Mae Nak Phra Khanong
|(Mae Nak, Nang Nak)|
Mae Nak shrine offerings in the inner sanctum:
Portraits of the spirit and folded dresses.
|Mythology||Thai folk mythology|
|Habitat||Phra Khanong area, Bangkok|
Mae Nak Phra Khanong (Thai: แม่นากพระโขนง, meaning "Lady Nak of Phra Khanong"), or simply Mae Nak (Thai: แม่นาก, "Lady Nak") or Nang Nak (Thai: นางนาก, "Miss Nak"), is a well-known and popular Thai ghost. Local folklore insists the story is based on actual events that took place during the early 19th century.
According to tradition, the events occurred during the reign of King Mongkut. The story is about a beautiful young woman named Nak, who lived by Phra Khanong canal in Bangkok, and her undying love for her husband, Mak.
With Nak pregnant, Mak is conscripted and sent to war (in some versions of the story the war is against the Shan tribe, while others are not specific), where he is seriously wounded. While he is being nursed back to health in central Bangkok, Nak and their child both die during a difficult childbirth. When Mak returns home, however, he finds his loving wife and child waiting for him. Neighbors who try to warn him that he is living with a ghost are all killed.
One day, as Nak is preparing nam phrik, she drops a lime off of the porch. In her haste, she stretches her arm to pick it up from the ground below. Mak sees it and at last realizes his wife is a ghost. Terrified, he tries to find a way to flee without alarming her.
That night, Mak says he has to go downstairs to urinate. He then runs away into the night.
Discovering her husband has fled, Nak pursues him. Mak sees her and conceals himself behind a Blumea balsamifera (Thai: หนาด; pronounced Nat) bush. According to folklore, ghosts are afraid of the sticky Blumea leaves. Mak then runs to Wat Mahabut temple, which a ghost cannot enter, as it is holy ground.
In her grief, Nak terrorizes the people of Phra Khanong, furious at them for causing Mak to leave her. However, Nak's ghost is captured by a powerful exorcist. Confining her in an earthen jar, he throws it into the canal.
There are differing versions of the rest of the story. In one, an old couple new to Phra Khanong finds the jar while fishing; in another two fishermen dredge up the jar. Nak is freed when they opened it.
Nak is conquered again by the venerable monk Somdet Phra Phutthachan (To Phrommarangsi). The learned monk confines her spirit in the bone of her forehead and binds it in his waistband. Legend says the waistband is currently in the possession of the royal family. Admiral Aphakonkiattiwong, the Prince of Chumphon, also claimed to have had the relic. In alternative version, the monk assured Nak that in a future life she would be reunited with her beloved husband, and thus she voluntarily departed for the afterlife.
Mae Nak's story is still very popular because her undying devotion to her husband inspires people of all ages.
A shrine dedicated to Mae Nak is at Wat Mahabut. In 1997, the shrine relocated to nearby Suan Luang District of modern Bangkok.
An alternative account
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2011)|
Anek Nawikamul, a Thai historian, researched the story and found a newspaper article from Siam Praphet newspaper written by K.S.R. Kularb, dated March 10, 1899. It claimed the story of Mae Nak was based on the life of Amdaeng Nak (อำแดงนาก, "Miss Nak"), daughter of a Tambon Phra Khanong leader named Khun Si. Nak died when she was pregnant. Her older children, worried that their father would remarry and their inheritance would be shared with a step-mother, invented the ghost story and threw rocks at passing boats to make people believe Nak's ghost had done it. It also suggested Nak's husband was named "Chum", not Mak.
The Shrine of Mae Nak
The shrine of Mae Nak stands next to Klong Phra Khanong, at Wat Mahabut, a large temple down Soi 77 off of Sukhumvit Road.
About 1 km down On Nut, there is a small lane known as Soi 7. Wat Mahabut and the Mae Nak shrine are at the end of Soi 7. You can also reach the temple by boat on Klong Pra Khanong.
The shrine is a low building under large trees with a roof that encompasses the tree trunks. The main shrine has several minor shrines around it.
A statue of Mae Nak and her infant form the centerpiece of the shrine. Devotees often make offerings, accompanied by a request for help, generally by women seeking an easy childbirth or for their husband to be exempt from military conscription.
Toys for her child and portraits of the ghost are displayed in the shrine's inner sanctum. A collection of fine dresses offered to her are displayed behind her statue.
Offerings are also made at Phra Khanong canal, where fish purchased live at markets are brought in buckets to the edge of the canal and freed. Stalls at the shrine sell toys, fish, lotus buds, incense sticks and garlands for those who wish to make an offering.
In popular culture
The story of Mae Nak Pra Kanong is the subject of many films, television series and printed media. Among these are:
- Mae Nak Phra Khanong, a 1959 Thai film
- Mae Nak Khuen Chip, 1960 Thai film
- Winyan Rak Mae Nak Phra Khanong, a 1962 Thai film
- Mae Nak Khanong Rak, 1968 Thai film
- Mae Nak Phra Nakhon, a 1970 Thai film
- Mae Nak Phra Khanong, 1973 Thai film
- Mae Nak Alawat, 1973 Thai film
- Mae Nak Amerika, 1975 Thai film
- Mae Nak Buk Tokiao, 1976 Thai film
- Mae Nak Phra Khanong, 1978 Thai film
- Sannya Chai Mae Nak Phra Khanong (RTGS: San-ya Chai Mae Nak Phra Khanong), 1992 Thai film
- Mae Nak Choe Phi Pop (Mae Nak meets Phi Pop), 1992 Thai TV series
- Nang Nak, a 1999 film by Thai director Nonzee Nimibutr
- Ghost of Mae Nak, a 2005 Thai film by British director Mark Duffield
- Mae Naak, (แม่นาก) an opera composed by Somtow Sucharitkul. It was premiered in 2003 and revived in 2005 by the Bangkok Opera, with soprano Nancy Yuen performing the title role and baritone Kyu Won Han as Maak in both productions. It was restaged again in 2011 in Bangkok and London.
- Nak (นาค), a Thai 2008 computer animated film.
- Maenak Prakanong the Musical, a 2009 musical directed by Takonkiet Viravan and starring Myria Benedetti and Anatpol Sirichumsang.
- Mae Nak Patha Pop Sam Tua, a 2011 comedy.
- Mae Nak 3D, a 2012 Thai film
- Pee Mak, (พี่มาก..พระโขนง), a 2013 comedy horror Thai film by GMM Tai Hub
- Chutima Pragatwutisarn (ชุติมา ประกาศวุฒิสาร), Evil Woman in a Beautiful Body: Femininity and the Crisis of Modernity in Thai Society, Chulalongkorn University, 2010
- หนาด (Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC.) (Thai)
- เจนจบ ยิ่งสุมล. (ตุลาคม 2553). ๑๓๐ ปี ไม่มีวันตาย พลเรือเอกพระบรมวงศ์เธอ กรมหลวงชุมพรเขตอุดมศักดิ์. สำนักพิมพ์ DK พับลิชิ่ง. ISBN 978-616-7327-07-5. หน้า 45
- Mae Nak movies and TV series
- Mae Nak Phra Khanong (1959) poster
- Mae Nak Kheun Chip movie poster
- Vinyan Rak Mae Nak Phra Khanong movie poster
- Mae Nak Khanong Rak movie poster
- Mae Nak Phra Nakhon poster
- Mae Nak Phra Khanong (1973) poster
- Mae Nak Alawat poster
- Mae Nak Amerika 1975 poster
- Mae Nak Buk To Kiao movie poster
- Mae Nak Phra Khanong (1978) poster
- Sannya Chai Mae Nak Phra Khanong (1992) poster
- Mae Nak Cheu Phi Pop poster
- 1990s decade
- Ghost of Mae Nak - Movie poster
- Nak movie
- Rachadalai.com, Maenak Prakanong the Musical official website
- Maenak Patha Pop Sam Tua
- Mae Nak comic
- Mae Nak comic image
- Mae Nak comic
- Nang Nak Kab 3 Puan