Magnetophon

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This article is about the tape recorder. For the music group, see Magnetophone.
Magnetophon from a German radio station in World War II.

Magnetophon was the brand or model name of the pioneering reel-to-reel tape recorder developed by engineers of the German electronics company AEG in the 1930s, based on the magnetic tape invention by Fritz Pfleumer. AEG created the world's first practical tape recorder, the K1, first demonstrated in Germany in 1935 at the Berlin Radio Show. [1][2][3]

History[edit]

The Magnetophon tape recorder was one of the first recording machines to use magnetic tape in preserving voice and music. However, early Magnetophons gave disappointing results. One of the first concerts to be recorded on a Magnetophon was Mozart's 39th Symphony played by the London Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Sir Thomas Beecham, during their 1936 concert tour. The recording was made on an AEG K2 Magnetophon running at 100 cm/s. The tape used was the early black iron oxide Fe3O4 type. When Beecham and the musicians heard the playback they were greatly disappointed with the distortion and noise on the recording. This recording survived until the 1990s and has been transferred. The tape is now "lost". Some other surviving tapes show a tendency toward overmodulation.[4]

Later in 1939, the Fe3O4 oxide was replaced by the Fe2O3 type, which gave a significantly better recording quality, so much that the formula became a worldwide standard until the 1970s when chromium dioxide tapes appeared.

Adding a tape bias to the record head gave some improvement, but in 1941, Hans Joachim von Braunmühl and Dr. Walter Weber, both engineers at the German national broadcasting organisation RRG (Reichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft), accidentally discovered the technique of tape bias in which the simple addition of a high level (about 10X the maximum audio level) inaudible high-frequency tone resulted in a striking improvement in sound quality. The discovery was made when a Magnetophone producing recordings of extraordinary quality was sent 'for repair'. The machine was found to have an oscillating DC bias amplifier. Magnetic media are inherently non-linear, but AC bias was the means whereby the magnetisation of the recording tape was made linearly proportional to the electrical signal which represents the audio component. The Magnetophon became a 'high fidelity' recording system because in so many respects it outperformed gramophone recording (which was the 78 rpm system of the time).

Many speeches, concerts, and operatic performances were recorded. Since many of the recordings survived World War II they were later issued on LPs and compact discs. One of the more remarkable series of recordings took place at the Vienna State Opera House, also known as Wiener Staatsoper, in 1944, when the German composer Richard Strauss recorded many of his famous symphonic poems, including Don Juan, Till Eulenspiegel, and Also sprach Zarathustra, with the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra.

AEG engineers made rapid strides in perfecting the system and had practical stereo recorders by 1943. Until 1945, about 250 stereophonic tape recordings were known to exist, including some Richard Strauss and Furtwängler. Only three survived. This includes a performance of Beethoven's "Emperor" Concerto with pianist Walter Gieseking and the Berlin Reichssenders Orchestra conducted by Artur Rother.[5] This remarkable performance was later issued on LP by Varèse Sarabande. Later in 1993, the Audio Engineering Society (AES) issued a special CD for the 50th birthday of stereo recording. This CD not only includes the "Emperor" Concerto, but the two other stereo recordings known to exist: a Brahms serenade and the last movement of Bruckner's 8th Symphony conducted by Herbert von Karajan. Piano Library also issued the Emperor concerto, and Iron Needle issued the Bruckner recordings (catalog IN 1407). ArkivMusic released a CD of the concerto, as well a later recording Gieseking made of Beethoven's first piano concerto with the Rafael Kubelik and the Philharmonic Orchestra.

Magnetophon recorders were widely used in German radio broadcasts during World War II, although they were a closely guarded secret at the time. Allied intelligence experts knew that the Germans had some new form of recording system but they did not know the details[dubious ] of its construction and operation until working models of the Magnetophon were discovered during the Allied invasion of Germany during 1944-45. (The Allies were aware of the existence of the pre-war Magnetophon recorders, but not of the introduction of high-frequency bias and PVC-backed tape.)[6]

American audio engineer Jack Mullin acquired two Magnetophon recorders and fifty reels of magnetic tape from a German radio station at Bad Nauheim near Frankfurt in 1945. The allied forces were traveling through Germany during WWII when they first discovered the device. The Allies then handed the Magnetophon over to Mullin.[7] Over the next two years Mullin modified and developed these machines, hoping to create a commercial recording system that could be used by movie studios. American popular vocalist Bing Crosby, dissatisfied with the quality of existing radio network recordings was prevailed upon to invest in this development and would use the technology, as modified by Mullin and the fledgling Ampex company, to record his radio broadcasts in the more relaxed atmosphere of the recording studio, which was a significant break from the then-norm of live studio audience broadcasts.

As a generic noun[edit]

Magnetophon became the generic word for the tape recorder in some languages including Czech, Polish (magnetofon), French (magnétophone), Italian (magnetofono - reel to reel), Hungarian, Romanian, Serbian/Croatian (magnetofon - only for reel-to-reel), Greek (μαγνητόφωνο - magnitofono), Russian (магнитофон - magnitofon), Bulgarian (магнетофон), Slovak, Spanish (magnetófono or magnetofón), Finnish (magnetofoni - commonly shortened to mankka), Estonian (magnetofon - commonly shortened to makk), Lithuanian (magnetofonas), Latvian (magnetofons) and Ukrainian.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ History Department at the University of San Diego. "Magnetic Recording History Pictures". Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. 
  2. ^ "1935 AEG Magnetophon Tape Recorder". MIX (magazine). Penton Media Inc. September 1, 2006. Retrieved 18 June 2010. 
  3. ^ Engel, Friedrich Karl; Peter Hammar (2006-08-27). "A Selected History of Magnetic Recording". Retrieved 18 June 2010. 
    A brief history of magnetic tape from the BASF Historian and the founding curator of the Ampex museum.
  4. ^ BASF LP releases
  5. ^ "Beethoven: Piano Concertos / Gieseking"
  6. ^ Information from 'BBC Engineering 1922-1972' by Edward Pawley, page 387.
  7. ^ Barnouw, Erik (1968). A History of broadcasting in the United States. ([Verschiedene Aufl.] ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 181. ISBN 0-19-500475-2. 

Barnouw, Erik (1968). A History of broadcasting in the United States. ([Verschiedene Aufl.] ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-500475-2. 

  • Friedrich K. Engel, "Chapter 5: The Introduction of the Magnetophon". In Daniel, Eric D., et al. (1999). Magnetic recording: the first 100 years. Wiley-IEEE.  ISBN 0-7803-4709-9