation of People Act, 1950
  14. ^ The State Legislature - Origin and Evolution
  15. ^ Constituent Assembly of India Debates Vol IV, Friday 18 July 1947
  16. ^ Hasan, Zoya; Sridharan, Eswaran; Sudharshan, R (2005). India's living constitution: ideas, practices, controversies. Anthem Press. pp. 360–63. ISBN 1-84331-136-4, ISBN 978-1-84331-136-2. 
  17. ^ Robert L. Hardgrave, (1964–1965). "The DMK and the Politics of Tamil Nationalism". Pacific Affairs 37 (4): 396–411. doi:10.2307/2755132. JSTOR 2755132. 
  18. ^ Lloyd I. Rudolph (May 1961). "Urban Life and Populist Radicalism: Dravidian Politics in Madras". The Journal of Asian Studies 20 (3): 283–297. doi:10.2307/2050816. JSTOR 2050816. 
  19. ^ "DETAILS OF TERMS OF SUCCESSIVE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLIES CONSTITUTED UNDER THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA". Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly. Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  20. ^ "Statistical Report on General Election, 1951 : To the Legislative Assembly of Madras" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  21. ^ a b Baliga, B.S (2000). Madras District Gazetteers: Coimbatore. Superintendent, Govt. Press. pp. 155–6. 
  22. ^ a b T. V. R. Shenoy (22 August 2001). "From Rajaji to Jayalalithaa". Rediff. 
  23. ^ "Indian Election Results". Far Eastern Survey, (Institute of Pacific Relations) 21 (7): 61–70. 7 May 1952. JSTOR 3024481. 
  24. ^ Deva, Narendra (1999). Selected Works of Acharya Narendra Deva: 1948-1952. Radiant Publishers. p. 409. ISBN 81-7027-176-2, ISBN 978-81-7027-176-5. 
  25. ^ Walch, James (1976). Faction and front: party systems in South India. Young Asia Publications. p. 160. 
  26. ^ a b P. Kandaswamy (2001). The political career of K. Kamraj. New Delhi: Concept publishing company. p. 50. 
  27. ^ a b C. V. Gopalakrishnan (2001-05-31). "Of Governors and Chief Ministers". The Hindu. The Hindu Group. Retrieved 2009-12-17. 
  28. ^ Kaliyaperumal, M (1992). The office of the speaker in Tamilnadu : A study. Madras University. p. 91. 
  29. ^ A review of the Madras Legislative Assembly 1952-1957
  30. ^ Eastern Economist, Annual Number. Eastern Economist. 1965. p. 1172. 
  31. ^ Subramaniam, Chidambaram (1993). Hand of destiny: memoirs, Volume 1. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 166. 
  32. ^ "A Review of the Madras Legislative Assembly (1952-1957) : Section I, Chapter IV". Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly. Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  33. ^ Susanne Hoeber Rudolph (15 July 1984). The Modernity of Tradition: Political Development in India. The University of Chicago Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-226-73137-7. 
  34. ^ Rao, Ramesh N. (2001). Coalition conundrum: the BJP's trials, tribulations, and triumphs. Har Anand Publications. pp. 32–33. 
  35. ^ A review of the Madras Legislative Assembly (1952 - 1957) Section II
  36. ^ Sharma, Sadhna (1995). States politics in India. Mittal Publications. p. 61. ISBN 81-7099-619-8, ISBN 978-81-7099-619-4. 
  37. ^ Rao, Vadakattu Hanumantha (1983). Party politics in Andhra Pradesh, 1956-1983. ABA Publications. p. 128. 
  38. ^ Aziz, Abdul M. (1992). Rise of Muslims in Kerala politics. CBH Publications. pp. 41, 44. 
  39. ^ James Walch. Faction and front: Party systems in South India. Young Asia Publications. pp. 162–163. 
  40. ^ Fighter all the way, Frontline Magazine 25 Oct – 27 Nov 2008
  41. ^ a b Vaigai Ramamurthi (2008-09-20). "A daughter remembers P. Ramamurti". The Hindu. The Hindu Group. Retrieved 2009-12-17. 
  42. ^ "Council of Ministers and their Portfolios (1952-1954)". A Review of the Madras Legislative Assembly (1952-1957). Government of Tamil Nadu. 
  43. ^ "A Review of the Madras Legislative Assembly (1952-1957) : Section I". Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly. Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  44. ^ Justice Party golden jubilee souvenir, 1968. Justice Party. 1968. p. 58. ISBN. 

External links[edit]