||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Russian Wikipedia. (November 2010)|
|Madhura, Basa Mathura بَهاسَ مَدورا|
|Region||Island of Madura, Sapudi Islands, northern coastal area of eastern Java, Singapore|
|15 million (2007)|
Arabic script (Pegon alphabet)
mad – Madurese proper
kkv – Kangean
Madurese is a language of the Madurese people of Madura Island and eastern Java, Indonesia; it is also spoken on the neighbouring small Kangean Islands and Sapudi Islands, as well as from migrants to other parts of Indonesia, namely the Tapal Kuda ("horseshoe") area of neighbouring Java (comprising Pasuruan, Surabaya, Malang to Banyuwangi), the Masalembu Islands, and even some on Kalimantan. The Kangean dialect may be a separate language. It was traditionally written in the Javanese script, but the Latin script is now more commonly used. The number of speakers, though shrinking, is estimated to be 8-13 million.
Links between Bali–Sasak languages and Madurese are more evident with the "low" form (common form). There are some common words between Madurese and Filipino languages as well as between Madurese and Banjar. There are several dialects.
Phonology and morphology
|Close||i ꦆ||ɨ ꦆ||u ꦈ|
|ɛ ꦌ||ə ꦄꦼ||ɔ ꦎ|
|Nasal||m ꦩ||n̪ ꦤ||ɳ ꦟ||ɲ ꦚ||ŋ ꦔ|
|b ꦧ||t̪ ꦠ
|d̪ ꦢ||ʈ ꦛ
|ɖ ꦝ||c ꦕ
|ɟ ꦗ||k ꦏ
|Fricative||ʂ ꦱ||h ꦲ|
|l ꦭ||r ꦧ||j ꦪ||w ꦮ|
Madurese has more consonants than its neighboring languages due to it having voiceless unaspirated, voiceless aspirated, and voiced sounds. Similar to Javanese, it has a contrast between dental and alveolar (even retroflex) stops . Nouns are not inflected in gender and are pluralized via reduplication. Its basic word order is SVO. Negation is expressed by putting a negative particle before the verb, adjective or noun phrase. As with other similar languages there are different negative particles for different kinds of negation.
- Man: lalake
- Woman: babine
- Yes: iya
- No: enja
- Water: aeng
- Sun: are
- Three: tello'
- I/me: Engko'
- You: be'na
- Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Madurese". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Stevens, Alan (2001) "Madurese", in Facts About the World's Languages, Jane Garry (ed.) & Carl Rubino (ed.), New York: H. W. Wilson
- Davies, William D. 2010. A grammar of Madurese. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
|Madurese language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
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