Nakshatra

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Nakshatra (Sanskrit: नक्षत्र, IAST: Nakṣatra) is the term for lunar mansion in Hindu astrology. A nakshatra is one of 27 (sometimes also 28) sectors along the ecliptic. Their names are related to the most prominent asterisms in the respective sectors.

The starting point for the nakshatras is the point on the ecliptic directly opposite to the star Spica called Chitrā in Sanskrit (other slightly different definitions exist). It is called Meshādi or the "start of Aries".[citation needed] The ecliptic is divided into each of the nakshatras eastwards starting from this point. The number of nakshatras reflects the number of days in a sidereal month (modern value: 27.32 days), the width of a nakshatra traversed by the moon in about one day. Each nakshatra is further subdivided into four quarters (or padas). These play a role in popular Hindu astrology, where each pada is associated with a syllable, conventionally chosen as the first syllable of the given name of a child born when the moon was in the corresponding pada.

The nakshatras of traditional bhartiya astronomy are based on a list of 28 asterisms found in the Atharvaveda (AVŚ 19.7) and also in the Shatapatha Brahmana.[citation needed] The first astronomical text that lists them is the Vedanga Jyotisha.

In classical Hindu mythology (Mahabharata, Harivamsa), the creation of the nakshatras is attributed to Daksha. They are personified as daughters of the deity and as mythological wives of Chandra, the moon god, or alternatively the daughters of Kashyapa, the brother of Daksha.[1]

Each of the nakshatras is governed as 'lord' by one of the nine graha in the following sequence: Ketu (South Lunar Node), Shukra (Venus), Ravi or Surya (Sun), Chandra (Moon), Mangala (Mars), Rahu (North Lunar Node), Guru or Brihaspati (Jupiter), Shani (Saturn) and Budha (Mercury). This cycle repeats itself three times to cover all 27 nakshatras. The lord of each nakshatra determines the planetary period known as the dasha, which is considered of major importance in forecasting the life path of the individual in Hindu astrology.

In Vedic Sanskrit, the term nákṣatra may refer to any heavenly body, or to "the stars" collectively. The classical sense of "lunar mansion" is first found in the Atharvaveda, and becomes the primary meaning of the term in Classical Sanskrit.

Nakshatras in the Atharvaveda[edit]

In the Atharvaveda (Shaunakiya recension, hymn 19.7) a list of 28 stars or asterisms is given, many of them corresponding to the later nakshatras:

(1) Kṛttikā (the Pleiads), (2) Rohinī, (3) Mrigashīrsha, (4) Ārdrā, (5) Punarvasu, (6) Sūnritā, (7) Pushya, (8) Bhanu (the Sun), (9) Asleshā, (10) Maghā, (11) Svāti (Arcturus), (12) Chitrā (Spica), (13) Phalgunis, (14) Hasta, (15) Rādhas, (16) Vishākhā, (17) Anurādhā, (18) Jyeshthā, (19) Mūla, (20) Ashādhas, (21) Abhijit, (22) Sravana, (23) Sravishthās, (24) Satabhishak, (25) Proshtha-padas, (26) Revati, (27) Asvayujas, (28) Bharani. [2] Interestingly enough, the term "nakshatra" has a different meaning as demonstrated in the "Surya Siddhanta" which is an ancient text on astronomy. In the early chapters, the author, Mayasura or Mayan, describes various time units. He writes that a "prana" is a duration of 4 seconds. He then continues with a discussion of a number of time units with progressively long durations made up of the shorter time units all composed of a number of pranas. Amongst those time units are something he calls "nakshatra." For example, there are 15 pranas in a minute; 900 pranas in an hour; 21600 pranas in a day, 583,200 pranas in a nakshatra (month). According to Mayan, a nakshatra is a time unit with a duration of 27 days. This 27 day time cycle has been taken to mean a particular group of stars. The relationship to the stars really has to do with the periodicity with which the moon travels over time and through space past the field of the specific stars called nakshatras. Hence, the stars are more like numbers on a clock through which the hands of time pass (the moon). This concept that nakshatra means a time unit has been lost and diverted to meaning a set of stars in the sky. This concept was discovered by Dr. Jessie Mercay in her research on Surya Siddhanta. It is documented in a textbook called "Fundamentals of Mamuni Mayans Vaastu Shastras, Building Architecture of Sthapatya Veda and Traditional Indian architecture." (Mercay, 2006 - 2012, AUM Science and Technology publishers)

List of Nakshatras[edit]

Position of the Hindu Nakshatra Mandala as per the coordinates specified in Surya Siddhantha

The classical list of 27 nakshatras is first found in the Vedanga Jyotisha, a text dated to the final centuries BCE. The nakshatra system predates the influence of Hellenistic astronomy on vedic tradition, which became prevalent from about the 2nd century CE.

In Hindu astronomy, there was an older tradition of 28 Nakshatras which were used as celestial markers in the heavens. When these were mapped into equal divisions of the ecliptic, a division of 27 portions was adopted since that resulted in a cleaner definition of each portion (i.e. segment) subtending 13° 20' (as opposed to 12° 51 3/7’ in the case of 28 segments). In the process, the Nakshatra Abhijit was left out without a portion.[3]:179 The Surya Siddhantha concisely specifies the coordinates of the twenty seven Nakshatras[3]:211

The following list of nakshatras gives the corresponding regions of sky, following Basham.[4]

No. Name Associated stars Description Image
1 Ashvini
"wife of the Ashvins"
β and γ Arietis
  • Lord: Ketu (South lunar node)
  • Symbol : Horse's head
  • Deity : Ashvins, the horse-headed twins who are physicians to the gods
  • Indian zodiac: 0° - 13°20' Mesha
  • Western zodiac 26° Aries - 9°20' Taurus
Aries constellation map.svg
2; 7 Bharani
"the bearer"
35, 39, and 41 Arietis
  • Lord: Shukra (Venus)
  • Symbol: Yoni, the female organ of reproduction
  • Deity: Yama, god of death or Dharma
  • Indian zodiac: 13° 20' - 26°40' Mesha
  • Western zodiac 9° 20' - 22° 40' Taurus
Aries constellation map.svg
3 Krittika
an old name of the Pleiades; personified as the nurses of Kārttikeya, a son of Shiva.
Pleiades
  • Lord: Surya (Sun)
  • Symbol: Knife or spear
  • Deity : Agni, god of fire
  • Indian zodiac: 26°40' Mesha - 10° Vrishabha
  • Western zodiac 22° 40' Taurus - 6° Gemini
Taurus constellation map.png
4; 9 Rohini
"the red one", a name of Aldebaran. Also known as brāhmī
Aldebaran Taurus constellation map.png
5; 3 Mrigashīrsha
"the deer's head". Also known as āgrahāyaṇī
λ, φ Orionis
  • Lord: Mangala (Mars)
  • Symbol: Deer's head
  • Deity: Soma, Chandra, the Moon god
  • Indian zodiac: 23° 20' Vrishabha - 6° 40' Mithuna
  • Western zodiac: 19°20' Gemini - 2°40' Cancer
Orion constellation map.png
6; 4 Ardra
"the moist one"
Betelgeuse
  • Lord: Rahu (North lunar node)
  • Symbol: Teardrop, diamond, a human head
  • Deity : Rudra, the storm god
  • Indian zodiac: 6° 40' - 20° Mithuna
  • Western zodiac: 2° 40' - 16° Cancer
Orion constellation map.png
7; 5 Punarvasu (dual)
"the two restorers of goods", also known as yamakau "the two chariots"
Castor and Pollux
  • Lord: Guru (Jupiter)
  • Symbol : Bow and quiver
  • Deity : Aditi, mother of the gods
  • Indian zodiac: 20° Mithuna - 3°20' Karka
  • Western zodiac 16° - 29°20' Cancer
Gemini constellation map.svg
8; 6 Pushya
"the nourisher", also known as sidhya or tiṣya
γ, δ and θ Cancri
  • Lord: Shani (Saturn)
  • Symbol : Cow's udder, lotus, arrow and circle
  • Deity : Bṛhaspati, priest of the gods
  • Indian zodiac: 3°20' -16°40' Karka
  • Western zodiac 29°20' Cancer - 12°40' Leo
Cancer constellation map.png
9; 7 Āshleshā
"the embrace"
δ, ε, η, ρ, and σ Hydrae
  • Lord: Budh (Mercury)
  • Symbol: Serpent
  • Deity : Sarpas or Nagas, deified snakes
  • Indian zodiac: 16°40' - 30° Karka
  • Western zodiac 12°40' - 26° Leo
Hydra constellation map.png
10; 15 Maghā
"the bountiful"
Regulus
  • Lord: Ketu (south lunar node)
  • Symbol : Royal Throne
  • Deity : Pitrs, 'The Fathers', family ancestors
  • Indian zodiac: 0° - 13°20' Simha
  • Western zodiac 26° Leo - 9°20' Virgo
Leo constellation map.png
11 Pūrva Phalgunī
"first reddish one"
δ and θ Leonis
  • Lord: Shukra (Venus)
  • Symbol : Front legs of bed, hammock, fig tree
  • Deity : Bhaga, god of marital bliss and prosperity
  • Indian zodiac: 13°20' - 26°40' Simha
  • Western zodiac 9°20' - 22°40' Virgo
Leo constellation map.png
12 Uttara Phalgunī
"second reddish one"
Denebola
  • Lord: Surya (Sun)
  • Symbol: Four legs of bed, hammock
  • Deity : Aryaman, god of patronage and favours
  • Indian zodiac: 26°40' Simha- 10° Kanya
  • Western zodiac 22°40' Virgo - 6° Libra
Leo constellation map.png
13 Hasta
"the hand"
α, β, γ, δ and ε Corvi
  • Lord: Chandra (Moon)
  • Symbol: Hand or fist
  • Deity : Saviti or Surya, the Sun god
  • Indian zodiac: 10° - 23°20' Kanya
  • Western zodiac 6° - 19°20' Libra
Corvus constellation map.png
14 Chitra
"the bright one", a name of Spica
Spica
  • Lord: Mangala (Mars)
  • Symbol: Bright jewel or pearl
  • Deity : Tvastar or Vishvakarman, the celestial architect
  • Indian zodiac: 23°20' Kanya - 6°40' Tula
  • Western zodiac: 19°20' Libra - 2°40' Scorpio
Virgo constellation map.png
15 Svāti
"Su-Ati (sanskrit) Very good" name of Arcturus
Arcturus
  • Lord: Rahu (north lunar node)
  • Symbol: Shoot of plant, coral
  • Deity : Vayu, the Wind god
  • Indian zodiac: 6°40' - 20° Tula
  • Western zodiac 2°40' - 16° Scorpio
Bootes constellation map.png
16; 14 Visakha
"forked, having branches"; also known as rādhā "the gift"
α, β, γ and ι Librae
  • Lord: Guru (Jupiter)
  • Symbol : Triumphal arch, potter's wheel
  • Deity : Indra, chief of the gods; Agni, god of Fire
  • Indian zodiac: 20° Tula - 3°20' Vrishchika
  • Western zodiac 16° - 29°20' Scorpio
Libra constellation map.png
17 Anuradha
"following rādhā"
β, δ and π Scorpionis
  • Lord: Shani (Saturn)
  • Symbol : Triumphal archway, lotus
  • Deity : Mitra, one of Adityas of friendship and partnership
  • Indian zodiac: 3°20' - 16°40' Vrishchika
  • Western zodiac 29°20' Scorpio - 12°40' Sagittarius
Scorpius constellation map.svg
18; 16 Jyeshtha
"the eldest, most excellent"
α, σ, and τ Scorpionis
  • Lord: Budh (Mercury)
  • Symbol : circular amulet, umbrella, earring
  • Deity : Indra, chief of the gods
  • Indian zodiac: 16°40' - 30° Vrishchika
  • Western zodiac 12°40' - 26° Sagittarius
Scorpius constellation map.png
19; 17 Mula
"the root"
ε, ζ, η, θ, ι, κ, λ, μ and ν Scorpionis
  • Lord: Ketu (south lunar node)
  • Symbol : Bunch of roots tied together, elephant goad
  • Deity : Nirrti, goddess of dissolution and destruction
  • Indian zodiac: 0° - 13°20' Dhanus
  • Western zodiac 26° Sagittarius - 9°20' Capricorn
Scorpius constellation map.png
20; 18 Purva Ashadha
"first of the aṣāḍhā", aṣāḍhā "the invincible one" being the name of a constellation
δ and ε Sagittarii
  • Lord: Shukra (Venus)
  • Symbol: Elephant tusk, fan, winnowing basket
  • Deity : Apah, god of Water
  • Indian zodiac: 13°20' - 26°40' Dhanus
  • Western zodiac 9°20' - 22°40' Capricorn
Sagittarius constellation map.png
21 Uttara Ashadha
"second of the aṣāḍhā"
ζ and σ Sagittarii
  • Lord: Surya (Sun)
  • Symbol : Elephant tusk, small bed
  • Deity : Visvedevas, universal gods
  • Indian zodiac: 26°40' Dhanus - 10° Makara
  • Western zodiac 22°40' Capricorn - 6° Aquarius
Sagittarius constellation map.png
22; 20 Abhijit
"victorious"[5]
α, ε and ζ Lyrae - Vega Lord: Brahma
23; 20 Sravana
α, β and γ Aquilae
  • Lord: Chandra (Moon)
  • Symbol : Ear or Three Footprints
  • Deity : Vishnu, preserver of universe
  • Indian zodiac: 10° - 23°20' Makara
  • Western zodiac 6° - 19°20' Aquarius
Aquila constellation map.png
24; 21; 23 Dhanishta
"most famous", also Shravishthā "swiftest"
α to δ Delphini
  • Lord: Mangala (Mars)
  • Symbol : Drum or flute
  • Deity : Eight vasus, deities of earthly abundance
  • Indian zodiac: 23°20' Makara - 6°40' Kumbha
  • Western zodiac 19°20' Aquarius - 2°40' Pisces
Delphinus constellation map.png
24; 22 Shatabhisha
"Comprising a hundred physicians"
γ Aquarii
  • Lord: Rahu (north lunar node)
  • Symbol : Empty circle, 1,000 flowers or stars
  • Deity : Varuna, god of cosmic waters, sky and earth
  • Indian zodiac: 6°40' - 20° Kumbha ; Western zodiac 2°40' - 16° Pisces
Aquarius constellation map.svg
25; 3 Purva Bhadrapada
"the first of the blessed feet"
α and β Pegasi
  • Lord: Guru (Jupiter)
  • Symbol : Swords or two front legs of funeral cot, man with two faces
  • Deity : Ajikapada, an ancient fire dragon
  • Indian zodiac: 20° Kumbha - 3°20' Meena ; Western zodiac 16° - 29°20' Pisces
Pegasus constellation map.png
26; 4 Uttara Bhādrapadā
"the second of the blessed feet"
γ Pegasi and α Andromedae
  • Lord: Shani (Saturn)
  • Symbol : Twins, back legs of funeral cot, snake in the water
  • Deity : Ahir Budhyana, serpent or dragon of the deep
  • Indian zodiac: 3°20' - 16°40' Meena ; Western zodiac 29°20' Pisces - 12°40' Aries
Andromeda constellation map (1).png
27; 5 Revati
"prosperous"
ζ Piscium
  • Lord: Budh (Mercury)
  • Symbol : Fish or a pair of fish, drum
  • Deity : Pushan, nourisher, the protective deity
  • Indian zodiac: 16°40' - 30° Meena
  • Western zodiac 12°40' - 26° Aries
Pisces constellation map.png

Padas (quarters)[edit]

Each of the 27 Nakshatras cover 13°20’ of the ecliptic each. Each Nakshatra is also divided into quarters or padas of 3°20’, and the below table lists the appropriate starting sound to name the child. The 27 nakshatras, each with 4 padas, give 108, which is the number of beads in a japa mala, indicating all the elements (ansh) of Vishnu:

# Name Pada 1 Pada 2 Pada 3 Pada 4
1 Ashwini (अश्विनि) चु Chu चे Che चो Cho ला La
2 Bharani (भरणी) ली Li लू Lu ले Le लो Lo
3 Kritika (कृत्तिका) अ A ई I उ U ए E
4 Rohini(रोहिणी) ओ O वा Va/Ba वी Vi/Bi वु Vu/Bu
5 Mrigashīrsha(म्रृगशीर्षा) वे Ve/Be वो Vo/Bo का Ka की Ke
6 Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) कु Ku घ Gha ङ Ng/Na छ Chha
7 Punarvasu (पुनर्वसु) के Ke को Ko हा Ha ही Hi
8 Pushya (पुष्य) हु Hu हे He हो Ho ड Da
9 Āshleshā (आश्लेषा) डी Di डू Du डे De डो Do
10 Maghā (मघा) मा Ma मी Mi मू Mu मे Me
11 Pūrva or Pūrva Phalgunī (पूर्व फाल्गुनी) नो Mo टा Ta टी Ti टू Tu
12 Uttara or Uttara Phalgunī (उत्तर फाल्गुनी) टे Te टो To पा Pa पी Pi
13 Hasta (हस्त) पू Pu ष Sha ण Na ठ Tha
14 Chitra (चित्रा) पे Pe पो Po रा Ra री Ri
15 Svātī (स्वाति) रू Ru रे Re रो Ro ता Ta
16 Viśākhā (विशाखा) ती Ti तू Tu ते Te तो To
17 Anurādhā (अनुराधा) ना Na नी Ni नू Nu ने Ne
18 Jyeshtha (ज्येष्ठा) नो No या Ya यी Yi यू Yu
19 Mula (मूल) ये Ye यो Yo भा Bha भी Bhi
20 Pūrva Ashādhā (पूर्वाषाढ़ा) भू Bhu धा Dha फा Bha/Pha ढा Dha
21 Uttara Aṣāḍhā (उत्तराषाढ़ा) भे Bhe भो Bho जा Ja जी Ji
22 Śrāvaṇa (श्र‌ावण) खी Ju/Khi खू Je/Khu खे Jo/Khe खो Gha/Kho
23 Śrāviṣṭha (श्रविष्ठा) or Dhanishta गा Ga गी Gi गु Gu गे Ge
24 Shatabhisha (शतभिषा)or Śatataraka गो Go सा Sa सी Si सू Su
25 Pūrva Bhādrapadā (पूर्वभाद्रपदा) से Se सो So दा Da दी Di
26 Uttara Bhādrapadā (उत्तरभाद्रपदा) दू Du थ Tha झ Jha ञ Da/Tra
27 Revati (रेवती) दे De दो Do च Cha ची Chi

Use in astrology[edit]

Hindu given names[edit]

Hindu astrologers (see Jyotisha) teach that when a child is born, they should be given an auspicious first name which will correspond to the child's Nakshatra. The technique for deducing the name is to see which nakshatra the moon is in at the moment of birth; this gives four possible sounds. A refinement is to pick one sound out of that four that relates to the Pada or division of the Nakshatra. Each Nakshatra has four Padas and four sounds and each Pada is of equal width. The Moon remains in each Nakshatra for approximately one day.

A further refinement or opportunity is to instead use the Nakshatra that the ascendent resides in at birth. The same broad choice of sounds and Padas apply, but now the sounds change roughly every 15 minutes. The ascendent passes through all 27 Nakshatras every 24 hours, being in each one for 53 and a third minutes of time, and is in a Pada for 13 and a third minutes of time. By using the ascendent's nakshatra, instead of the moon's nakshatra leads more to comfort of the Self, rather than comfort of the mother. This second approach is only really applicable if intuitively the moon approach does not feel right.

Electional astrology[edit]

Constellations are grouped on the basis of their nature, type of their face, degree of their beneficence, their quarters in different signs, with reference to the constellation occupied by the Sun, with reference to the birth constellation (Janma Nakshatra), their caste, etc. The current constellation occupied by the Moon, and its nature forms the fundamental of Vedic system of electional astrology (Muhurta). Some of the activities and works which are associated with the Nakshatras are given below based on their fundamental nature:

  • Fixed (Dhruva, Sthira) constellations:

Rohini, Uttara Bhādrapadā, Uttra Falguni, and Uttara Ashada

Fixed and permanent nature, house, village, temple, entering in new hose-city-temple, religious works, rites for getting peace, propitiation of portents, Vinayaka Shanti, coronation, sowing of seeds, planting of small garden, starting of vocal music, friendship, sexual works, making & wearing of ornaments & clothes may be auspiciously begun / effectively performed. Works allocated to delicate & friendly (Mridu) asterisms may also be performed.

  • Movable (Chala , Chara) constellations:

Punarvasu, Swaati, Sharavana, Shatabhishā & Shravishthā

Related to motion & movement, riding on a vehicle or elephant, opening of shop, walking first time, walking in garden, sex, making jewellery, learning of a trait. Things performed in Small (Laghu) constellation are also effectively performed in the Movable constellations.

  • Cruel (Ugra, Karur) constellations:

Magha, Bharani, Porva Palguni, Poorva Shada, & Poorva Bhadra.

Ambush, burning, poisoning (self & others), making & using weapons especially related to fire, cheating / deception / wickedness / craftiness, cutting & destroying, controlling of animals, beating & punishing of enemy. Works allocated to Sharp / Horrible (Darun) asterisms are also successfully done in these asterisms.

  • Mixed (Mishra & Sadharan) constellations

Vishakha & Krittika.

Fire works, burning of sacred fire (Agnihotra), using poison, fearsome works, arresting, adulteration (mixing), donation of ox to get one’s desires fulfilled (Vrashotsarga). Works prescribed under cruel (Ugra, Karur) constellations may also be performed. As per N.S. works of Sweet / delicate & friendly (Mridu & Maitri) constellations can also be included.

  • Small (Laghu & Kshipra) constellations

Hasta, Abhijit, Pushya, and Ashvini.

Selling, medical knowledge, using & handling of medicines, literature-music-art, the 64 Kala Shilpa (various arts, sculpture etc.) jewellery making & wearing, sexual intercourse. And the works prescribed for Movable (Char) constellations. Though Abhijit is included in Small group of asterisms, but is rarely referred in the Muhurt prescriptions.

  • Sweet/Delicate & Friendly (Mridu & Maitri) constellations

Mrigashīrsha, Chitra, Anuradha and Revati.

Starting & learning singing of songs, clothes & jewellery making & wearing, Manglik works, matter related to friends, female company, enjoyments, sexual passions.

  • Sharp & Horrible ( Teekshan & Darun ) constellations:

Jyeshta, Ardra, Ashlesha, and Moola

Charm or spell causing disease or death, hypnotism, sorcery; ghost, ambush, horror, murder, capture, matters related to secrecy, backbiting, starting of quarrel, separation, matters related to friendship & breaking thereof, training & tying of animals, pleasure works, playing games, getting made & wearing of new dress & ornaments, starting & learning singing of songs, entering into village / city, peaceful & developmental works.

Names in modern languages[edit]

The names of nakshatras in other languages are adapted from the Sanskrit variation (apabhramsa) through Pali or Prakrit. The variations evolved for easier pronunciation in popular usage.

# Sanskrit Bengali name
নক্ষত্র
Malayalam name
മലയാളം
Tamil name
தமிழ்
Telugu name
తెలుగు
Kannada name
ಕನ್ನಡ
Western star name
1 Aśvinī
अश्विनी
Aśvinī
অশ্বিনী
Ashvati
അശ്വതി
Aswini
அஸ்வினி
Aśvinī
అశ్విని
Aśvinī
ಅಶ್ವಿನಿ
β and γ Arietis
2 Bharaṇī
भरणी
Bharaṇī
ভরণী
Bharaṇi
ഭരണി
Baraṇi
பரணி
Bharaṇi
భరణి
Bharaṇi
ಭರಣಿ
35, 39, and 41 Arietis
3 Kṛttikā
कृत्तिका
Kṛttikā
কৃত্তিকা
Kārttika
കാർത്തിക
Kārthikai
கார்த்திகை
Kṛttika
కృత్తిక
Kruthike
ಕೃತಿಕೆ
Pleiades
4 Rohiṇī
रोहिणी
Rohiṇī
রোহিণী
Rōhiṇi
രോഹിണി
Rōhiṇi
ரோகிணி
Rōhiṇi
రోహిణి
Rōhiṇi
ರೋಹಿಣಿ
Aldebaran
5 Mṛgaśiras
म्रृगशीर्षा
Mṛgaśiras
মৃগশিরা
Makayiram
മകയിരം
Mirugasīridam
மிருகசீரிடம்
Mṛgaśira
మృగశిర
Mṛgaśira
ಮೃಗಶಿರ
λ, φ Orionis
6 Ārdrā
आद्रा
Ārdrā
আর্দ্রা
Ātira or Tiruvātira
ആതിര (തിരുവാതിര)
Thiruvādhirai
திருவாதிரை
Arudra
ఆరుద్ర
Aridra
ಆರಿದ್ರ
Betelgeuse
7 Punarvasu
पुनर्वसु
Punarvasu
পুনর্বসু
Puṇartam
പുണർതം
Punarpoosam
புனர்பூசம்
Punarvasu
పునర్వసు
Punarvasu
ಪುನರ್ವಸು
Castor and Pollux
8 Puṣya
पुष्य
Puṣya
পুষ্যা (তিষ্যা)
Pūyam
പൂയം
Poosam
பூசம்
Puṣyami
పుష్యమి
Puṣya
ಪುಷ್ಯ
γ, δ and θ Cancri
9 Aśleṣā
आश्ळेषा / आश्लेषा
Aśleṣā
অশ্লেষা
Āyilyam
ആയില്യം
Ayilyam
ஆயில்யம்
Aśleṣa
ఆశ్లేష
Aśleṣa
ಆಶ್ಲೇಷ
δ, ε, η, ρ, and σ Hydrae
10 Maghā
मघा
Maghā
মঘা
Makam
മകം
Magam
மகம்
Makha or Magha
మఖ or మాఘ
Makha
ಮಖ
Regulus
11 Pūrva or Pūrva Phalguṇī
पूर्व फाल्गुनी
Pūrva or Pūrva Phalguṇī
পূর্ব ফল্গুনী
Pūram
പൂരം
Pooram
பூரம்
Pūrva Phalguṇī or Pubba
పూర్వా ఫల్గుణి or పుబ్బ
Pubba
ಪುಬ್ಬ, ಪೂರ್ವ-ಫಲ್ಗುಣಿ
δ and θ Leonis
12 Uttara or Uttara Phalguṇī
उत्तर फाल्गुनी
Uttara or Uttara Phalguṇī
উত্তর ফল্গুনী
Utram
ഉത്രം
Uthiram
உத்திரம்
Uttara Phalguṇi or Uttara
ఉత్తర ఫల్గుణి or ఉత్తర
Utthara
ಉತ್ತರ, ಉತ್ತರ-ಫಲ್ಗುಣಿ
Denebola
13 Hasta
हस्त
Hasta
হস্তা
Attam
അത്തം
Astham
அஸ்தம்
Hasta
హస్త
Hasta
ಹಸ್ತ
α, β, γ, δ and ε Corvi
14 Citrā
चित्रा14
Citrā
চিত্রা
Chittira (Chitra)
ചിത്തിര (ചിത്ര)
Chithirai
சித்திரை
Cittā or Citrā
చిత్తా or చిత్రా
Citta
ಚಿತ್ತ
Spica
15 Svāti
स्वाति
Svāti
স্বাতী
Chōti
ചോതി
Swathi
சுவாதி
Svāti
స్వాతి
Svāti
ಸ್ವಾತಿ
Arcturus
16 Viśākha
विशाखा
Viśākha
বিশাখা
Vishākham
വിശാഖം
Visakam
விசாகம்
Viśākha
విశాఖ
Viśākhe
ವಿಶಾಖೆ
α, β, γ and ι Librae
17 Anurādhā
अनुराधा
Anurādhā
অনুরাধা
Anizham
അനിഴം
Anusham
அனுஷம்
Anurādhā
అనూరాధ
Anurādhā
ಅನುರಾಧ
β, δ and π Scorpionis
18 Jyeṣṭha
ज्येष्ठा
Jyeṣṭha
জ্যেষ্ঠা
Kēṭṭa (Trikkēṭṭa)
കേട്ട (തൃക്കേട്ട)
Kettai
கேட்டை
Jyeṣṭha
జ్యేష్ఠ
Jyeṣṭha
ಜ್ಯೇಷ್ಠ
α, σ, and τ Scorpionis
19 Mūla
मूल/मूळ
Mūla
মূলা
Mūlam
മൂലം
Mūlam
மூலம்
Mūla
మూల
Mūla
ಮೂಲ
ε, ζ, η, θ, ι, κ, λ, μ and ν Scorpionis
20 Pūrvāṣāḍha
पूर्वाषाढा
Pūrvāṣāḍha
পূর্বাষাঢ়া
Pūrāṭam
പൂരാടം
Pūradam
பூராடம்
Pūrvāṣāḍha
పూర్వాషాఢ
Pūrvāṣāḍha
ಪೂರ್ವಾಷಾಢ
δ and ε Sagittarii
21 Uttarāṣāḍha
उत्तराषाढा
Uttarāṣāḍha
উত্তরাষাঢ়া
Utrāṭam
ഉത്രാടം
Uthirādam
உத்திராடம்
Uttarāṣāḍha
ఉత్తరాషాఢ
Uttarāṣāḍha
ಉತ್ತರಾಷಾಢ
ζ and σ Sagittarii
22 Śravaṇa
श्रवण
Śravaṇa
শ্রবণা
Tiruvōnam
ഓണം (തിരുവോണം)
Tiruvōnam
திருவோணம்
Śravaṇaṁ
శ్రవణం
Śravaṇa
ಶ್ರವಣ
α, β and γ Aquilae
23 Śraviṣṭhā or Dhaniṣṭha
श्रविष्ठा or धनिष्ठा
Śraviṣṭhā or Dhaniṣṭha
ধনিষ্ঠা (শ্রবিষ্ঠা)
Aviṭṭam
അവിട്ടം
Aviṭṭam
அவிட்டம்
Dhaniṣṭha
ధనిష్ఠ
Dhaniṣṭha
ಧನಿಷ್ಠ
α to δ Delphinus
24 Śatabhiṣak or Śatatārakā
शतभिषक् / शततारका
Śatabhiṣak or Śatatārakā
শতভিষা
Chatayam
ചതയം
Sadayam
சதயம்
Śatabhiṣaṁ
శతభిషం
Śatabhiṣa
ಶತಭಿಷ
γ Aquarii
25 Pūrva Bhādrapadā
पूर्वभाद्रपदा / पूर्वप्रोष्ठपदा
Pūrva Bhādrapadā
পূর্ব ভাদ্রপদ
Pūruruṭṭāti
പൂരുരുട്ടാതി
Pūraṭṭādhi
பூரட்டாதி
Pūrvābhādra
పూర్వాభాద్ర
Pūrvābhādra
ಪೂರ್ವಾ ಭಾದ್ರ
α and β Pegasi
26 Uttara Bhādrapadā
उत्तरभाद्रपदा / उत्तरप्रोष्ठपदा
Uttara Bhādrapadā
উত্তর ভাদ্রপদ
Uttṛṭṭāti
ഉത്രട്ടാതി
Uttṛṭṭādhi
உத்திரட்டாதி
Uttarābhādra
ఉత్తరాభాద్ర
Uttarābhādra
ಉತ್ತರಾ ಭಾದ್ರ
γ Pegasi and α Andromedae
27 Revatī
रेवती
Revatī
রেবতী
Rēvati
രേവതി
Rēvathi
ரேவதி
Rēvati
రేవతి
Rēvati
ರೇವತಿ
ζ Piscium

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mythology of the Hindus, by Charles Coleman p.131
  2. ^ trans. Ralph T.H. Griffith, Hymns of the Atharva Veda, 1895[]. Original text via GRETIL from Gli inni dell’ Atharvaveda (Saunaka), trasliterazione a cura di Chatia Orlandi, Pisa 1991, collated with the ed. R. Roth and W.D. Whitney: Atharva Veda Sanhita, Berlin 1856.
    1. citrā́ṇi sākáṃ diví rocanā́ni sarīsr̥pā́ṇi bhúvane javā́ni | turmíśaṃ sumatím ichámāno áhāni gīrbhíḥ saparyāmi nā́kam
    2. suhávam agne kŕ̥ttikā róhiṇī cā́stu bhadráṃ mr̥gáśiraḥ śám ārdrā́ | púnarvasū sūnŕ̥tā cā́ru púṣyo bhānúr āśleṣā́ áyanaṃ maghā́ me
    3. púṇyaṃ pū́rvā phálgunyau cā́tra hástaś citrā́ śivā́ svātí sukhó me astu | rā́dhe viśā́khe suhávānurādhā́ jyéṣṭhā sunákṣatram áriṣṭa mū́lam
    4. ánnaṃ pū́rvā rāsatāṃ me aṣādhā́ ū́rjaṃ devy úttarā ā́ vahantu | abhijín me rāsatāṃ púṇyam evá śrávaṇaḥ śráviṣṭhāḥ kurvatāṃ supuṣṭím
    5. ā́ me mahác chatábhiṣag várīya ā́ me dvayā́ próṣṭhapadā suśárma | ā́ revátī cāśvayújau bhágaṃ ma ā́ me rayíṃ bháraṇya ā́ vahantu
  3. ^ a b Burgess, Ebenezer (1858). Translation of the Surya Siddhantha, a Textbook of Hindu Astronomy. The American Oriental Society. 
  4. ^ Arthur Llewellyn Basham, Indian Astronomy[year needed] Appendix: Astronomy.[page needed]
  5. ^ Its longitude starts from 06° 40' to 10° 53' 40 in sidereal Capricorn i.e. from the last quarter of Uttra Ashadha to first 1/15 th part of Shravana.[citation needed] Its span is 4° 13' 40.[citation needed] The span of 27 mean daily lunar motions totals 355.76167 degrees, and together these total 359.98945 degrees. Considered an "intercalary" lunar mansion.[citation needed]

External links[edit]