||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (December 2013)|
Mady Hornig, MD (born 1957) is a psychiatrist and an associate professor of epidemiology at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, where she is Director of Translational Research in the Center for Infection and Immunity (CII). A physician-scientist, her research involves clinical, epidemiological, and animal model research on autism and related neurodevelopmental conditions. She directs the clinical core of an international investigation of the role of Borna disease virus in human mental illness and participates as a key investigator for the Autism Birth Cohort (ABC) project, a large prospective epidemiological study, based in Norway, that is identifying how genes and timing interact with environmental agents preceding the onset of autism spectrum diagnoses. In 2006, she was appointed as Guest Professor at the School of Basic Medical Science of Beijing University in Beijing, China.
Hornig has been described as an "anti-mercury activist". Along with CII director W. Ian Lipkin and colleague Thomas Briese, she is currently investigating measles virus RNA sequences in bowel biopsies of children with autism spectrum disorders. Formulating a "three strikes" model of causation that integrates genetics, the environment and developmental neurobiology, Hornig posits that some cases of autism may represent the unfortunate coincidence of genetic vulnerability (first dimension) and exposure to environmental factors (second dimension) at a critical period of brain development (third dimension). She is examining how brain damage from infections, immune system dysfunction, neurotoxins, and other chemical or psychosocial stress factors, or host responses to these environmental agents, can lead to neurodevelopmental and other central nervous system disorders, thereby contributing to autism, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorders, and mood disorders.
Hornig received a bachelor's degree in 1978 from Cornell University, where she was a College Scholar; an MA in psychology in 1983 from the New School for Social Research, and an MD in 1988 from the Medical College of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia. Between 1988 and 1992, Hornig served her residency in psychiatry at the University of Vermont. Under a National Research Service Award from the National Institutes of Mental Health, she completed a postdoctoral fellowship in neuropsychopharmacology on the Depression Research Unit of the University of Pennsylvania from 1992 to 1994.
Hornig has been described as being part of an "inner circle of anti-mercury activists" whose work has been funded in part by the anti-mercury campaigning group SafeMinds.
In 2008, she published a study concluding that there was no association between presence of measles vaccine virus in the gut of children and whether these children had autism, nor was there an association between MMR exposure and autism.
In 2011, she co-authored another study concluding that autistic children have altered expression of genes involved in digestion. Regarding this study, Hornig said that its results "are consistent with other research suggesting that autism may be a system-wide disorder, and provide insight into why changes in diet or the use of antibiotics may help alleviate symptoms in some children."
In 2004, Hornig published a controversial paper concluding that, in a highly inbred strain of mice which is unusually susceptible to autoimmune disease, administration of thimerosal resulted in the development of autism-like symptoms; specifically, "growth delay; reduced locomotion; exaggerated response to novelty; and densely packed, hyperchromic hippocampal neurons with altered glutamate receptors and transporters." In addition, in an interview with the Los Angeles Times, Hornig contended that thimerosal may be linked to the recent increases in the incidence of autism. However, Paul Offit has accused Hornig of overstating her findings, arguing that her study was "a far cry from proving that thimerosal caused autism in children," and Steven Goodman, a member of the IOM panel that rejected a thimerosal-autism link in 2004, shortly before Hornig's study was published, has claimed that this study "in no way substitutes for actual human evidence." Additionally, researchers from the University of California, Davis were unable to reproduce Hornig's results despite using the same strain of mice and ten times the amount of mercury used in Hornig's study.
In 2006, Dan Olmsted reported that Hornig was working on a treatment program in which she would administer gold salts to these genetically susceptible mice in an attempt to improve their behavior.
In 2009, Hornig published another study using mice to examine the mechanism by which Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus infections might cause Tourette's syndrome, OCD and tics, in line with the PANDAS hypothesis. Hornig stated that her findings "illustrate that antibodies alone are sufficient to trigger this behavioral syndrome."
Dr. Hornig is a native of Brooklyn. She married Jim Hornig-Rohan in 1979. They met at the Cancer Institute of Harvard Medical School, when both were doing research in immunology. They have a child, Russell, who was born in July 1985.
- Steven Locke, Mady Hornig-Rohan, Mind and Immunity: Behavioral Immunology, 1983, ISBN 0-275-91400-3
- Jay D. Amsterdam, Mady Hornig, Andrew A. Nierenberg (editors), Treatment-Resistant Mood Disorders, 2001, ISBN 0-521-59341-7
- Hornig M., Chian D., Lipkin W.I., 'Neurotoxic effects of postnatal thimerosal are mouse strain dependent', Molecular Psychiatry (September, 2004)
- Cox-Foster, D. L.; Conlan, S.; Holmes, E. C.; Palacios, G.; Evans, J. D.; Moran, N. A.; Quan, P. -L.; Briese, T.; Hornig, M.; Geiser, D. M.; Martinson, V.; Vanengelsdorp, D.; Kalkstein, A. L.; Drysdale, A.; Hui, J.; Zhai, J.; Cui, L.; Hutchison, S. K.; Simons, J. F.; Egholm, M.; Pettis, J. S.; Lipkin, W. I. (2007). "A Metagenomic Survey of Microbes in Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder". Science 318 (5848): 283–287. doi:10.1126/science.1146498. PMID 17823314.
- Mady Hornig, Thomas Briese, Timothy Buie, Margaret L. Bauman, Gregory Lauwers, Ulrike Siemetzki, Kimberly Hummel, Paul A. Rota, William J. Bellini, John J. O'Leary, Orla Sheils, Errol Alden, Larry Pickering, W. Ian Lipkin - 'Lack of Association between Measles Virus Vaccine and Autism with Enteropathy: A Case-Control Study', PLoS ONE (September, 2008)
- Kirkland, A. (2012). "Credibility battles in the autism litigation". Social Studies of Science 42 (2): 237–61. doi:10.1177/0306312711435832. PMID 22848999.
- Mady Hornig
- Hornig, M.; Briese, T.; Buie, T.; Bauman, M. L.; Lauwers, G.; Siemetzki, U.; Hummel, K.; Rota, P. A.; Bellini, W. J.; O'Leary, J. J.; Sheils, O.; Alden, E.; Pickering, L.; Lipkin, W. I. (2008). "Lack of Association between Measles Virus Vaccine and Autism with Enteropathy: A Case-Control Study". In Cookson, Mark R. PLoS ONE 3 (9): e3140. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003140. PMC 2526159. PMID 18769550.
- McKenzie, John (3 September 2008). "Study Finds Vaccine Not Linked to Autism". ABC News. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- Rubenstein, Sarah (8 September 2008). "Study Shows ‘No Connection’ Between Measles Vaccine, Autism". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
- Williams, B. L.; Hornig, M.; Buie, T.; Bauman, M. L.; Cho Paik, M.; Wick, I.; Bennett, A.; Jabado, O.; Hirschberg, D. L.; Lipkin, W. I. (2011). "Impaired Carbohydrate Digestion and Transport and Mucosal Dysbiosis in the Intestines of Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Disturbances". In Jacobson, Steven. PLoS ONE 6 (9): e24585. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024585. PMC 3174969. PMID 21949732.
- "Children With Autism and Gastrointestinal Symptoms Have Altered Digestive Genes". ScienceDaily. 18 September 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
- Hornig M, Weissenböck H, Horscroft N, Lipkin WI (1999). "An infection-based model of neurodevelopmental damage". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96 (21): 12102–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.21.12102. PMC 18419. PMID 10518583.
- Hornig M, Chian D, Lipkin WI (September 2004). "Neurotoxic effects of postnatal thimerosal are mouse strain dependent". Mol. Psychiatry 9 (9): 833–45. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001529. PMID 15184908.
- Licinio, Julio (8 June 2004). "Thimerosal, found in childhood vaccines, can increase the risk of autism-like damage in mice". Eurekalert!. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- Maugh, Thomas H., II. "Study Finds Genetic Link Between Autism, Vaccines". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- Offit, Paul (2008). Autism's False Prophets. Columbia University Press.
- Barclay, Laurie (11 June 2004). "IOM Report, Mouse Study Continue Debate on Vaccine-Autism Link". Medscape. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- Pessah, I. N.; Seegal, R. F.; Lein, P. J.; Lasalle, J.; Yee, B. K.; Van De Water, J.; Berman, R. F. (2008). "Immunologic and neurodevelopmental susceptibilities of autism". NeuroToxicology 29 (3): 532–545. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2008.02.006. PMC 2475601. PMID 18394707.
- Yaddanapudi K, Hornig M, Serge R, et al. (July 2010). "Passive transfer of streptococcus-induced antibodies reproduces behavioral disturbances in a mouse model of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection". Mol. Psychiatry 15 (7): 712–26. doi:10.1038/mp.2009.77. PMID 19668249.
- Westly, Erica (18 January 2010). "From Throat to Mind: Strep Today, Anxiety Later?". Scientific American. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
- Antibodies to strep throat bacteria linked to obsessive compulsive disorder in mice
- Williams, Edgar (27 May 1988). "A New Medical Team Faces Life And Debt Together". Philly.com. Retrieved 10 October 2013.