Magic in fiction
Such magic often serves as a plot device, being the source of magical artifacts and their quests. Magic has long been a component of fantasy fiction, where it has been a mainstay from the days of Homer and Apuleius, down through the tales of the Holy Grail, Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene, and to more contemporary authors from J. R. R. Tolkien and C. S. Lewis to Ursula K. Le Guin, Robert Jordan, Terry Brooks, J.K. Rowling or Mercedes Lackey.
- 1 Plot function
- 2 Historical beliefs
- 3 Fictional magic
- 4 Limits to magic
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Within a work of fantasy, magic can function to move the plot forward, providing both power for the hero of the story and power for those who oppose him/her. The use of magic is often a transformation of the character, if not the world.
Historically, many writers who have written about fictional magicians, and the readers of such works, have believed that such magic is possible. In William Shakespeare's time, witches like the Weird Sisters in Macbeth and wizards like Prospero in The Tempest (or Doctor Faustus in Christopher Marlowe's play) were widely considered to be real. However, modern writers and readers treat magic as imaginary.
Fictional magic may be inspired by non-fictional beliefs and practices, but may also be an invention of the writer. Furthermore, even when the writer uses non-fictional beliefs and practices, the effect, strength, and rules of the magic will normally be what the writer requires for the plot. Fictional magic may or may not include a detailed system, but when the author does not bother to systematize the magic or create rules, it is more likely that magic will be used simply at the author's convenience, rather than as a believable plot element.
Magic as an innate talent
In most fantasy works, writers tend to depict magic as an innate talent, equivalent to perfect pitch, and there is wide variation on how spontaneously a person or other being with such a talent can use it. Talents that occur spontaneously usually need training in order to control their abilities. Those who use such spontaneously generated powers are usually not called magicians or similar terms, those being reserved usually for those who have to learn to wield magic.
Magic acquired through studying
Some works treat magic as a force that is acquired through studying books and tomes. Works which feature this concept usually include a school where magic is taught as a main setting.
Magic bestowed by another
Magic may also be gained by having it bestowed upon one by another, either through a pact with a devil or with other spirits, as is common in folklore. In some cases, the demon may only provide the means for the would-be wizard to learn magic, or the pact may be for the devil to do the magic on the wizard's behalf, forcing the wizard to compel it to act. Sword and sorcery heroes are depicted as fighting against this type of wizard, along with crazed cults where gods or demons give power to their followers.
Magic via enchanted objects
In some works, such as fairy tales, magic items either endow the main characters with magical powers or have magical powers themselves, and are often used as plot devices or MacGuffins to drive the plot of a story. Such items may be created by magicians or powerful beings, often in the distant past, but aren't possible to create at the present time of the story. Other fictional magical objects may have no explained past.
Wands and staves often feature in fantasy works, often in the hands of wizards. Italian fairy tales put wands into the hands of the powerful fairies by the late Middle Ages and the concept was transmitted to modern fantasy.
Magic divided into separate areas
Magic via words, names, or language
Some works feature magic that is performed through using words to cast spells. Many works use this method without offering an explanation for it while others do, with the explanation for it differing from one work to another.
Some works feature magic that is tied to a certain area, such as an enchanted forest or an ancient battlefield. Such places are usually the homes of powerful magical beings. In these works, magic can only be accessed and performed in the area in question and runs out when all of the magic in the area is used up.
Limits to magic
In any given fantasy magical system, a person has limits to their magical abilities, otherwise the story will have no conflict and the magic will overwhelm the other side. Various techniques are used by fantasy writers to limit the amount of magic in a story, such as limiting the amount of spells a character has, restricting a character's magic through the use of an object, limiting magic to the use of certain materials and making the materials hard to find, restricting the amount of magic a character can use due to the consequences of using it, and limiting the amount of magic a character has inside of them.
- Magician (fantasy)
- Magic (Discworld), magic in Terry Pratchett's Discworld series.
- Magic (Earthsea), magic in the Earthsea series.
- Magic (Harry Potter), magic in the Harry Potter series.
- Magic in the works of J. R. R. Tolkien.
- Final Fantasy magic, magic in the Final Fantasy series of video games.
- Kidō, magic in the Bleach anime and manga series.
- Magic in the Bartimaeus trilogy (Jonathan Stroud's series).
- Magic of Dungeons & Dragons.
- The Will and the Word (The Belgariad)
- List of genres
- Martin, Philip (2002). The Writer's Guide to Fantasy Literature: From Dragon's Lair to Hero's Quest: How to Write Fantasy Stories of Lasting Value (1st ed.). Waukesha, WI: Writer Books. p. 143. ISBN 0-87116-195-8.
- Attebery, Brian (1980). The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature: From Irving to Le Guin ([Reprod. en fac-sim.] ed.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 143. ISBN 0-253-35665-2.
- Clute, John (1999). The Encyclopedia of Fantasy (1st St. Martin's Griffin ed.). New York: St. Martin's Griffin. p. 1027. ISBN 0-312-19869-8.
- Clute, edited by John; Westfahl, John Grant; contributing editors, Mike Ashley ... [et al.]; consultant editors, David G. Hartwell, Gary (1999). The Encyclopedia of Fantasy (1st St. Martin's Griffin ed.). New York: St. Martin's Griffin. p. 616. ISBN 0-312-19869-8.
- Briggs, Katharine (1976). An Encyclopedia of Fairies: Hobgoblins, Brownies, Bogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures (1st Pantheon pbk ed.). New York: Pantheon Books. p. 279. ISBN 0-394-73467-X.
- Thompson, Stith (1977). The Folktale ([Nouv. tirage] ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520035379.
- Frye, Northrop (1971). Anatomy of Criticism; Four Essays. (2. print. ed.). Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 152. ISBN 0-691-01298-9.
- "Italian Fairies by Raffaella Benvenuto: Journal of Mythic Arts, Summer/Autumn, 2006, Endicott Studio". Endicott-studio.com. Retrieved 2013-10-16.[dead link]
- Attebery, Brian (1980). The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature: From Irving to Le Guin ([Reprod. en fac-sim.] ed.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 167–168. ISBN 0-253-35665-2.
- Martin, Philip (2002). The Writer's Guide to Fantasy Literature: From Dragon's Lair to Hero's Quest: How to Write Fantasy Stories of Lasting Value (1st ed.). Waukesha, WI: Writer Books. p. 134. ISBN 0-87116-195-8.
- "The Limits of Magic". Victorianweb.org. Retrieved 2013-10-16.
- "2001: Accio Quote!, the largest archive of J.K. Rowling interviews on the web". Accio-quote.org. Retrieved 2013-10-16.
- Card, Orson Scott (1990). How to Write Science Fiction and Fantasy (1st ed.). Cincinnati, Ohio: Writer's Digest Books. pp. 47–49. ISBN 0-89879-416-1.
- Lawrence Watt-Evans, "Watt-Evans' Laws of Fantasy", Starlog
- Patricia C. Wrede, "Magic and Magicians", Fantasy Worldbuilding Questions
- Anders, C.J. (2011) "The Rules of Magic, According to the Greatest Fantasy Sagas of All Time" io9.com (includes 7x51 chart)