Magdeburg

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This article is about the German city. For other uses, see Magdeburg (disambiguation).
Magdeburg
Cathedral of Magdeburg - The town's symbol
Cathedral of Magdeburg - The town's symbol
Coat of arms of Magdeburg
Coat of arms
Magdeburg   is located in Germany
Magdeburg
Magdeburg
Coordinates: 52°8′0″N 11°37′0″E / 52.13333°N 11.61667°E / 52.13333; 11.61667Coordinates: 52°8′0″N 11°37′0″E / 52.13333°N 11.61667°E / 52.13333; 11.61667
Country Germany
State Saxony-Anhalt
District Urban district
Subdivisions 40 boroughs
Government
 • Lord Mayor Lutz Trümper (SPD)
Area
 • Total 200.95 km2 (77.59 sq mi)
Elevation 43 m (141 ft)
Population (2012-12-31)[1]
 • Total 229,924
 • Density 1,100/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 39104–39130
Dialling codes 0391
Vehicle registration MD
Website www.magdeburg.de

Magdeburg (German pronunciation: [ˈmakdəbʊrk] ( ); Low Saxon: Meideborg, [ˈmaˑɪdebɔɐx]) is the capital city of the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Magdeburg is situated on the Elbe River and was one of the most important medieval cities of Europe.

Emperor Otto I, the first Holy Roman Emperor, founder of the archbishopric of Magdeburg, was buried in the town's cathedral after his death. Magdeburg's version of German town law, known as Magdeburg rights, spread throughout Central and Eastern Europe. The city is also well-known for the 1631 Sack of Magdeburg, which hardened Protestant resistance during the Thirty Years' War. Magdeburg was destroyed twice in its history.

Magdeburg is the site of two universities, the Otto-von-Guericke University and the Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences.[2]

Nowadays Magdeburg is a traffic junction as well as an industrial and trading centre. The production of chemical products, steel, paper and textiles are of particular economic significance, along with mechanical engineering and plant engineering, ecotechnology and life-cycle management, health management and logistics.

In 2005 Magdeburg celebrated its 1200th anniversary. In June 2013 Magdeburg was hit by record breaking flooding.[3]

History[edit]

Kaiser Otto I and his wife Edith arrive near Magdeburg, in a 19th-century painting
Largest groups of foreign residents
Nationality Population (2013)
 Soviet Union 2,346
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 798
 Vietnam 728
 China 593
 Poland 464
 Turkey 455

Early years[edit]

Founded by Charlemagne in 805 as Magadoburg (probably from Old High German magado for big, mighty and burga for fortress[4]), the town was fortified in 919 by King Henry I the Fowler against the Magyars and Slavs. In 929 the city went to Edward the Elder's daughter Edith, through her marriage to Henry's son Otto I, as a Morgengabe — a Germanic customary gift received by the new bride from the groom and his family after the wedding night. Edith loved the town and often lived there; at her death she was buried in the crypt of the Benedictine abbey of Saint Maurice, later rebuilt as the cathedral. In 937, Magdeburg was the seat of a royal assembly. Otto I repeatedly visited Magdeburg and was also buried in the cathedral. He granted the abbey the right to income from various tithes and to corvée labour from the surrounding countryside.

The Archbishopric of Magdeburg was founded in 968 at the synod of Ravenna; Adalbert of Magdeburg was consecrated as its first archbishop. The archbishopric under Adalbert included the bishoprics of Havelberg, Brandenburg, Merseburg, Meissen and Naumburg-Zeitz. The archbishops played a prominent role in the German colonisation of the Slavic lands east of the Elbe river.

In 1035 Magdeburg received a patent giving the city the right to hold trade exhibitions and conventions, which form the basis of the later family of city laws known as the Magdeburg rights. These laws were adopted and modified throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Visitors from many countries began to trade with Magdeburg.

Magdeburger Reiter, 1240, the first equestrian statue north of the Alps

In the 13th century, Magdeburg became a member of the Hanseatic League. With more than 20,000 inhabitants Magdeburg was one of the largest cities in the Holy Roman Empire. The town had an active maritime commerce on the west (towards Flanders), with the countries of the North Sea, and maintained traffic and communication with the interior (for example Brunswick). The citizens constantly struggled against the archbishop, becoming nearly independent from him by the end of the 15th century.

In about Easter 1497, the then-twelve-year old Martin Luther attended school in Magdeburg, where he was exposed to the teachings of the Brethren of the Common Life. In 1524, he was called to Magdeburg, where he preached and caused the city's defection from Catholicism. The Protestant Reformation had quickly found adherents in the city, where Luther had been a schoolboy. Emperor Charles V repeatedly outlawed the unruly town, which had joined the Alliance of Torgau and the Schmalkaldic League. Because it had not accepted the Augsburg Interim (1548), the city, by the emperor's commands, was besieged (1550–1551) by Maurice, Elector of Saxony, but it retained its independence. The rule of the archbishop was replaced by that of various administrators belonging to Protestant dynasties. In the following years Magdeburg gained a reputation as a stronghold of Protestantism and became the first major city to publish the writings of Luther. In Magdeburg, Matthias Flacius and his companions wrote their anti-Catholic pamphlets and the Magdeburg Centuries, in which they argued that the Roman Catholic Church had become the kingdom of the Antichrist.

In 1631, during the Thirty Years' War, imperial troops under Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, stormed the city and committed a massacre, killing about 20,000 inhabitants and burning the town in the sack of Magdeburg. The city had withstood a first siege in 1629 by Albrecht von Wallenstein. After the war, a population of only 4000 remained. According to the Peace of Westphalia (1648), Magdeburg was assigned to Brandenburg-Prussia after the death of the current administrator, August of Saxe-Weissenfels, as the semi-autonomous Duchy of Magdeburg; this occurred in 1680.

19th century[edit]

In the course of the Napoleonic Wars, the fortress surrendered to French troops in 1806. The city was annexed to the French-controlled Kingdom of Westphalia in the 1807 Treaty of Tilsit. King Jérôme appointed Count Heinrich von Blumenthal as mayor. In 1815, after the Napoleonic Wars, Magdeburg was made the capital of the new Prussian Province of Saxony. In 1912, the old fortress was dismantled, and in 1908, the municipality Rothensee became part of Magdeburg.

20th century[edit]

Magdeburg after World War II

Magdeburg was heavily bombed by the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. The RAF bombing raid on the night of 16 January 1945, destroyed much of the city. The official death toll was 16 000.

Near the end of World War II, the city of about 340,000 became capital of the Province of Magdeburg. Brabag's Magdeburg/Rothensee plant that produced synthetic oil from lignite coal was a target of the Oil Campaign of World War II. The impressive Gründerzeit suburbs north of the city, called the Nordfront, were destroyed as well as the city's main street with its Baroque buildings. Post-war the area was part of the Soviet Zone of Occupation and many of the remaining pre-World War II city buildings were destroyed, with only a few buildings near the cathedral restored to their pre-war state. Prior to the reunification of Germany, many surviving Gründerzeit buildings were left uninhabited and, after years of degradation, waiting for demolition. From 1949 on until German reunification on 3 October 1990, Magdeburg belonged to the German Democratic Republic.

Since German reunification[edit]

In 1990 Magdeburg became the capital of the new state of Saxony-Anhalt within reunified Germany. Huge parts of the city and its centre were also rebuilt in a modern style. Its economy is one of the fastest-growing in the former East German states.[5]

In 2005 Magdeburg celebrated its 1200th anniversary.

The city was hit by 2013 European floods. Authorities declared a state of emergency and said they expected the Elbe river to rise higher than in 2002. In Magdeburg, with water levels of five metres (16 ft) above normal, about 23,000 residents had to leave their homes on 9 June.[6]

Climate[edit]

Magdeburg has an oceanic climate (Cfb) according to Koppen climate classification.

Climate data for Magdeburg
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2.4
(36.3)
3.8
(38.8)
8.2
(46.8)
13.3
(55.9)
18.8
(65.8)
21.9
(71.4)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
19.5
(67.1)
14.1
(57.4)
7.5
(45.5)
3.6
(38.5)
13.3
(55.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.4
(31.3)
0.5
(32.9)
3.9
(39)
8.0
(46.4)
13.0
(55.4)
16.2
(61.2)
17.5
(63.5)
17.3
(63.1)
13.8
(56.8)
9.5
(49.1)
4.5
(40.1)
1.2
(34.2)
8.75
(47.75)
Average low °C (°F) −3
(27)
−2.5
(27.5)
0.4
(32.7)
3.4
(38.1)
7.7
(45.9)
10.9
(51.6)
12.3
(54.1)
12.1
(53.8)
9.4
(48.9)
5.7
(42.3)
1.9
(35.4)
−1.3
(29.7)
4.75
(40.58)
Rainfall mm (inches) 33.3
(1.311)
31.1
(1.224)
37.9
(1.492)
40.2
(1.583)
46.6
(1.835)
61.5
(2.421)
48.1
(1.894)
51.4
(2.024)
36.1
(1.421)
29.1
(1.146)
38.2
(1.504)
40.6
(1.598)
494.1
(19.453)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 46.7 69.5 117.4 159.1 216.1 218.7 218.5 207.2 151.1 107.5 56.1 40.8 1,608.7
Source #1: DWD.DE
Source #2: http://www.ecad.eu/download/millennium/millennium.php

Main sights[edit]

Cathedral of Magdeburg, seen from the other side of the Elbe river
The Jahrtausendturm (English: millennium tower)

Cathedral[edit]

One of Magdeburg's most impressive buildings is the Lutheran Cathedral of Saints Catherine and Maurice with a height of 104 m (341.21 ft), making it the highest church building of eastern Germany. It is notable for its beautiful and unique sculptures, especially the "Twelve Virgins" at the Northern Gate, the depictions of Otto I the Great and his wife Editha as well as the statues of St Maurice and St Catherine. The predecessor of the cathedral was a church built in 937 within an abbey, called St. Maurice. Emperor Otto I the Great was buried here beside his wife in 973. St. Maurice burnt to ashes in 1207. The exact location of that church remained unknown for a long time. The foundations were rediscovered in May 2003, revealing a building 80 m (262.47 ft) long and 41 m (134.51 ft) wide.

The construction of the new church lasted 300 years. The cathedral of Saints Catherine and Maurice was the first Gothic church building in Germany. The building of the steeples was completed as late as 1520.

While the cathedral was virtually the only building to survive the massacres of the Thirty Years' War, it nevertheless suffered damage in World War II. It was soon rebuilt and completed in 1955.

The square in front of the cathedral (sometimes called the Neuer Markt, or "new marketplace") was occupied by an imperial palace (Kaiserpfalz), which was destroyed in the fire of 1207. The stones from the ruin were used for the building of the cathedral. The presumed remains of the palace were excavated in the 1960s.

Other sights[edit]

  • Unser Lieben Frauen Monastery (Our Lady), 11th century, containing the church of St. Mary. Today a museum for Modern Art. Home of the National Collection of Small Art Statues of the GDR (Nationale Sammlung Kleinkunstplastiken der DDR).
  • The Magdeburger Reiter ("Magdeburg equestrian", 1240), the first free-standing equestrian sculpture north of the alps. It probably depicts the Emperor Otto I.
  • The Green Citadel of Magdeburg
  • Town hall (1698). This building had stood on the market place since the 13th century, but it was destroyed in the Thirty Years' War; the new town hall was built in a Renaissance style influenced by Dutch architecture. It was renovated and re-opened in Oct 2005.
  • Landtag; the seat of the government of Saxony-Anhalt with its Baroque façade built in 1724.
  • monuments depicting Otto von Guericke (1907), Eike von Repkow and Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben.
  • Ruins of the greatest fortress of the former Kingdom of Prussia.
  • Rotehorn-Park.
  • Elbauenpark containing the highest wooden structure in Germany.
  • St. John Church (Johanniskirche)
  • The Gruson-Gewächshäuser, a botanical garden within a greenhouse complex
  • The Magdeburg Water Bridge, Europe's longest water bridge
  • "Die Grüne Zitadelle" or The Green Citadel of Magdeburg, a large, pink building of a modern architectural style designed by Friedensreich Hundertwasser and completed in 2005.
  • Jerusalem Bridge.

Magdeburg is one of the major towns along the Elbe Cycle Route (Elberadweg).

Venue places[edit]

Lake-Stage at Elbauenpark
  • GETEC Arena – Biggest multipurpose hall in Saxony-Anhalt, home of handball team SC Magdeburg
  • AMO - Culture and congresshouse
  • Altes Theater am Jerichower Platz – Former theater, used for parties and large meetings
  • Stadthalle - Concerthall
  • St. Johannis Church
  • St. Petri Church with stained glass by Charles Crodel
  • Lake-Stage at Elbauenpark
  • Messe-Magdeburg
  • Paulus Church
  • Concerthall-Georg Philipp Telemann at "Kloster unser lieben Frauen"
  • Projekt 7 – Nightclub at the Otto-von-Guericke-University campus. Concerts with indie-pop and rock music
  • Factory – Former factoryhall, German and international pop-, rock-, metal-, and indie-band artists are featured
  • Kulturwerk Fichte – several types of venues, used mainly for conferences
  • Prinzzclub – In-Club at Halberstädter Straße – house-, electro- and blackmusic-venues
  • Festung Mark – Part of the former town fortification, now rebuilt for parties and conventions
  • Kunstkantine – Factory canteen, monthly electro-music parties
  • Funpark-Magdeburg – Disco complex with several music areas
  • Kiste – Student club by the medical faculty of the university
  • Feuerwache – Old Fire station, rebuilt for venues
  • MDCC-Arena - Home of 1. FC Magdeburg
View of Magdeburg, from the tower of the Johanniskirche

University[edit]

The Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg (German: Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg) was founded in 1993 and is one of the youngest universities in Germany. The university in Magdeburg has about 13,000 students in nine faculties. There are 11,700 papers published in international journals from this institute.

The Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences was founded in 1991. There are 30 direct study programs in five departments in Magdeburg and two departments in Stendal. The university has more than 130 professors and approximately 4,500 students at Magdeburg and 1,900 at Stendal.

Culture and sports[edit]

Magdeburg Christmas market

Magdeburg has a proud history of sports teams, with football proving the most popular. 1. FC Magdeburg currently play in the Regionalliga Nord. The now defunct clubs SV Victoria 96 Magdeburg and Cricket Viktoria Magdeburg were among the first football clubs in Germany. 1. FC Magdeburg is the only East German football club to have won a European club football competition. There is also the very successful handball team, SC Magdeburg Gladiators who are the first German team to win the EHF Champions League.

The city is portrayed as a rebel castle on the strategy map of Medieval II: Total War.

Magdeburg is well known for it's Christmas market, wich is an attraction for 1.5 million visitors every year. Other events are the Stadtfest, Christopher Street Day, Elbe in Flames and the Europafest Magdeburg

International relations[edit]

Magdeburg is twinned with:[7]

Gallery[edit]

People[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden 31.12.2012". Statistisches Landesamt Sachsen-Anhalt (in German). January 2014. 
  2. ^ https://www.hs-magdeburg.de/home.html
  3. ^ 2013 European floods
  4. ^ "Magdeburg: Jungfrau oder Groß? Der Ortsname erklärt" (in German). Onomastik.com. Retrieved 2010-07-24. 
  5. ^ http://www.stadtentwicklung-sachsen-anhalt.de/inhalt/situation/
  6. ^ Thousands evacuated as Elbe bursts dam in German floods 10 June 2013
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Zachert, Uwe; Annica Kunz. "Twin cities". Landeshauptstadt Magdeburg [City of Magdeburg]. Archived from the original on 2012-09-01. Retrieved 2013-08-07. 
  8. ^ "Braunschweigs Partner und Freundschaftsstädte" [Braunschweig - Partner and Friendship Cities]. Stadt Braunschweig [City of Braunschweig] (in German). Archived from the original on 2012-12-01. Retrieved 2013-08-07. 
  9. ^ "Sister Cities of Nashville". SCNashville.org. Retrieved August 3, 2011. 
  10. ^ Міста-побратими м. Запоріжжя [Twin Cities Zaporozhye]. City of Zaporizhia (in Ukrainian). Шановні відвідувачі і користувачі сайту. Archived from the original on 2012-08-03. Retrieved 2013-08-07. 
  11. ^ "Radom - Miasta partnerskie" [Radom - Parntership cities]. Miasto Radom [City of Radom] (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-04-03. Retrieved 2013-08-07. 
  12. ^ "Radom - miasta partnerskie" (in Polish). radom.naszestrony.pl. Retrieved 2013-08-07. 
  13. ^ "Harbin Magdeburg twinning". City of Magdeburg. Retrieved 2013-08-08. 
  14. ^ Florence, Jeanne. "Le Havre - Les villes jumelées" [Le Havre - Twin towns] (in French). Retrieved 2013-08-07. 
  15. ^ "Le Havre - Les villes jumelées" [Le Havre - Twin towns]. City of Le Havre (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-07-24. Retrieved 2013-08-07. 
  16. ^ Pace, Eric. "Alfons Bach, 95, Designer of Tubular Furniture". Arts. The New York Times. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. 

External links[edit]